Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cyaniceps Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 44-51

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cyaniceps Ashmead


6. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cyaniceps Ashmead View in CoL

Figs 29, 32, 38, 39, 48, 61, 62, 77; Map 8

Eupelmus cyaniceps Ashmead, 1886: 129 View in CoL . Holotype, female (USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida [Jacksonville].

Eupelmus momphae Gahan, 1910: 205−206 View in CoL . Syntypes, 4 females (BMNH and USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Alabama; reared from Mompha brevivittella View in CoL infesting seed pods of Enothera. N. syn.

Eupelmus cyaniceps cyaniceps View in CoL ; Girault, 1916b: 244. Change in rank by inference through establishment of E. cyaniceps amicus Girault View in CoL and E. cyaniceps utahensis Girault. View in CoL

Eupelmus cyaniceps View in CoL ; Burks, 1979: 882.

Description. FEMALE. ( Figs 38, 39) Length about 1.8−6 mm. Head of smallest specimens sometimes mostly dark brown, but more commonly ( Fig. 29) frontovertex variably distinctly and extensively dark to rarely coppery mesally and green laterally, to often more or less uniformly green to blue or green to blue with variably large and distinct blue to purple region along inner orbit, and when partly metallic then parascrobal region, interantennal region and clypeal region often variably extensively dark; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna with scape virtually always dark brown or at most dark orangey-brown with slight metallic green to bluish luster (see further under remarks); pedicel dark brown except usually for slight metallic luster, and flagellum dark brown. Mesosoma with tegula brown or dark with slight metallic luster, otherwise sometimes mostly brown though mesonotum usually with at least slight metallic green luster, and larger specimens usually more extensively green to greenish-blue similar to head except sometimes lateral lobe dorsolongitudinally, scutellum variably extensively, and convex or concave part of medial mesoscutal lobe dark to reddish-coppery. Forewing hyaline (Fig. 48); venation yellowish-brown; setae uniformly brownish or sometimes lighter in basal cell and on submarginal vein. Front leg with trochanter yellow or more commonly brown; femur sometimes extensively yellowish, at least dorsally, but usually dark brown except for yellow trochantellus and extreme apex; tibia yellow or almost completely yellowish except for dorsal and ventral brown bands, to more extensively brown except knee and apex more widely yellowish; tarsus yellowish except for apical brown tarsomere to more or less uniformly yellowish-brown. Middle leg with dark mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs, otherwise often yellowish to yellowish-orange at least beyond coxa and sometimes including coxa, or femur and tibia in part more distinctly brownish, but knee, tibia apically, and at least basal tarsomere lighter yellowish to white. Hind leg with trochanter yellowish to dark brown; femur with trochantellus and apex variably extensively yellowish to yellowish-orange, often more so dorsoapically, but at least about basal half dark brown; tibia usually more or less dark brown mesally with knee and up to about apical third yellowish to white, though sometimes more extensively yellowish at least ventrally; tarsus with at least basitarsus white and apical tarsomere brown, but tarsomeres 2−4 variably white to dark brown. Gaster entirely dark brown or at most with metallic green luster anteriorly on basal tergum and sometimes laterally on terga, and with brown hairlike setae similar in color to cuticle; dark inner plate of ovipositor rarely projecting distinctly beyond apex, but at least ovipositor sheaths with short dark basal region abruptly delineated from much lighter, longer medial region, the medial region sometimes more or less evenly yellowish-orange to graduated brown apically but often more distinctly white compared to quite abruptly and distinctly delineated apical brownish region.

Head ( Fig. 29) with frons usually imbricate-roughened to quite distinctly reticulate, even mesally below anterior ocellus, and merged into parascrobal region through slight undulation, though sometimes finely meshlike coriaceous and uniformly rounded into parascrobal region in smaller females; vertex variably transversely alutaceousreticulate in smaller specimens to transversely reticulate-strigose or strigose in larger specimens, but broadly rounded into occiput ( Fig. 39); scrobal depression reticulate-rugulose to transversely reticulate-strigose; IOD = 0.36−0.47× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.6−1.0: 2.1−3.0: 1.5−2.0: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum = 1.1−1.3× head width; scape about 4.5−5.5× as long as wide, in outer view ventral margin often almost straight and angulate but sometimes slightly sinuate with very slender, inconspicuous flange over about apical half; pedicel in lateral view about 1.9−2.4× as long as wide; fl1 slightly transverse to quadrate; fl2 about 1.7−2.9× as long as wide and about 2.5−3.8× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to quadrate or slightly longer than wide fl8; clava about 2.1−2.6× as long as wide, 0.8−1.1× combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.25−0.43× length of funicle. Mesoscutum almost uniformly meshlike reticulate except lateral lobe more minutely coriaceous mediolongitudinally and mesoscutal medial lobe usually more transversely alutaceous-reticulate in smaller to reticulate-imbricate anteriorly in larger specimens. Scutellar-axillar complex with axillae obliquely alutaceous-reticulate to more coriaceous-imbricate, but at least scutellum mostly meshlike coriaceous to coriaceous- or somewhat reticulate-imbricate on either side of median. Prepectus usually extensively and conspicuously setose with slightly lanceolate white setae such that ventral-most line of setae close to ventral margin and/or apices of setae generally extend to or even slightly over ventral and often dorsal margins (Fig. 44), though sometimes less conspicuously setose in smaller females (Fig. 43). Acropleuron finely meshlike reticulate anterior and posterior of medial microsculptured region, the cells sometimes somewhat larger posteriorly than anteriorly but with flat surfaces defined by slightly raised ridges. Forewing (Fig. 48) with linea calva separated basally by several rows of setae from vanal area and basal cell usually uniformly setose; costal cell ventrally setose along length with 2 or 3 lines of setae medially, and dorsally bare or much more commonly setose apically along leading margin for distance usually little greater than length of parastigma or at most half length of cell; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 4.3−5.0: 4.6−5.2: 1.0−1.2: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 3−6 pegs; mesotarsus ( Fig. 32) ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with 10−17 pegs arranged distally in double row on either side, second tarsomere with 4−6, third tarsomere with 1−3, and apical tarsomere with 1 peg on one side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus variably densely and conspicuously setose, but often quite densely setose with comparatively long and slightly lanceolate white setae. Gaster with inner plate of ovipositor only rarely extending beyond apex if sheaths comparatively long; ovipositor sheaths almost always about 0.75−0.9× length of metatibia and 0.72−0.93× length of marginal vein.

