Eupelmus (Eupelmus) dryorhizoxeni Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 56-62

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) dryorhizoxeni Ashmead


8. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) dryorhizoxeni Ashmead View in CoL

Figs 10−15, 54, 57, 73; Map 10

Eupelmus dryorhizoxeni Ashmead, 1886: 129 View in CoL . Syntypes, one male, two females (USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida , [Jacksonville]; reared from Dryorhizoxenus floridanus Ashmead oak gall.

Megastigma ficigerae Ashmead, 1887b: 185 . Syntypes, 2 males (1♂ ANSP; 1♂ USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida , [Jacksonville]; one reared in 1886 from Amphibolips femorata Ashmead (manuscript name) and one in 1885 from Holcaspis ficigera Ashmead galls. N. syn.

Eupelmus dryorrhizoxeni Dalla Torre, 1898: 275 View in CoL . Unjustified emendation.

Eupelmus rhizophelus Brues, 1903: 186 View in CoL . Unknown type status, female. Type data unstated, species attributed to Ashmead by Brues. Synonymy by Burks, 1967: 246.

Eupelmus melanderi Brues, 1907: 54−55 View in CoL . Syntypes, female (MCPM, examined). Type data: USA, Washington, Pullman; reared from Rhodites sp. rose gall on Rosa piscocarpa . Synonymy by Gibson, 1990: 837, 842.

Cerambycobius ficigerae View in CoL ; Milliron, 1949: 346. Stated as possibly the male of E. (Eupelmus) quercus Ashmead View in CoL based on opinion of A.B. Gahan.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 12). Length about 2.0− 4.1 mm. Head of smaller specimens sometimes light brown with metallic green luster only within scrobal depression, but at least larger specimens with frontovertex and often entire head dark brown to green with yellowish, coppery or reddish to violaceous lusters under some angles of light ( Fig. 10); maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna with scape entirely yellowish-orange or more white apically ( Fig. 12); pedicel usually dark brown with green to bluish luster under some angles of light, but sometimes variably light brown to orangey-yellow in southern specimens; flagellum dark brown. Mesosoma variable in color, smaller specimens sometimes almost uniformly light brown similar to head and gaster, or mostly brown including acropleuron but pleurosternum below acropleural sulcus distinctly contrasting yellowish-orange, of entirely yellowish-orange or orangey-brown or brownish with at most slight metallic luster laterally, but at least dorsally with scutellar-axillar complex and often pronotum and/or mesoscutum excluding outer inclined surface of lateral lobe partly to entirely darker with metallic green to reddish-violaceous lusters. Legs with mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs black; otherwise mostly variably dark brown to orangey-brown similar to mesosoma, except mesotibia with at least short subbasal darker brown region and variably extensively much lighter, often white, apically; metatibia sometimes also extensively dark brown but at least more narrowly whitish or lighter colored apically than mesotibia; and at least mesotarsus and often all tarsi white to yellowish. Forewing hyaline mesally but extreme base usually at least slightly brownish and reflexed apical part more obviously brown. Gaster light to dark brown with brown hairlike setae similar in color to cuticle; ovipositor sheaths with short dark basal region, whitish-yellow mesal region and at least very slightly brownish apical region.

Head with frons usually entirely meshlike coriaceous, but specimens from southwest sometimes variably distinctly roughened, reticulate-imbricate to reticulate; scrobal depression reticulate-rugulose to transversely reticulate-strigose ( Fig. 10); IOD = 0.32−0.43× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−1.5: 2.4−3.7: 1.7−2.7: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum = 1.2−1.4× width of head; pedicel about 1.2−2.5× as long as wide; fl1 slightly transverse to slightly longer than wide; fl2 about 1.33−1.9× longer than wide and 2.3−2.7× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to quadrate or only slightly transverse fl8; clava about 2.0−2.9× as long as wide, about 0.7−0.9× as long as apical three funiculars, and 0.25−0.33× length of funicle. Pronotum with short, variably distinctly inclined transverse region differentiated near posterior margin by rounded rather than angulate margin ( Fig. 11), the region with variably distinct transverse row of white to dark setae. Mesoscutum ( Fig. 11; Gibson 1999, fig. 25) with medial lobe in single plane, reticulate-punctulate anteriorly to finely coriaceous or shiny and almost smooth posteriorly; lateral lobe strongly raised above level of median lobe ( Figs 11, 12) and carinately angled dorsolongitudinally, with inner inclined surface finely coriaceous but outer surface often somewhat more coarsely coriaceous-alutaceous. Scutellar-axillar complex ( Fig. 11; Gibson 1999, fig. 25) with axilla elongate-triangular, obliquely reticulate-strigose; scutellum strongly convex above level of axillae, mostly reticulate or reticulate anteriorly to longitudinally reticulate-imbricate on either side of midline and more coriaceous-imbricate posteriorly. Prepectus usually bare, only very rarely with 1 or 2 white setae. Acropleuron usually meshlike coriaceous to coriaceous-imbricate anterior of and meshlike coriaceous posterior of medial microsculptured region ( Fig. 14), but specimens from southwest usually more strongly reticulate-punctate anteriorly and quite distinctly meshlike reticulate with larger cells posteriorly ( Fig. 15) and sometimes with medial region smooth and shiny rather than microcoriaceous. Brachypterous ( Figs 11, 12). Forewing ( Fig. 11) extending less than half length of gaster if flattened, but normally about apical half recurved vertically at level of parastigma or about level of between mesosoma and gaster; costal cell dorsally bare and ventrally with 1 or 2 rows of light-colored setae mediolongitudinally; basal cell sometimes with 1 to rarely a few scattered white setae within about basal half bare, but with white setae apically below apex of submarginal vein and parastigma, and recurved apical portion uniformly densely setose with brown setae or sometimes with slender, inconspicuous linea calva; mv and pmv forming uniformly broad vein to wing apex, with stv usually reflexed at right angle to mv at about four-fifths length or very rarely not developed. Hind wing ( Fig. 11) reduced similar to forewing, but more slender and apically less distinctly recurved and only very slightly brownish. Mesotibia with apical row of 4−8 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with symmetrical pattern of 9−20 pegs on either side, the pegs arranged in double row distally, second tarsomere 4−6 pegs, third tarsomere with 2 or 3 pegs and fourth tarsomere with 1 peg on either side. Metacoxa densely setose with white, slightly lanceolate setae dorsally and ventrally. Metanotum ( Fig. 11) transverse with dorsellum raised vertically over scutellar apex. Propodeum ( Fig. 11) with broadly Vshaped plical depression not quite extending to foramen; callus with white setae and usually densely setose similarly to metacoxa. Gaster with inner plate of ovipositor not projecting conspicuously beyond apex; ovipositor sheaths about 0.5−0.75× length of metatibia.