MALE (Fig. 61). Similar to E. cushmani except outer surface of scape with elongate band of distinct punctures ventrally along length of scapular scrobe so as to usually appear pitted ( Fig. 77).

Regional material examined (574♀, 111♂). CANADA. ONTARIO: Brighton, 20.VII.56, J.C. Martin (1♀) . Ottawa, G. Goulet — 1-6.VII.81, 17-27.VII.86 (4♀); 45º21.365'N 75º42.416'W, 16-26.VI.2007 (1♀). Shirley’s Bay , 22-29.VII.88, M. Sanborne (1♀) .

USA. iss. — 12.V.1897, 35 08 (1♀ USNM); 2.III.1882, Dept. no. 1014.a (1♂ USNM); V.89, Webster, 4421 01 (1♀, 1♂ USNM); reared from Xanthium sp. , XII.38 (1♀ USNM). ALABAMA: “1967”, “1972”, C.F. Baker (1♀, 1♂ USNM). Nov. 26, 112, Type No.13221 USNM, [? Mompha brevivitella ] (5♀ syntypes of Eupelmus momphae, USNM ). ARIZONA: “2340”, “2512”, “2522”, “2572”, C.F. Baker (5♀ USNM). 1981, J. Addicott, reared from Yucca (1♀). Fish Creek Hill, 29.IX.24, 2900', L.J. Bottimer, Hunter No. 9192A, on Thurberia (2♀ USNM). Top Salt River Hill, 26.IX.24, 1800', L.J. Bottimer, Hunter No. 9192B, sweeping Thurberia (1♀, 1♂ USNM). Cochise Co., Portal — 1.IX.87, H. & M. Towes (1♀ AEIC); 1 mi. E., 4700', 31.VII.82, G. Gibson, sweeping flowering Acacia constricta (1♀); 2 mi. NE, 29, 30.IX.60, M. Cazier (2♀ USNM). Graham Co., Bonita Creek, 3500', 17.VIII.76, D.S. Chandler (1♀ UAIC). Maricopa Co., Gila Bend , 29.VII.66, C.R. Kovacic (1♀ UCDC). Tempe — VIII.12, V.L. Wildermuth, Webster No. 8716, cage No. 16, L [anguria] mozardi (1♀ USNM); 7.III.29, par. T. cylindrica (2♀ USNM); 20.IIII.29, par. tobacco borer (1♀ USNM). Pima Co., Canoa , 21.VI.60, G. Butler, suck/cotton (1♀ UAIC). Tucson, 20.IX.37, R.H. Crandall (1♀ UAIC). Sabino Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains , 3.VIII.82 (2♀). Santa Cruz Co., Patagonia , 31.53ºN 10.77ºW, Sonoita Creek Nature Conservancy Reserve, B. Brown & E. Wilk — 24.V.94, 10.VII.94, (2♀ LACM); 24.X.93, 24.XI.93, 4, 20.III.94, 14.IV.94, 16.VI.94, (5♀, 9♂). Patagonia — 8.V.94, B. Brown (1♀); 4.5 mi. NE on Hwy 83, 9.VIII.82, G. Gibson, sweeping Baccharis glutinosa and Chrysothamnus sp. (8♀). ARKANSAS: Benton Co., Bentonville, 20.VI.19, D. Isley, par. Mineola (1♀ USNM). Clark Co., 26.IX.10, bred cotton square (1♂ USNM. CALIFORNIA: 314, Coquillet (1♀ USNM). Sta [ Santa ] Cruz Mountains (1♀ USNM). Alameda Co., Berkeley, 10.VI.21, E.O. Essig (1♀ USNM). Butte Co., Lake Madrone, 5.VI.77, R.O. Schuster & E.C. Toftner (1♀, 1♂ UCDC). Contra Costa Co., Antioch, 28.VIII.76, B. Villegas (1♀ UCDC). Martinez, 6.VII.59, T.R. Haig, ex fruit fly pupa on Baccharis pilularis (1♀ CASC). Pittsburg, 2 mi. W., 19.IX.57, J.A. Powell (1♀ UCRC). Fresno Co., Friant, Lost Lake Recreation Area, 9.VI.82, J.A. Halstead (1♀). Panoche Road at San Benito County line, 24.VIII.83, J.A. Halstead, on spurge (Euphorbea) (1♀ CASC). Imperial Co., Coachella Canal Road, 1.6 km N. highway 78, 11.6 km W Glamis, 32º59'N 115º11.7'W, 19-22.IX.2008, T.J. Zavortink & R.B. Kimsy (1♂ UCDC). Inyo Co., Bishop , 7.IX.87, H. Andersen, sweeping alfalfa (1♂ UCRC). Los Angeles Co., Claremont, Baker (17♀ USNM). El Segundo Sand Dunes, Biological Survey L.A. County Museum, 18.V.38, 29.VI.38, W.D. Pierce (2♀ LACM). Placerita Canyon, Walker Ranch, 34.38ºN 118.44ºW, 24.V.99, B. Brown & I. Swift (2♀ UCRC). Napa Co., Lake Hennessey, 11 km ESE St. Helena, 7.VII.90, 28.X.90, S.L. Heydon, on Baccharis (8♂ UCDC). Orange Co., Fullerton, 2.VIII.30, Bartholomen (2♀ CASC). Huntington Beach, 1.IX.84, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC). Irvine, 10.VIII.83, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC). Newport Beach, 23.VII.84, H. Andersen (1♂ UCRC). Placer Co., Roseville — Dry Creek, 38.73438N 121.30065W, 19.VI.2008, 21.VIII.2007, G.W. Forister (1♀, 1♂ UCDC); Maidu Park, 38.73769, 121.24457, 8.VIII.07, G.W. Forister (1♀ UCDC). Riverside Co., Beaumont, 4 mi. W., Hwy 79, 2000', 3.VII.82, N.J. Smith (1♀ UCDC). Hemet, T55, R1W, S12, 30.I.69, Goeden & D.W. Ricker, insectary reared on Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook. , parasite of AA-69-4A (3♀ UCRC). Lake Skinner, NE end, 33º36'7"N 117º2'5"W, 7-21.V.96, J.D. Pinto (1♀ UCRC). Menifee Valley, hills on W. end, 1800', 33º39'N 117º13'W, J.D. Pinto — 27.VIII-1.X.80 (1♀); 18.IV.82, 30.V.82 (2♀ UCRC). Riverside — [?].1943, A.J. Baringe[?], ex ragweed borer (1♀ UCRC); 4.II.34, reared 3.V.34, Timberlake, ex Euura gall on Salix lasiolepis (1♀ UCRC); 28.X.66, R. Sunderman, ex Datura seedpod in assocation with Curculionidae (1♀ UCRC). Salt Creek, Salton Sea, 14.IV.74, M. Wasbaurer, ex Salticornia sp. (1♀ CASC). Sacramento Co., Sacramento, 11.V.60, W.E. Simonds, Salix hindsiana (2♀ CASC). San Bernardino Co., Apple Valley — 26.V.80, N.J. Smith (1♀ UCDC); 18.VIII.82, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC). Hesperia, 9 mi. S., Mojave River Forks, 3.V.84, J. D. Pinto (1♀ UCRC). Mill Creek, T15 R7W S13, 21.VI.82, L. Constantino (2♀ UCRC). Oak Glen, 1500 m, R.E. Wagner — 19.VII-2.VIII.84, 31.VIII-6.IX.84 (2♀); 34º2'N 116º57'W, 2-16.VIII.84 (1♀ CASC). Ontario, 26.XII.08, bred with Mordellistena on Alkali (1♀ USNM). San Diego Co., Anza Borrego State Park, 15 mi. N. Borrego, 24.IV.80, J.B. Woolley (2♂ TAMU). Goeden & D.W. Ricker, insectary reared on Ambrosia psilostachya de Candolle — Pala, T10S, R3W, S1, 16.IX.69, parasite of AP-69-115A (1♀ UCRC); Valley Center, T11S, R1W, S21, 11.II.69, R.D., parasite of AP-69-9A (1♀ UCRC). Lake Wohlford, 24.IV.74, H. & M. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Santee, 9.X.71, G. Scriven, on Pinus radiata (1♀ UCRC). Warner Springs, Agua Caliente Creek, 3100', 26-28.VIII.80, M. Wasbauer & P. Adams (1♀ CASC). Wm [William] Heise Co. [County] Park, 25.VII.79, C. Melton (1♀ UCRC). San Luis Obispo Co., Pozo, 6 mi. SE, R16E T31S sections 4-5, 1500', 9-21.IV.90, W.E. Wahl (1♀). San Mateo Co., Stanford —6641, R. californica (1♂ USNM); University, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, 37º24'03"N 122º14'30.5"W, 110 m, 5-8.IX.2005, P.H. Arnaud (1♀ CASC). Santa Barbara Co., Coaloil Point Reserve , 22-29.VI.82, K. Chaseman (1♀). Goleta, 22.VI.59, R.M. Bohart (1♀ UCDC). Solano Co., 6 km SE Suisun City — 11.VIII.90, S.L. Heydon (2♂ UCDC); Suisun Marsh, 22.VI.93, S.L. Heydon & L. Guo (1♀ UCDC). Sonoma Co. , 15.X.70, T. Griswold (1♂ CASC). Stanislaus Co., Del Puerto Canyon, 9.IV.72, L.A. Lacey (1♀ FSCA). Tulare Co., Ash Mountain Kwh Power Station #3, 14.VI.83, R.D. Haines (1♀). 31.VIII.83, 21.IX.83, R.D. Haines, on Helianthus annuus — Farmersville (5♀, 2♂ CASC; ♂ CNC Photo 2010-29); Visalia (1♀ CASC, CNC Photo 2010-28). Yolo Co., Davis, 3.VIII.55, A.T. McClay (1♀ UCDC). N. bank Putah Creek, Road 98, 5.II.71 (1♀ UCDC). Woodland, 10, 14.IX.70 (2♀, 1♂ UCDC). Yolo, N. bank Putah Creek, Mace Boulevard, 11.II.71, J.E. Lanck, reared from Xanthium strumarium (4♀, 5♂ UCDC). COLORADO: Chaffee Co., Poncha Springs, 22.VI.99, D. Leatherman (2♀ CSUC). DELAWARE: Kent Co., Felton, J.H. Davis, 15.VIII.32, W.R. Haden (1♂ FSCA). New Castle Co., Newark, P. Rice —24.IX.35, ragweed borer material; 10.VI.35, found as pupa in ragweed stem (1♂ FSCA); 8.IX.35 (1♀ FSCA). Sussex Co., Bridgeville, W.R. Haden — Alvin C. Baker, 10.VIII.32 (1♀ USNM); O.A. Newton & Son, 9.VIII.32, ex Epiblema strenuana (1♀ FSCA; 2♀ USNM). Milton, Leroy Lynch, 8.VIII.32, W.R. Haden (1♀ USNM). DIS- TRICT OF COLUMBIA : 24.VIII.1879 (1♀); 17.V.1897, from seedpods of Oenothera biennis [?] (1♀, 3♂ USNM). Washington, 12.VIII.07, Hunter No. 1334, W114.I.2, 26.VIII.07, par. Tyloderma foveolatum (1♀ USNM). FLORIDA: Alachua Co. , 17.IV.56, R.A. Morse, at Melilotus alba (3♀ FSCA). 24.V.58, F.W. Mead, Medicago (4♀ FSCA). Gainesville, J.B. Heppner, ex Aristotelia absconditella — 2 mi. S., 27.XI.72, em. 3, 4.XII.72 (1♀, 1♂ FSCA); 12.I.73, JBH rearing no. 73A1, pupa 12.I.73, adult 24.I.73 (1♀ FSCA). Gainesville, H.V. Weems — 30.IX.67, Balduina angustifolia (1♀ FSCA); 22.IV.68, Pyracantha (4♀ FSCA). Gainesville, Doyle Conner Building — 8.IX.72, Dodge (1♂ FSCA); 5, 13.X.71, 17.XI.71, H.V. Weems & C.R. Artaud (5♀ FSCA); 13-17.XII.76, E.E. Grissell (1♀ FSCA). Gainesville — 4.V.37, L.J. Bottimer (1♀ USNM); American Entomological Institute, 10- 17.IV.86, G. Gibson (5♀); Millhopper Road, 27.IV.73, G.B. Fairchild (1♀ FSCA); Pierce’s homestead, S9, T10S, R18E, 24.III.76, 4-6.XI.75, W.H. Pierce (2♀ FSCA). Newnan’s Lake, 3.IV.86, D.B. Wahl (1♀). Baker Co., Glen St. Mary, 30º18'00"N 82º00'55"W, 18.III.2007, E. Zoll & S. Fullerton (1♀ UCFC). Broward Co., Hollywood, 22.XII.82, W. Gregory (1♀). Charlotte Co., Punta Gorda, 12.IV.52, O. Peck (1♀). Collier Co., Copeland, Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve, 12-27.V.87, VIII.87, V. Gupta (2♀). Columbia & Baker Co., line, junction Route 90, Osceola National Forest, 26-29.X.76, 21.X-22.XI.76, 29.III-13.IV.77, J.R. Riley (4♀ FSCA). Dixie Co., Jena, 1.VIII.76, E.E. Grissell, Iva frutescens L. (3♀ USNM). Duval Co., 6.V.63, F.W. Mead (2♀ FSCA). Jacksonville (♀ holotype of E. cyaniceps ; 1♀ USNM). Gadsen Co., Chattahoochee — 30.IV.52, O. Peck (1♀); 5.X.60, F.W. Med (1♀ FSCA). Highlands Co., Archbold Biological Station — 19-20.IV.78, L.L. Lampert (1♀ FSCA); 8-12.78, S.J. Chance (1♀ FSCA); 7.XII.78, W.V. Weems & S.J. Chance (1♂ FSCA); 22.VIII.78, H.V. Weems & W.C. Conner (1♀, 1♂ FSCA); 