MALE (Fig. 54). Length about 1.0− 2.5 mm. Head variably dark brown, often with slight violaceous or greenish tinge, to bright metallic green or bluish-green; maxillary and labial palpi light yellowish-brown to dark brown. Antenna with flagellum and pedicel usually dark brown and then contrasting with entirely or mostly yellowish to yellowish-orange scape, but sometimes light brown in smaller specimens and not distinctly contrasting or sometimes scape extensively brown to dark with slight metallic luster except outer surface at least yellowish ventrobasally and usually yellowish along length (region consisting of scapular scrobe and region ventral and basal to scrobe). Mesosoma, including tegula, similarly brown to metallic green or bluish-green as head. Legs with basal 3 or 4 tarsomeres of at least middle and hind legs white, but otherwise variable in color, sometimes mostly yellowishorange except trochantelli and often trochanters more distinctly white, or with femora and sometimes tibiae variably extensively and variably dark brown, the femora sometimes with metallic luster similar to mesosoma, but at least protibia lighter colored apically and hind leg with trochanter and trochantellus quite distinctly white. Forewing usually hyaline but sometimes disc with slight brownish infuscation. Gaster with basal tergum sometimes metallic green basally, but remainder brown.

Head with frons and scrobal depression finely coriaceous-alutaceous in smallest specimens to distinctly meshlike reticulate in largest specimens (Gibson 1999, fig. 44). Head with IOD about 0.5× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−1.0: 2.3−2.7: 1.3−1.5: 1.0; lower face with setae sparse, short, straight and whitish to brown mesally but longer and evenly or distally curved laterally above malar sulcus; gena with one much longer seta below malar sulcus (Gibson 1999, figs 44, 45). Antenna with scape ovoid, about 2.3−2.5× maximum width, the outer surface with distinct micropunctures only ventrobasal to scapular scrobe ( Fig. 73), though often continued apically along scapular scrobe as single line of pits (Gibson 1999, fig. 61); length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.3−1.7× head width; pedicel about 1.5−1.7× as long as wide, ventrally with 4 or 5 distally curved setae in a line (Fig. 57); flagellum variably elongate-gracile filiform with conspicuous, curved, semierect setae extending out for distance equal to about half width of flagellomere (Fig. 57); fl1 very strongly transverse, disc-like, bare or at most with transverse line of setae only on ventral surface (Fig. 57); fl2−fl8 all oblong, about 1.25−1.75× as long as wide; clava lanceolate with slender micropilose sensory region extending over apical two claval subsegments, about 1.7−3.5× as long as wide and 1.5−2.1× as long as last funicular. Mesonotum (Gibson 1999, figs 52, 53) more or less uniformly, finely meshlike coriaceous-reticulate in smaller specimens and more distinctly reticulate in larger specimens except scutellum usually finely coriaceous to coriaceous-reticulate at least mesally. Propodeal plical region finely meshlike coriaceous to alutaceous on either side of median carina, and callus similarly or slightly more coarsely sculptured. Forewing with cc: mv: pmv: stv = 3.3−3.5: 2.7−2.9: 1.1−1.3: 1.0; costal cell dorsally with line of setae extending at most over apical half, and ventrally with setae continuously along length, mesally with 1 straight line or with setal bases slightly offset so to obscurely suggest 2 lines.

Material examined (205♀, 303♂). CANADA. ALBERTA: 8 [?] S. Lethbridge, coll: 138-72, fall emergence, ex gall D. bicolor (1♂). Magrath, 16 km S. McIntyre Ranch, 2-9.VIII.90, D. Griffiths (1♀). Orion, 49º29'N 110º50'W, 6.VI.55, J.R. Vockeroth (1♀). Sandy Point campground, 4.VII.85, Anderson (1♀). Tolman Bridge Recreational Area, 17 km E. on Hwy 585 at Red Deer River, 16-18.VII.89, J. E. O’Hara (2♂). Wainwright, 27.VII.57, A.R. & J.E. Brooks (1♀). SASKATCHEWAN: Oxbow, 18.VI.07, F. Knab (1♀ USNM). Sask.[atchewan] Landing, 25.VII.56, O. Peck (1♀). ONTARIO: Aylmer West, 8.VI.73 (1♂). Chaffey’s Locks, 7-21.X.80, S. Peck (1♀). Constance Bay — 6-13.VII.73, G. Gibson (1♂); 7-21.IX.73, L. Masner (1♀); 26.VIII-7.IX.83, M. Sanborne (1♂). Hamilton, 14.VIII.80 (1♂), 19-28.VIII.80 (3♂), 17-30.VII.82 (4♂), 27.VII.82 (6♂), 10-23.VIII.82 (3♂), 23.VIII- 5.IX.82 (1♂), M. Sanborne. Manitoulin Island, 2 km SW Tower Road, 16.V.96, J.D. Shorthouse & S.E. Brooks, ex Diplolepis rosaefolii (Cockerell) gall on Rosa acicularis (4 ♀). Shirley’s Bay, 15 km W. Ottawa, 1-15.VII.84 (8♀, 14♂), 16-31.VII.84 (1♀, 1♂), M. Kaulbars. St. Lawrence Island National Park — Grenadier Island, Centre, 22, 29.VII.75, 14.VIII.75 (5♂), E. Sigler & G.T. Hall; McDonald Island, 29.VIII.76, 1.IX.76, Read (2♂); Milton Island, 31.VIII.75, Reid & Turner (1♀). Tweed, 15 km E., 23.VI.2006, 8.VII.2006, Fuller (8♂ UCRC). QUÉBEC: Gatineau Park, Luskville Falls — 300 m, 19-24.VI.86, Denis & Dumouchel (1♀); 9-16.VI.92, CNC Hym. Team (1♂). Hull, VII.65 (1♂). Old Chelsea, J.R. Vockeroth — 15.VI (1♀), 30 (1♀ AEIC; 1♀).VIII.61; Summit of King Mountain, 1150', 22.VI.61 (1♂).