30.XII.78, 30.XII-1.I.79, 5, 6, 11, 17.I.79, 8-9, 22.II.79, 22.III.79, 18.IV.79, 5, 23.V.79, 6.VI.79, H.V. Weems & S. Halkin (13♀, 4♂ FSCA); 26.V.78, 2.VI.78, H.V. Weems & K.K. Klein (2♀ FSCA); 12-13.II.80, J.V. Weems & F.E. Lohrer (1♀ FSCA); 14.VI.79, 21, 30.VI-1.VII.79, 27.IX.79, 10, 22.X.79, J.V. Weems & T.A. Weber (5♀ FSCA); 20.IV.82, G. Gordh (2♀ UCRC). Indian River Co., Verra Beach, SW 21 Street, 31.VIII.2004, K. Hibbard & J. Brambila (1♀ FSCA). Lee Co., Fort Myers, 8.IV.71, P.P. Babiy (1♀ ZSMC). Leon Co., Tall Timber Research Station — 7, 14, 21.VII.71, 4, 19, 27, 28.VIII.71, D.L. Harris (13♀ FSCA); 23.IX.77, G.J. Wibmer, ex Tyloderma foveolata in Oenothera biennis (1♂ USNM). Levy Co., 17 mi. NE Cedar Key, 25.V.70, D.L. Bailey (1♀ FSCA). Manatee Co., Bradenton, 16.IV.86, D. Schuster (1♀). Marion Co., Ocala —18.III.50, H.T. Townes (1♀ AEIC); 9 mi. SSW, Kingsland country estates, 19.IX-2.X.75, J. Wiley (1♀ FSCA). Miami-Dade Co., Hialeah, 16.XI.67, Stegmaier (1♀ USNM). Miami, C.C. Stegmaier — 17.VII.65 (1♀ FSCA); 15.IV.72 (CNCI LB-specm 2010-010), 28.V.72, em. 23.IV.72, ex larva of Microlarinus lypriformis (2♀, 2♂). Paradise Key, 21.II.19, Schwarz & Barber (1♀). Monroe Co., Key Largo, 31.III.52, G. S. Walley (1♀). Key Vaca, 28.XII.55, H.V. Weems, at Bidens pilosa (1♀ FSCA). Key West, 29.XII.54, H.V. Weems, on Flaveria linearis (1♀ FSCA). Orange Co., Orlando — 29.III.91, 22.II.93, 1.VII.93, 26.IX.93, S.M. Fullerton (3♀, 1♂ UCFC); 25.I.99, 5, 26.IV.99, P. Russell & S. Fullerton (3♀ UCFC); 22.III.2002, S. Fullerton, J. Heymon & T. Sims (1♀ UCFC). Wekiwa Springs State Park, S26 T20S R28E, 6.III.2001, P. Russell & S. Fullerton (1♀ UCFC). Palm Beach Co., Belle Glade, 15.III.73, 1.IV.73, W.G. Genung, ex Languria erythrocephalus larvae in stems of Panicum hemitomon (2♀ FSCA). Pasco Co., Moon Lake, 16.IV.52, J.R. Vockeroth (1♀). Pinellas Co., Crystal Beach, 18.V.52, O. Peck (3♀, 2♂). Putnam Co., Orange Springs, 2 mi. NW, 13.X-5.XI.75, J. Wiley (2♀ FSCA). Palatka, 28.IV.37, L.J. Bottimer (1♀ USNM). Sarasota Co., Myakka River State Park, 5.VI.54, H.V. Weems (2♀ FSCA). Oscar Scherer State Recreation Area, 27-29.V.78, N.F. Johnson (1♀). Seminole Co., Astor Farms, 2.5 mi. N., 11, 18, 25.V.2000, 7.VI.2000, 19.VII.2000, S. Fullerton & T. Sims (7♀ UCFC). Econ Wild Area, 18.III.2000, T. Smith (1♀ UCFC). Union Co., Worthington Springs, 23.III.75, 10.IX-2.X.75, M.H. Greenbaum, sweeping ferns (1♀ FSCA). GEORGIA: Chatham Co., Tybee Island, 7.IV.84, G.F. & J.F. Hevel (1♀ USNM). Grady Co., Cairo — 8.III.07, bred with Plodia from ragweed (1♀, 1♂ USNM); 11.VIII.43, em. 25.VIII.43, C.H. Hoffmian, par. golden-rod stem borer (1♀ USNM). Spalding Co., Bledsoe Research Farm near Griffin, 22.V.96, 4.VI.96, ex canola seed pods (2♀, 2♂). Tattnall Co., Reidsville, 60 km W. Savannah, 10.XI.72, D. Williams (1♀). ILLINOIS: Champaign Co., Champaign — 28.VII.09, D.M. Tuttle (1♀ UAIC); 30.VII.51, C. Waster (1♀, 1♂ USNM); 19.VII.51, H. Andersen (1♀ UCRC). KANSAS: Doniphan Co., Wathena — 14, 21.V.39, S.C. Schell (2♀ USNM); 27.VII.38, ironweed (3♀ USNM). Douglas Co., Baldwin, 2 mi. N., 14.X.78, L. Masner & G. Gibson (1♀). Lawrence, 1.IX.39, L.J. Lipovsky (1♀ USNM). Pottawatomie Co., Onaga, Crevecoeur (1♀ USNM). Reno Co., Medora, sand dunes, gall coll. 17.IV.32, C.W. Sabrozky, em. 2.V.32 (1♀ USNM). Riley Co., IX.21, J.B. Norton (1♀ USNM). Sep. 9, E.E. Faville (1♀ USNM). Manhattan, S.C. Schell — 26.IX.38, swept Helianthus (3♀ USNM); X.77, em. 11, 20, 27.IV.38 (10♀, 3♂ USNM). LOUISIANA: Caddo Parish, Gilliam , galls coll. 9.IV.35, W.O. Pierce, ex Phylloxera devastratrix (2♀ USNM). Cameron Parish, Grand Chenier, 4.8 km W., 5.X.80, L. Masner (2♀). Madison Parish, Tallulah — 11.VIII.09, V.14.3, Hunter no. 1082, par. Lixus musculus (1♀ USNM); 10.IX.09, lot I.4, 8.VIII.09, bred Polygonum pennsyl .[vanicum] stem (1♀ USNM). Red River Parish, Williams, 1.V.45, W.S. Pierce, Rd-cage parasitized shoot, Curculio larvae-5-11, 15.VI.45 (1♀ USNM). St. Landry Parish, Opelousas Pilate, No. 4-97, No. 203-97, C.F. Baker (2♀ USNM). MAR- YLAND: Charles Co., 10.VII.73, J. Lashomb (1♂ MEMS). Marshall Hall, 10.X.1899, par. on Pyralid in stems of Ambrosia trifida (2♀ USNM). Harford Co., Edgewood, II.53, Moser, gall on Baccharis (1♀). Montgomery Co., Takoma Park, 11.IX.13, H. & M. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Prince George’s Co., Beltsville — 2.VII.54, W.M. Mann (1♀ USNM); IX.83, P. Gross, ex Rhyacionia frustrana on loblolly pine (1♀ USNM). Queen Anne’s Co., Grasonville, 23.IX.30, Oriental peach moth invest. Exp. No. 131-2P, E. strenuana infested Ambrosia (1♀ USNM). Washington Co., Williamsport, 12.VI.16, W.R. McConnell (1♀ USNM). MICHIGAN: Monroe Co., Erie, 22.IV.32, L.G. Jones , ex Microbracon caulicola , ex Pyrausta penitalis (2♀, 1♂ USNM). MISSISSIPPI: Hinds Co., Utica, Aug. (1♀ USNM). Oktibbeha Co., Craig Springs, 7.X.80, P.R. Miller (1♀ MEMS). Starkville — 27.VII.81, W.H. Cross (1♀ MEMS); 12.IX.81, R.L. Brown (1♀ MEMS). Trim Cane Creek, 14.IV.81, P.R. Miller, em. 4, 11.V.81, Ambrosia trifida stems (3♀, 2♂ MEMS). Washington Co., Delta Experimental Forest, Stoneville, N.M. Schiff — 33º27'N 90º54'W, 9.XI-1.XII.98, (1♀ UCDC); 33º28'N 90º54'W, 26.IX-1.XI.97, 14-28.IV.97, 12-25.V.97, 26.IX- 1.XI.97 (5♀ UCDC); 33º29'N 90º54'W, 27.IV.-12.V.97, 17.V-2.VI.99 (3♀ UCDC). MISSOURI: Woodmora [?], 20.VIII.19, issued 6.IX.19, Satterthwait coll., Cyperus erythrorhizos (1♀ USNM). Boone Co., Centralia, 4.IV.72, W.S. Craig, ex gall of Walshia amorphella in false indigo (1♀ UMRM). Columbia , 10.II.69, W.S. Craig, ex ragweed stem (1♀ UMRM). Butler Co., 4 mi. S. Neelyville, 5.IX.82, P.R. Miller (1♀ MEMS). Lewis Co., Wakonda State Park, 6.IX.67, ex larva of Walshia amorphella on Amorpha fruticosa (1♀ UMRM). New Madrid Co., New Madrid, issued 12.IX.27, Satterthwait coll., Ambrosia artemisifolia (1♀ USNM). Wayne Co., Williamsville, 8.VII.55, VII.87, J.T. Becker (2♀). NEVADA: Washoe Co., Reno, 1936 -1937, L. LaRivers, Tetradymia glabrata gall (1♀ USNM). NEW JERSEY: “2071”, C.F. Baker (1♀). Atlantic Co., Pleasantville, 28.VII.38, H.P. Hopper (1♀ USNM). Burlington Co., Masonville, 1934, Oriental fruit moth par. inventory, ex evening primrose borer (1♀ USNM). Moorestown — 20.IV.30, 29, 31.VIII.30, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 17.IX.30, ex E [piblema] strenuana infested Ambrosia (18♀ USNM); 1932, Oriental fruit moth par. invest., ex Glypta cocoon (2♀ USNM). Middlesex Co., New Brunswick, 19.III.24 (1♀). NEW MEXICO: Doña Ana Co., Las Cruces, Ckll. 4903, 5038 (2♀ USNM). Hidalgo Co., Rodeo, 18 mi. W., 26.VIII.74, R.M. Bohart (1♀ UCDC). Otero Co., White Sands National Monument, 24.VIII.71, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno, Chrysothamnus (1♀ UCDC). Roosevelt Co., Blackwater Draw near Portales, 4000', 24-30.V.91, O’Hara & Jergensen (1♀). NEW YORK: Chautauqua Co., Fredonia, VI.66, E.F. Taschenberg, Janus integer (1♀ USNM). Nassau Co., Farmingdale, 29.VII.38, H. & M. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Floral Park, Long Island, 14.VI.86, D. Yanega (1♀ UCRC). Ontario Co., Geneva, 23.V.17, H. Glascow, Phylloxera caryaecaulis (4♀ USNM). NORTH CAROLINA: Brunswick Co., near Longwood, 14.VIII.79, E. Powell & E. Bridges, beat cloth soybean field (1♀ NCSU). Currituck Co., Church Island, 14.X.18, W.M. McAtee (1♀ USNM). Dare Co., Buxton, 16.VIII.80, L. Masner (1♀, 1♂). Haywood Co., Pisgah Ridge, 17.X.04, bred, Hopk. U.S. 3280, W.F. Fiske (2♀ USNM). Macon Co., Franklin, 24.V.57, W.R.M. Mason (1♀). Surry Co., Mount Airy, 1.VIII.65, W.F. Mead, Populus alba (1♀ FSCA). Wake Co., Raleigh — 27.VII.40, 1, 12.VIII.40, S.C. Schell (5♀ USNM). 26.IX.78, T.J. Bradway (1♀ NCSU); Lake Wheeler Park, 6.VI.91, R.L. Blinn, on black willow, Salix nigra (1♀ NCSU). Warren Co., S. of Vicksboro, road 1134, 28.VI.79, S.E. Smith & W.C. Warrick, Ransom soybeans (1♀ NCSU). OHIO: Franklin Co., 2.VII.41, J. E. Gillaspy (1♀ USNM). Highland Co., 15.IX.30, Greenfield, Oriental peach moth invest. Exp. No. 131-10, E. strenuana infested Ambrosia (1♀ USNM). Ottawa Co., 1937, C 4/7 E 6/2, R.B. Neiswander, Giant ragweed (1♂ USNM). Summit Co., Barberton, 22.VI.36, L.J. Lipovsky (1♀ USNM). Wayne Co., 1937, C 8/25 E 9/4, R.B. Neiswander, gravel pit ragweed (1♀ USNM). 1944, 5-6 5 -29, N.D. Blackburn, smartweed (3♀, 1♂ USNM). OAES Nursery, 1943, 8-10 8 -31, N.D. Blackburn, host: ragweed borer (A.O.) (1♀ USNM). Wooster, 2.VIII.1897, A.C. 2771 (1♂ USNM). OKLAHOMA: Latimer Co., K. Stephan — IV.94 (3♂), V.94 (1♀); Red Oak environs,, XI.94 (1♀). OREGON: Multnomah Co., Portland (1♀ USNM). PENNSYL- VANIA: “2014”, C.F. Baker (1♀, 1♂ USNM). Montgomery Co., Willow Grove, G.B. Sleesman, par. Rhyacionia frustrana (1♀ USNM). SOUTH CAROLINA: Greenville Co., Greenville, 19.IV.52, 12.VI.52, 27.V.56, L. & G. Townes (3♀ AEIC). Pickens Co., Clemson College — 22, 23, 24, 25, 27.IV.34, 1, 2, 3, 4, 11.V.34 (11♀, 3♂ USNM); 23.VIII.32, W.C. Nettles, ex L. molesta (1♀ USNM); 26.IV.34, ex L. molesta (1♀ USNM; another 12♀ and 2♂ dated 22.IV-11.V.37 but without host label). TENNESSEE: Davidson Co., 15.VI.67, 4.VII.67, P.P. Babiy (2♀ ZSMC). Marshall Co., Caney Spring, 27.IV.17, G.G. Ainslie (1♀ USNM). TEXAS: Bandera Co., Lost Maples State Park, 18.IV.87, G. Zolnerowich (1♀). Bastrop Co., Colorado River at Hwy 71, 9.V.84, R.L. Brown (1♀ MEMS). Brazos Co., Bryan, 29-30.V.76, H.R. Burke (1♀ TAMU). Navasota River, 0.4 mi. W. on State Road 21, 14.VII.74, H. Geenbaum (1♀ TAMU). Brewster Co., Big Bend National Park — 12.5 mi. SE Panther Junction, 2500', 23-26.VI.82 (1♀), 10-16.VII.82 (2♀, CNC Photo 2010-47), G. Gibson; Chisos Mountains, Mount Lodge, 17-21.III.92, J.B. Woolley & R. Wharton (1♀); Trap Spring, 29º10'N 103º25'W, 9.IX.93, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Deno (1♀ USNM). Castolon, 6 mi. W., 2.IX.71, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno, Sphaeralcea angustifolia (1♀ UCDC). Burleson Co., State Road 36 & Yogua Creek, 1.9 mi. S. Somerville, 16.VI.74, H. Greenbaum (1♀ FSCA). Cameron Co., Southpoint Nursery, 1 mi. S. Southmost Ranch, 5-6.VII.82, G. Gibson (3♂). Chambers Co., Lake Charlotte, 22.IX.22, L.J. Bottimer, ex Phalonia cephalanthana (1♀ USNM). N. shore Lake Charlotte, 10.IX.16, C. Heinrich, in Cephelanthus occidentalis (2♀ USNM). Denton Co., Denton, III-IV.53, Chada, ex Amorpha fruticosa (1♀ USNM). Dimmit Co., Chaparall WMA [wildlife management area], 30.IX.90, R. Wharton (2♀). Grimes Co., Carlos, 5 mi. W., 18.IV.70, V.V. Board (1♀ TAMU). Hidalgo Co., Bentsen Rio Grande Park, 20.IV.85, J.B. Woolley (2♀). Jeff Davis Co., Kent, 33 mi. S. on 166, 16.VIII.81, T.L. & T.A. Friedlander (1♀ TAMU). Toyahvale, 7 mi. S., 10.VI.76, H. Evans, W. Rubink & D. Gynne (1♀ CSUC). Kerr Co., Kerrville — 20.VI.07, F.C. Pratt (1♀ USNM); 13.IV.59, W.R.M. Mason (1♀). Presidio Co., Alamita Creek, 1-9 mi. N. on US 67, 20.VIII.74, H. Greenbaum (1♀ TAMU). Big Bend Ranch — SNA Smith House Spring, 20.VI.90, R. Wharton (1♀); Agua Adentio Springs, 29º29'40"N 104º06'00"W, 3560', 20.VI.90, G. Zolnerowich (1♀); 1 mi. NE McGuriks Tanks, 29º28'56"N 103º48'14"W, 4320', 19.VI.90, J.B. Woolley (1♀). San Patricio Co., Welder Wildlife Refuge, 28.VI.84, J. Schaffner, Hackberry Motte (1♂ TAMU). Travis Co., Austin — 23.IX.39, em. 9.X.39 (1♀ USNM), 15.X.40, em. 15.X.40 (1♀ USNM), em. 20.X.40 (2♀ USNM), Breland, lep. remains B. fusicola , sunflower; 20 NW, 15.II.48, White coll., Lasioptera sp. on Aster spinosus (2♀ USNM); 24.IX.88, P.S. Fiuzaf [with twig borer host remains] (1♀ TAMU). Ulvalde Co., Sabinal, X.10, F.C. Pratt (1♀ USNM). Val Verde Co., Sycamore Creek, 12 mi. E. Del Rio, 6.V.88, W.F. Barr (1♀ WFBM). Victoria Co., Victoria, J.D. Mitchell, — 21.VI, 6, 9, 20, 23, 24, 25.VII, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27.IX, 16, 21.X (12♀, 7♂ USNM); 31.I.10 (1♀ USNM); III.14, Hunter No. 3471 (4♀ USNM); 24.I.10, bred Solanum [?], par. Trichobaris [texanum crossed out] (1♀ USNM); 24.V.13, bred Solanum rostrat .[um] stem, par. Trichobaris texana (5♀ USNM). Walker Co., Ellis Prison — 13, 14, 29.VII.77, 17.X.77, W.L. Sterling (5♀ TAMU); 27.V.80, D.A. Dean (1♀ TAMU). New Waverly, 8 mi. W., 3.VI.70, V.V. Board (1♀ TAMU). Washington Co., Rocky Creek, Somerville Reservoir, H. Greenbaum — 23.VI.74, (1♀ FSCA); 16, 22, 23.VI.74 (6♀ TAMU). Washington-on-the-Brazos State Park, 15.III.87, R.S. Anderson, ex Ambrosia stem, likely parasite of Lixus sp. (1♀). UTAH: Emery Co., Wild Horse Creek, near Goblin Valley State Park, 2-7.VIII.97, M. & J. Wasbauer (2♀ UCDC). Salt Lake Co., C.N. Ainslie, Webster No. 5595 (1♀ USNM). VIRGINIA: VIII.63, Harmon, Pissodes strobi mat. (1♀ USNM). Arlington Co., Rosslyn — Note no. 1132 04 (1♀ USNM); ex Tyloderma foveolatum (1♀ USNM). Caroline Co., Milford, reared 14.VII.15, A.D. Hopkins, ex Eretria sp. in Pinus taeda (1♂ USNM). Clarke Co., Blandy Experimental Farm, 2 mi. S. Boyce, 29.IX.-22.X.90, 12.IX-3.X.95, D.R. Smith (3♀, CNC Photo 2010-54). Essex Co., Dunnsville, 1 mi. SE, D.R. Smith — 30.IV-13.V.91, 15-27.VI.91, 12-24.VI.92 (2♀, 1♂); 37º52'N 76º48'W, 3-20.VIII.96 (1♀ USNM). Fairfax Co., near Annandale, 6-15.VI.87, D.R. Smith (1♀). Falls Church, 21.VII.24, 19.IV.25, R.A. Cushman, ex Rhyacionia frustrana (3♀ USNM). Vienna, R.A. Cushman — 6, 10.VII.11, superparasite of Conotrachelus nenuphar through braconid cocoon (3♀ USNM); VII.11, par. plum curculio (1♀ USNM); 19, 25.VIII.11, par. Tyloderma foveolatum (2♀ USNM); 9, 18, 28.III.12, 2.IV.12, par. Mompha (7♀, 6♂ CNC; 3♀, 8♂ USNM, CNCI LB-specm 2010-001). Louisa Co., Cuckoo , 4 mi. S., J. Kloke & D.R. Smith — 27.V.86, 23.VIII-11.IX.99, 12.IX-6.X.99 (3♀); 11.V.85, 7, 14, 21.VII.85, 3.VIII.85 (6♀ USNM). Pulaski Co., 16.VII.64, K.R. Lewis, host: R. frustrana (1♀ TAMU). Winchester Co., Winchester, 1931, W.S. Hough, ex Coleophora malivorella (2♀ USNM). WEST VIRGINIA: Jefferson Co., VI-VII.31, E. Gould, ex Coleophora malivorella (1♀ USNM).