USA. ALABAMA: Pike Co., Troy — X-XI.19 (6♀, 1♂ USNM), 13-20, 23.V.20 (3♀ USNM), Weld No. 592, Quercus minor (3♀ USNM). ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mountains — Cypress Park, 6000', 30.VII- 8.IX.88, T.D. Miller (1♀ WFBM); Red Rock Canyon, 5800', 4-10.IX.87, T.D. Miller (1♀ WFBM). Ramsey Canyon — Huachuca Mountains, mid June 1920, 7.X. Williams (1♀ UCRC); 12 km. S. Sierra Vista, 1700 m, 25.IV- 7.V.87, B.V. Brown (1♂). S. of Sierra Vista, base of Carr Canyon Road, 10-11.VII.1987, B.V. Brown, 5200' (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-51). Pima Co., Kitt Peak, T. 17S. R.7E. Sec. 11, 6300', 10.IX.87, T.D. Miller (1♀ WFBM). ARKANSAS: AZ [sic], O[u]achita Co. [? = Nevada Co. ], Bluff City, Sandhills, 21.VII-30.IX.94, N.W. Robison (1♀). CALIFORNIA: Orange Co., 2 mi. S. Corona, Santa Ana Mountains , 275 m, 19-27.V.87, N.S. Beal (1♀). Riverside Co., Temecula Canyon, Sta. Margarita Ecological Reserve, 33º26'N 117º11'W, 23.IX.2000, Yanega & Osborne (1♀ UCRC). San Bernardino Co., Granite Mountains, Granite Springs, 34º48'20"N 115º39'50"W, 4200', 14.V.84, J. Heraty (2♀, CNC Photo 2010-49). COLORADO: 1♀ ( BMNH); 1112 (1♀ USNM). Custer Co., Wetmore, 29.IX.22, L.H. Weld, Quercus gambellii, Hopk U.S. 15635c (1♀ USNM). CONNECTICUT: Windham Co., Canterbury, 30.VIII.36, M. Chapman (1♀ AEIC). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA : Washington — (1♀ USNM); 1.7 (1♀ USNM); 13.IV.1879, Rhodites rosae (L.) (1♀ USNM); IX.23, M.T. VanHorn, ex Rhodites ignotus O.S. (1♀ LACM, 1♀ USNM). FLORIDA: E. Fla., Ashmead, (1♀ MNHW, labelled “Ashmead Type, E. dryorhizoxeni ”). Alachua Co. , 21.X.56, R.A. Morse (1♀ FSCA). Gainesville — 12.X.76, P.M. Choate & R.E. Woodruff (1♀ FSCA); 5.IX.58, K.W. Cooper (1♀ USNM); 24-30.IV.86, J. LaSalle (1♀); 14.XII.86 (1♂), 7.I.87 (1♂), 12- 20.I.87 (2♂), 8-15.III.87 (1♂), 15-22.III.87 (1♂), W.R. Mason; 15.I.86, D. Schuster (1♂); 5.XII.84 (1♂), 11- 18.VI.87 (1♂), 15.V-10.VI.93 (1♀), D. Wahl. Gainesville, AEI — 10-17.IV.85 (1♀ AEIC), 20.XI.86, G. Gibson (1♂); 15.V.80, H. Howden (1♀); 13-23.X.97, L. Masner (2♂); 2-10.IV.86, M. Sanborne (6♂, CNC Photo 2010-65); 2-19.IV.86, M. Sharkey (1♂); 7-17.IV.87 (1♂), 4-11.VI.87 (1♂), 20.XI.87-20.II.88 (1♀, 1♂), 23.II-2.VI.88 (1♀), D. Wahl. Gainesville, IFAS [Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences], 29.X-18.XI.87, BRC Hym. Team (1♀). Gainesville, Doyle Conner Bldg. — 4-8.X.76 (1♀ FSCA), 27.IX-1.X.76 (1♂ FSCA), E.E. Grissell; 7.XII.71, H.V. Weems Jr. & C.R. Artaud (1♂ FSCA). Gainesville, DPI [Department of Primary Industries] — 22-30.IV.87 (2♂), 1-7.V.87 (1♀), 18-27.V.87 (1♀, 1♂), 13-26.VI.87 (1♂), D.B. Wahl; 22-31.III.87, W. Mason (2♂). Gainesville, Paynes Prairie [Preserve State Park], 5-10.IV.86, M. Sanborne (1♀). Gainesville, U.F. [University of Florida] Honey Plant, 24.VIII.81, T. Hayakawn (1♀ FSCA). Gainesville — 610 NW 54 Terrace, 5.IX.94 (1♂ FSCA), 10.III.97 (1♀ FSCA), L. Stange; S9 T10S R18E, 2.IV.76, W.H. Pierce (1♀ UCDC). Baker Co., Glen St. Mary, 30º18'00"N 82º00'55"W, 28.XII.2006, 1, 15, 22.II.2007, 8, 18, 29.III.2007, 5.IV.2007, 4, 17.X.2007, E. Zoll & S. Fullerton (11♂ UCFC). Duval Co., Jacksonville (♀ syntype of E. dryorhizoxeni ; ♂ syntype of E. ficigerae ; 3♀ USNM). Highlands Co., Archbold Biological Research Station, 1-18.IX.87 (1♀, 1♂), 1-29.II.88 (5♂), 22.III- 4.IV.88 (1♂), 6-11.IV.88 (1♂), D.B. Wahl. Nassau Co., Fort Clinch State Park, 15.I.V.99, L. Stange (1♀ FSCA). Orange Co., Orlando, 10.VII.91, 20, 26.VIII.91, 26.IX.91, 31.X.91, 17.XII.91, 6, 31.I.92, 12.II.92, 23.III.9213, 20, 27.IX.96, 4, 30.X.96, 16.II.97, 1-7.III.97, 6.X.97, S.M. Fullerton (3♀, 19♂ UCFC). Rk. Spr. Rn. St. Res. [Rock Springs Run State Reserve], 10.X.84, 21, 28.XI.84, 13.IX.85, J.C. Longhurst & S.M. Fullerton (4♂ UCFC). Wekiwa Springs State Park, S22 T20S R28E, 5.III.2001, P.J. Russell & S.M. Fullerton (1♀ UCFC). Polk Co., Tiger Creek Preserve, Babson Park, NE of Pfundstein Road, 2.X.2006, B. Pace-Aldana & A. Peterson (1♂ UCFC). Sarasota Co., Myakka River State Park, 25.VI-3.VIII.81, S. & J. Peck (1♀). Seminole Co., Econ Wilderness Area, 15, 30.VII.2000, T. Smith, P. Russell & S. Fullerton (2♂ UCFC). Longwood, 28.II.75, W.R.M. Mason (1♀). Lower Wekiva River State Preserve, S39 T19S R29E, 14, 28, 29.IV.2001, 21.VII.2001, 18.VIII.2001, 16, 30.IX.2001, 4.XI.2001, P.J. Russell & S.M. Fullerton (8♀, 1♂ UCFC). Oviedo, 31.VII.84, 12, 25.VIII.84, 25.IX.84, 5.X.84, 20.XI.84, 15.XII.84, S.M. Fullerton (5♀, 2♂ UCFC). Volusia Co., Daytona [Beach], 12.V.20, L.H. Weld, Hopk U.S. 15634g, ex Callirhytis infuscata (Ashm.) on Quercus larifolia (1♀ USNM). GEORGIA: McIntosh Co., Sapelo Island, 28.V-VI.87 (1♂), 29.V-20.VII.87 (1♀), 9-21.IX.87 (1♂), BRC Hym. Team. Monroe Co., Forsyth, 3- 10.VIII.71, F.T. Naumann (1♂). ILLINOIS: Franklin Co., West Frankfort, XI.46, S. Lienk, ex gall Diplolepis bicolor (Har.) (1♀ USNM). Piatt Co., White Heath, 9.VII.39, J.C. Dirks (1♀ USNM). Union Co., Shawnee Ridge top, Pine Hill, 1-8 (1♂), 8-22 (2♀).V.82, T.T. Vogt. IOWA: Mahaska Co., Oskaloosa, 24.IV.57, W.S. Craig, ex rose gall of Diplolepis multispinosa (1♀ UMRM). KENTUCKY: Laurel Co., 15 mi. W. London, 4-30.VI.84, S. Marshall (1♀). LOUISIANA: Bossier Parish, Barksdale AFB, 32º29'06"N 93º35'30"W, 22-30.IV.96, D. M. Pollock (1♂ MEMS). Grant Parish, Alexandria , 48 km N., Iatt Lake Upland, 15-30.XI.98, A. Brazee & N. Schiff (1♀ UCDC). MAINE: York Co., West Lebanon, 17-23.VI.91, D.W. Barry (3♀ DENH). MARYLAND: Calvert Co., Prince Frederick — 4 mi. S., 16.IV-7.V.87, L. Masner (1♂); 7 km S., 7-19.V.87 (1♂), 7.V-7.VII.87 (2♂), BRC Hym. Team. Montgomery Co., Ashton, 4 mi. SW, 24.V.85, G.F. & J.F. Hevel (1♀ USNM). Plummers Island — 18.VIII.12, J.R. Malloch (1♀ USNM); 15.VIII.19, 6.VIII.22, H. Barber (2♀ USNM); 21.VI.60, K.V. Krombein (1♀ USNM).Widewater, 22.VI.58, A.W. Yazquez, cut out of case of Attelabus bipustulatus July 9 (1♀ USNM). Prince George’s Co., Patuxent Research Station, 18-26.V.86, 25.V-1.VI.86, 24.VI.86, 25.V-6.VI.86, 10, 21.VII.86, 27.VII-31.VIII.86, 3.VIII.86, D.B. Wahl (10♂). Somerset Co., Jackson Island, 30.VI.14, R.C. Shannon (1♀ USNM). MASSACHUSETTS: Nantucket Co., Nantucket, 21.VI.[?], J.H. Emerton (1♀ USNM). Suffolk Co., Forest Hills, 22.V.16, F.X. Williams (1♀ USNM). Worcester Co., Boylston, 30.VII.21, Gypsy moth lab. 11605h, ex cocoon A. melanoscelus (1♂ USNM). MISSISSIPPI: Oktibbeha Co., Starkville, 20.VI.82, R.L. Brown (1♀ MEMS). Pontotoc Co., Ecru, 1 mi. SE, 21.VIII.82, P.R. Miller (1♀ MEMS). Washington Co., near Stoneville, Delta Experimental Station, 33º28'N 90º54'W, 5-20.IV.99, 17.V-2.VI.99, N.N. Schiff (2♂ UCDC). MISSOURI: Butler Co., Poplar Bluff, 14.V.19, S.A. Rowher, Quercus minor, Hopk U.S. 10777d (1♀ USNM). Boone Co., Columbia , 19.V.70 (2♀, 1♂ UCDC), 4, 27.IX.70 (3♀ USNM), F.D. Parker. Henry Co., Chapel View Prairie, 29.VI.99, M. Gates (1♂ UCRC). Jasper Co., Joplin, 11.VII.96, H.E. Anderson (1♀ UCRC). Pike Co., Louisiana, 2, 3.IV.70, W.S. Craig, ex blackberry knot gall (3♀ UMRM). Wayne Co., Williamsville, X-XI.68 (12♂), 16-26.VI.69 (1♂), 26-29.VI.69 (2♂), 26.V-16.VI.69 (4♂), 1-5.VII.69 (7♂), 15.VIII-10.IX.69 (1♂), VI.70 (2♂), V.87 (2♂), VI.87 (3♂), VII.87 (1♂), VIII.87 (5♂), 10-26.IX.87 (1♀), V.88 (2♂), 15.VI.88 (1♀, 3♂), 1-19.VIII.88 (3♂), 16.VIII.88 (1♀), 21.X-11.XI.88 (1♀). NEBRASKA: Blaine Co., Halsey, 12.VI.58, R. Henzlik (1♀ USNM). Cherry Co., Valentine Refuge, 5.VI.72, H. & M. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Seward Co., Seward, Brandhorst, Rose gall (1♀ USNM). NEW HAMPSHIRE: Strafford Co., Durham — 18.VIII.58, R. Blenk, reared from spiny rose gall (1♀ DENH); 8.IV.69, B. Ingraham (1♀ DENH); 1 mi. SW, 8.X.90, W.J. Morse (1♀ DENH); 3 mi. SW, Spruce Hole, 10-23.VII.87, D.S. Chandler (1♀ DENH). NEW JERSEY: Burlington Co., Moorestown, 21, 26.VI.39, H. & M. Townes (2♀ AEIC). NEW YORK: Westchester Co., 19.VI.36, H.K. Townes (1♀ AEIC). NORTH CARO- LINA: Jackson Co., Whiteside Mountain , near Highlands, 1600 m, 1.V-20.VII.87 (13♂, CNCI LB-specm 2010- 006), VII-13.IX.87 (2♂), BRC Hym. Team. Moore Co., 15.X.57, H.H. Neunzig (1♀ NCSU). Wake Co., Raleigh, 3.V.81, D.L. Stephan (2♀ NCSU). NORTH DAKOTA: Sioux Co., T132 R.79 Sec. 32, 14.VII.54, G.C & J.N. Wheeler (1♀). OKLAHOMA: Latimer Co., K. Stephan — VI.87, V.89, VI.89 (2♀, 1♂ FSCA); IV.94, VI.94, VII.94, (2♀, 6♂); Red Oak, IX.93 (1♀, 3♂). OREGON: Benton Co., ex bud gall on Rosa pisocarpa , coll. 11.II.83, em. 6.III.83 (1♀). Corvallis, Timberhill, 2.III.81, K. West (1♀). Corvallis, I.83, P. Hanson — Diplolepis (4♀, 5♂); Chip Ross Park, ex Diplolepis inconspicuous (2♀, 1♂), ex Diplolepis variabilis on Rosa pisocarpa (1♀, 1♂). Oak Creek Road, 5 mi. W. Corvallis, 2.III.81, R.J. West, ex gall of Diplolepis rosae on Rosa rubidginosa (3♀, 2♂). Lane Co., H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, road 320, 17.VIII.84, M.E. Schauff & E.E. Grissell (1♂ USNM). PENNSYLVANIA: Blain, 17.V.57, ex gall of Sphaeroteris cashuliformis (1♀ USNM). SOUTH CAROLINA: Anderson Co., Pendleton, BRC Hym. Team — 250 m, 17-27.VI.87 (1♂); 225 m, 6-14.VIII.87 (1♂). Dorchester Co., Francis Beidler forest near Harleyville, 1-10, 22.IX.87, L. Masner (2♀). TEXAS: Bastrop Co., Bastrop State Park — 24-27.V.83, M. Kaulbars (1♀); 4-16.V.91, R. Wharton (1♀). Bosque Co., Laguna Park, 13.IV.84, J.B. Woolley (2♂ TAMU). Brazos Co., College Station — 26.IX-6.X.82, P. Trap & R. Wharton (1♀); Lick Creek Park, 17-30.IV.87, 22.V-23.VI.87, Heraty & Woolley (2♂ TAMU), 19.IX-2.X.88, R. Wharton (1♂ TAMU), 4.X.92, J.B. Woolley (1♀). Junction Hwy 30 with Navasota River, 15.IV.83, P.W. Kovarik (1♀ TAMU). Erath Co., Stephanville, 5 mi. N., 21-23.V.80, P.T. Riherd (1♂ TAMU). Lamar Co., Camp Maxey, 21.V-21.VI.2004, W. Godwin, in Equisetum bog (1♀, 1♂). Montgomery Co., Jones State Forest, 8 mi. S. Conroe, 13-19.IV.87, Wharton, Wang & Praetorius (1♂ TAMU). Robertson Co., 8 mi. E. Hearne, 17-30.XI.90 (1♀), 1-21.IV.91 (5♀, 1♂; ♀ CNC Photo 2010-48), 27.IV-4.V.91 (1♀ UAIC), M. Hallmark. San Jacinto Co., Coldspring, 5 km S., Double Lake Campground, 22-24.V.83, M. Kaulbars (1♀ AEIC). Tyler Co., Kirby State Forest, 30.III-27.IV.2003, E. Riley (1♂ UCRC). Victoria Co., 15.IX.19, J.D. Mitchell, ex cocoons on Amphiachyris dracunculoides (1♀ USNM). Walker Co., Stubblefield Lake, Sam Houston National Forest, 7.IV.85, J.B. Woolley (1♀). VIRGINIA: Clarke Co., Univ. Va. Blandy Experimental Farm, 2 mi. S. Boyce, 8-18.VI.80 (1♀), 19-30.VI.80 (1♂), 8-27.VIII.80 (2♀, 1♂), 19.VIII-2.IX.84 (1♀), D.R. Smith. Essex Co., Dunnsville, 1 mi. SE, 37º52'N 76º48'W, 12-29.IV.91 (3♂), 30.IV- 13.V.91 (6♂), 18-31.V.96 (2♂ USNM), 12-21.VI.96 (2♂ USNM), D.R. Smith. Fairfax Co., near Annandale, 6.V.87 (1♂ USNM), 11-17.V.87 (1♂), 14-20.VI.87 (1♂), 29.V-4.VI.88 (1♂), 21-27.VIII.88 (1♂), 27.VIII-2.IX.88 (1♂), 16-22.VII.89 (1♂), 20-26.VIII.89 (2♂ USNM), 27.VIII-2.IX.89 (1♂), D.R. Smith. Barcroft [Hill], 27.V.28, J.C. Bridwell, on oak leaf (1♀ USNM). E. Falls Church, 30.IV.48, ex Rhodites dischlocerus (3♀ USNM). Vienna, 1.V.41, Bridwell, ex gall Rhodites [?] (1♀ USNM). Dunn Loring, 15.VII.51, K.V. Krombein (1♀ USNM). Louisa Co., Cuckoo , 4 mi. S., 1-12.V.87 (1♂), 13-27.V.87 (2♂), 16.VI.87 (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-15), 12-25.IV.88 (2♂), 25.IV-13.V.88 (3♂), 13-27.VII.88 (1♂), 12-23.VIII.88 (1♀), 23.VIII-11.IX.89 (1♂), 12.IX-6.X.89 (1♂), J. Kloke & D.R. Smith. Page Co., Luray, Shenandoah foot hills, 13.VI.92, L. Masner (1♀). Warren Co., Shenandoah National Park, Compton Gap, BRC Hym. Team — 800 m, VII-23.VII.87 (6♂, CNC Photo 2010-16); 1300 m, 22.V-2.VI.87 (2♂). Virginia Co., Alexandria, May, bred from gall of Diastrophus cuscutaeformis (3♀ USNM). WEST VIR- GINIA: Hardy Co., 4-17.VI.2002, D. Smith (1♀). Lost River State Park, 1-14.VIII.60, K.V. Krombein (1♀ USNM). Mathias, 3 mi. NE, D.R. Smith — 38º55'N 78º49'W, 26.VI-8.VII.2001 (1♀), 14-28.VIII.94 (1♀); 38º54.6'N 78º52.89'W, 6.IX-2.X.2007 (1♂), 1-18.VIII.2008 (1♀), 19.VIII-8.IX.2008 (1♂). WASHINGTON: Whitman Co., Pullman, A.L. Melander, ex gall of Rhodites sp. on Rosa piscocarpa (2♀ syntypes of E. melanderi ). WISCONSIN: Polk Co., Gibson Lake, T34n R16W S34, 1969, H.O. Coppel, host I-143, Diprion similis Htg. (1♀ USNM) (see further under Biology).