Specimens of uncertain species identity. USA. TEXAS: Liberty Co., 25.IX.23, L.J. Bottimer, Exp. no. 69, ex larva in stem of Eupatorium serotinum (1♀ USNM) .

Distribution. Widely distributed throughout USA and eastern Canada (Map 8). In addition, Noyes (2010) recorded E. cyaniceps from Mexico, Cuba and Brazil, plus China based on Liao et al. (1987) (see under “Remarks”).

Map 8. Regional distribution of E. cyaniceps .

Biology. Noyes (2010) listed E. cyaniceps as a primary parasitoid or, through Hymenoptera , as a hyperparasitoid of 76 species in 21 families of 4 insect orders. Most of the host records were validated based on reference to such catalogs as Peck (1963) and Burks (1979), whose information came either from the original literature or label data of specimens in the USNM. I have seen specimens of E. cyaniceps from far fewer hosts than listed by Noyes (2010), but this is largely because Noyes (2010) included the hosts originally recorded for E. cyaniceps amicus under E. cyaniceps (see further under Biology for E. cushmani ). Verified host records and plant associates for E. cyaniceps are listed below.

Arthropod hosts — COLEOPTERA . Curculionidae :? Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) ( Gibson et al. 2006) , * Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) , * Curculio sp. , Lixus musculus Say ( Pierce 1907) ,? Lixus sp. , * Microlarinus lypriformis (Wollaston) , * Pissodes strobi (Peck) , Trichobaris texana LeConte ( Pierce 1908 a, Mitchell and Pierce 1911), Tyloderma foveolatum (Say) ( Pierce 1908a. Languriidae : Languria erythrocephala Blatchley ( Genung et al. 1980) , * L. mozardi Latreille. Mordellidae : * Mordellistena sp. DIPTERA . Cecidomyiidae : * Lasioptera sp. HEMIPTERA : Phylloxeridae : * Phylloxera caryaecaulis (Fitch) , P. devastratrix Pergande. HYMENOPTERA . Braconidae : * Bracon caulicola (Gahan) ex Pyrausta penitalis . Cephidae : * Janus integer (Norton) . Ichneumonidae : Glypta sp. ( Burks 1979) . Tenthredinidae : * Euura sp. LEPIDOPTERA . Bucculatrigidae : Bucculatrix fusicola Braun ( Breland and Schmitt 1948) . Coleophoridae : Coleophora malivorella Riley ( Gould and Geissler 1940; Beacher 1947). Gelechiidae : * Monochroa absconditella (Walker) . Momphidae :? Mompha brevivitella (Clemens) ( Gahan 1910) , Walshia amorphella Clemens ( Brandhorst 1962) . Noctuidae :? * Papaipema duovata (Bird) . Pyralidae : Acrobasis sp. (= Mineola ), * Eretria sp. , * Plodia sp. , * Ostrinia (= Pyrausta ) penitalis (Grote) . Tortricidae : Epiblema strenuana (Walker) ( Haden 1935, Allan 1962), Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Allan 1962) , Phtheochroa cephalanthana (Heinrich) , Rhyacionia frustrana (Scudder) ( Cushman 1927, Harman 1972, Wells et al. 2001).