Distribution. Transcontinental (Map 10).

Map 10. Regional distribution of E. dryorhizoxeni .

Biology. Primarily a parasitoid in galls of various species of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) on Quercus (Fagaceae) and Rosa (Rosaceae) , though apparently also reared rarely from other hosts. Felt (1915) reported that E. dryorhizoxeni was reared from galls of Rabdophaga salicistriticoides (Osten Sacken) and possibly from Dasineura lysimachiae (Beutenmüller) ( Diptera : Cecidomyiidae ). Although I have not seen voucher specimens to confirm these gall midges as hosts they quite likely are correct. Coppell (1960) also reported that E. dryorhizoxeni parasitized Glyptoscelis sp. ( Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae ) larvae that had hatched from eggs deposited in abandoned Diprion similis (Hartig) ( Hymenoptera : Diprionidae ) cocoons. According to Coppel (1960), individuals of Glyptoscelis feed on needles of white pine and females deposit their eggs in large numbers into cocoons of D. similis after the adult sawfly has emerged, covering the opening through which the adult escaped with a disc of wood-chip material for protection. It is very possible that the female listed above from Wisconsin, reared in 1969 by Coppel, was similarly reared from some insect using an abandoned D. similis cocoon rather than D. similis itself because in a subsequent paper Mertins and Coppel (1971) listed only E. annulatus and E. (Macroneura) vesicularis (Retzius) as parasitoids of D. similis in Wisconsin. Because of this, D. similis is listed below as a questionable host.

Arthropod hosts — COLEOPTERA . Attelabidae : * Attelabus bipustulatus Fabricius. HYMENOPTERA . Cynipidae : * Andricus femoratus Ashmead (= Amphibolips femorata ), Belonocnema treatae Mayr (= Dryorhizoxenus floridanus ) ( Ashmead 1886), * Callirhytis infuscatus (Ashmead) (spiny rose gall wasp), * Diastrophus cuscutaeformis Osten Sacken , * Diplolepis bicolor (Harris) , Diplolepis dichlocerus (Harris) ( Burks 1979) , Diplolepis ignota (Osten Sacken) ( Burks 1979) , * Diplolepis inconspicuis Dailey and Campbell , * Diplolepis rosae (L.) (Bedeguar gall wasp), Diplolepis rosaefolii (Cockerell) on Rosa acicularis Lindley ( Shorthouse & Brooks 1998) , * Diplolepis spinosa (Ashmead) (= D. multispinosa ), * Diplolepis variabilis (Bassett) and * Disholcaspis quercusvirens (= Holcaspis ficigera ) (Ashmead). Diprionidae :? * Diprion similis (Hartig) . Braconidae : * Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) . LEPIDOPTERA . Lymantriidae : * Lymantria dispar (L.) (secondary).

Based on label data, E. dryorhizoxeni apparently was also reared from some unknown insect in a knot gall of Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (blackberry), unknown cocoons on Amphiachyria dracunculoides (DC.) Nuttal (Asteracea) (prairie broomweed), and from “ Sphaeroteris cashuliformis ”.

Remarks. Eupelmus dryorhizoxeni is the only recognized North American species of E. ( Eupelmus ) with brachypterous females. For this reason the description is not rigorously comparable with those given for the other species of the subgenus and includes also features to help distinguish them from females of E. ( Macroneura ). Females are most likely to be mistaken for those of E. (Macroneura) vesicularis (Retzius) because of similarly reduced forewings that normally are bent at an abrupt angle ( Figs 11, 12). However, females of E. vesicularis are distinguished by a very shallowly concave (plate-like) mesoscutum, almost flat scutellum in a similar plane as the axillae ( Gibson 1990, figs 26, 27), and by their reduced and asymmetrical tarsal peg pattern, the mesotarsus having pegs in a complete row along its anterior margin but only within its basal half along the posterior margin, and the subsequent two or three tarsomeres with only a single apical peg ( Gibson 1990, fig. 38). The only other described species of E. ( Eupelmus ) normally with brachypterous females is E. atropurpureus Dalman , which does not occur in North America (see “Remarks” for E. ( Eupelmus )). Females of E. atropurpureus are readily differentiated from those of E. dryorhizoxeni by several features, including the antennae, head and body being dark, the mesoscutal lateral lobes low convex, the scutellum almost flat and in same plane as the axillae, and the forewings being flat, hyaline, and apically truncate.

Females are quite variable in color and there also appears to be regional variation in sculpture of the frons and acropleuron. Known females from Arizona and one female from California (Orange Co., near Corona) have the acropleuron unusually strongly sculptured ( Fig. 15), being distinctly reticulate except that the medial microsculptured region is quite smooth and shiny in two of the females compared to typical females ( Fig. 14). All but one of the Arizona females ( Pima Co., Kitt Peak ) also have the frons at least slightly roughened to reticulate ( Fig. 13) rather than coriaceous ( Fig. 10). I currently consider the two correlated sculptural differences to represent infraspecific variation within a population at the periphery of the range of E. dryorhizoxeni (Map 10).

Males of E. dryorhizoxeni are usually quite easily distinguished from most other North American Eupelmus males by a combination of antennal and leg color pattern. Typically the dark brown flagellum contrasts distinctly with a light-colored scape except rarely for some small males, and the legs are extensively yellowish to yellowishorange beyond the coxae. However, some males are unusually dark with a color pattern very similar to typical urozonus -group males (Figs 58–61). Such males could be mistaken for those of E. cyaniceps , E. cushmani or, particularly, E. cynipidis / E. conigerae because they share a similar host range, a conspicuously setose, filiform flagellum (cf. Figs 57, 65), and a similar sculpture pattern of the outer surface of the scape (cf. Figs 73, 74), though this is often difficult to discern for E. dryorhizoxeni males because the micropunctures are less visible when the cuticle is yellowish rather than dark.

The single examined USNM male syntype of E. ficigerae lacks its antennae except for a single pedicel and scape glued with its outer surface to the point. Milliron (1949) stated that in the opinion of A.B. Gahan the specimen was possibly a male of E. cynipidis , likely because it was reared from a cynipid gall. Because of the condition of the syntype neither the sculpture pattern nor color pattern of the outer surface of the scape is visible, though the inner surface of the scape is brown similar to the pedicel. All femora and the meso- and metatibiae are also brown, but the protibia appears to be extensively yellowish except dorsolongitudinally and at least the trochantellus of the metafemur is whitish. Even though I have not seen specimens of E. dryorhizoxeni reared subsequently from the two hosts that Ashmead (1887b) listed for E. ficigerae I believe it is a junior synonym of E. dryorhizoxeni rather than E. cynipidis because of the apparent color pattern of male syntype.

Regional males of E. microzonus might also be confused with E. dryorhizoxeni males because the legs are almost entirely white beyond the coxae and they have a similarly setose filiform flagellum (cf. Figs 55, 57). However, the scape, palpi and tegula have a different color pattern and the flagellum is slightly longer than for E. dryorhizoxeni males. Using the key to males of Macroneura in Gibson (1990), males of E. dryorhizoxeni would key to E. (Macroneura) epicaste (Walker) and E. (Macroneura) tanyaris (Gibson) , but both of these have distinctly banded meso- and metatibiae, about the basal half and apices narrowly of the tibiae being white and separated by a subapical brown band. Males of E. dryorhizoxeni are perhaps superficially most similar to those of E. (Macroneura) meteori (Gahan) in structure and color pattern, but E. meteori males lack the line of distally curved setae from the pedicel and the long genal seta which are characteristic of other E. ( Eupelmus ) and E. ( Macroneura ) males.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of California, Riverside


American Entomological Institute


W.F. Barr Entomological Collection


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


University of Central Florida


W.R. Enns Entomology Museum


University of New Hampshire


Canadian National Collection Insects


North Carolina State University Insect Museum


Texas A&M University


University of Alabama, Ichthyological Collection














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) dryorhizoxeni Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Cerambycobius ficigerae

Milliron, H. E. 1949: 346

Eupelmus melanderi

Gibson, G. A. P. 1990: 837
Brues, C. T. 1907: 55

Eupelmus rhizophelus

Burks, B. D. 1967: 246
Brues, C. T. 1903: 186

Eupelmus dryorrhizoxeni

Dalla Torre, K. W. 1898: 275

Megastigma ficigerae

Ashmead, W. H. 1887: 185

Eupelmus dryorhizoxeni

Ashmead, W. H. 1886: 129
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