The only Diptera host listed by Noyes (2010) for E. cyaniceps is an extralimital host, Procecidochares utilis Stone (Tephritidae) , which was based on Bess and Haramoto (1959) through Herting (1978). Bess and Haramoto (1959, p. 245) recorded E. cyaniceps as a host of P. utilis through “personal correspondence” of N.L.H. Krauss, who stated he reared E. cyaniceps from “ P. utilis during 1944−45 at Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico ”. The USNM collection has a single female collected by Krauss from this locality, April, 1945, which I identify as E. cyaniceps . Although there is no label stating that the female was reared, it is very possibly from the rearings referred to by Krauss in Bess and Haramoto (1959).

Plant associates — Agavaceae : Yucca sp. Amaranthaceae : Salticornia sp. (glasswort). Asteraceae : Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hooker (flatspine bur ragweed), A. artemisifolia L. (common ragweed), A. psilostachya de Candolle (perennial ragweed), A. trifida L. (great ragweed), Baccharis pilularis de Candolle (coyote brush), Chloracantha spinosa (Bentham) (spiny chloracantha), Tetradymia glabrata Torry and Grey (littleleaf horesbrush), Xanthium strumarium L., (common cocklebur). Asteraceae : Baccharis sp. , Xanthium sp. Brassicaceae : Brassica napus L. (canola). Cyperaceae : Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhlenberg (redroot flatsedge). Fabaceae : Amorpha fruticosa L. (desert false indigo). Onagraceae : Oenothera biennis L. (common evening primrose), Oenothera sp. Poaceae : Panicum hemitomon Schultes (maidencane). Pinaceae : Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine). Polygonaceae : Polygonum pennsylvanicum Latreille (smartweed). Salicaceae : Salix lasiolepis Bentham (Arroyo willow). Rubiaceae : Cephelanthus occidentalis L. (buttonbush). Solanaceae : Datura sp. , Solanum rostratum Dunal (buffalo bur).

Remarks. I do not provide a detailed description for E. cyaniceps males because I was unable to find any reliable differences between these and E. cushmani males other than the described difference in sculpture of the outer surface of the scape ventral to the level of the scapular scrobe. Pierce and Cushman (1915) demonstrated that E. cyaniceps and E. cushmani are valid species through crossing experiments (see under E. cushmani ) and described the oviposition behavior of E. cyaniceps . Features that differentiate E. cyaniceps from those of E. cushmani are discussed under the latter species. All E. cyaniceps females have ovipositor sheaths that are less than the length of the marginal vein ( Figs 38, 39; Gibson et al. 2006, fig. 7). Females from eastern North America with ovipositor sheaths as long as or longer than the marginal vein more likely are E. cushmani ( Fig. 37) or E. annulatus ( Fig. 36). However, under material examined for E. cyaniceps I list one female from Texas as “of uncertain species identity”. This female lacks its ovipositor sheaths, but the remaining stylets are at least 1.45× the length of the marginal vein. If the ovipositor sheaths were of similar length they would be more similar to those of E. cushmani , E. curticinctus or some E. pervius . However, the prepectus is entirely setose (cf. Fig. 44) and the propodeum is relatively densely setose similar to typical E. cyaniceps . This female is not likely E. curticinctus because of its more extensively setose prepectus and shallowly, transversely wrinkled-reticulate frons (cf. Fig. 29), or E. pervius because of the plant associate and broadly closed linea calva. More likely the remaining stylets are not indicative of the true length of the missing sheaths and it is a E. cyaniceps female, though it is possible it is a E. cushmani female with an abnormally setose prepectus. Perhaps even more aberrant is a single female from California (Riverside Co., Salt Creek) that I identify as E. cyaniceps based on its short ovipositor sheaths and typical prepectal and propodeal callus setal patterns, but with an entirely yellowish-orange scape similar to that of E. cushmani . I also saw a single E. cyaniceps female from New York (Fredonia) that has the costal cell setose dorsally for its entire length similar to some E. annulatus . This female is also unusual because a stem sawfly, Janus integer , is implicated as its possible host. As mentioned under E. cushmani , what I presently interpret as only two morphologically diverse species, E. cyaniceps and E. cushmani , may in fact represent a species complex of cryptic species associated with different hosts.

Eupelmus cyaniceps and E. pervius may well constitute sister species based on females sharing a more extensively setose prepectus (Fig. 44) and more densely setose propodeal callus (Fig. 51) than other urozonus -group species. The two species are differentiated by host differences and males are quite readily distinguished by flagellar structure and setation (cf. Figs 61, 62 with 64, 66) as discussed under E. pervius . Females, however, are very similar, being distinguished primarily by a single variable feature, forewing setal pattern, which alone appears to be insufficient to differentiate all females of the two species (see further under E. pervius ).

In addition to the synonymy listed above for E. cyaniceps , the subspecies E. cyaniceps scolyti Liao was described in Liao et al. (1987: 194–195) from China, reared from Scolytus seulensis Murayana ( Coleoptera : Scolytidae ). I examined the female holotype (IZCAS) and determined it is not conspecific with E. cyaniceps . Although superficially similar to E. cyaniceps , the ovipositor sheaths being about 0.66× the length of the marginal vein and 0.62× the length of the metatibia, the scape is yellow, as are the legs except for the metafemur being extensively infuscate. As such, the holotype appears to be very similar to what Ashmead (1904) described from Japan as Eupelmus formosae (type USNM, not examined). Until such time as the Palaearctic species are revised I treat E. (Eupelmus) scolyti as a valid species n. stat. Both sexes of E. cyaniceps are, however, very similar to those of the European species E. martellii . Males of both species have a robust-filiform, conspicuously setose flagellum with dense, curved setae (Fig. 63), the outer surface of the scape with an elongate band of distinct micropunctures along the length of the scapular scrobe ( Fig. 77), evenly curved white setae on the lower face rather than setae that distally are abruptly or sinuately curved (Fig. 67), the basal three or four tarsomeres of the tarsi white (Fig. 59), and the vertex evenly curved into the occiput without a transverse carina. Females of E. cyaniceps and E. martellii are also morphologically very similar, but I believe two species are represented rather than a single Holarctic species. This is partly because E. martellii females have a somewhat less extensively setose prepectus than E. cyaniceps females, but largely because I suspect that except for E. annulatus the North American urozonus -group species have all evolved from a common ancestor, which may have resembled and shared a common ancestor with E. martellii and which once had a Holarctic distribution.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cyaniceps Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus cyaniceps

Burks, B. D. 1979: 882

Eupelmus cyaniceps cyaniceps

Girault, A. A. 1916: 244

Eupelmus momphae

Gahan, A. B. 1910: 206

Eupelmus cyaniceps

Ashmead, W. H. 1886: 129
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