Eupelmus (Eupelmus) conigerae Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 28-30

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) conigerae Ashmead


3. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) conigerae Ashmead View in CoL

Fig. 22; Map 5

Eupelmus conigerae Ashmead, 1885 View in CoL : xv. Holotype, female (USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida [Jacksonville]; reared from Cynips conigera Ashmead gall.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 22). Length about 2.7−5.2 mm. Head of smallest specimen with quite distinct metallic green luster except for reddish-coppery region medially between level of posterior ocelli and scrobal depression under some angles of light, but usually mostly dark with limited green luster along inner orbit and within scrobal depression or, much more commonly, dark with variably extensive and bright reddish-coppery to somewhat violaceous lusters under some angles of light; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna of smallest specimen mostly brown with scape yellowish basally, but usually at least entire scape, pedicel, and often funicle variably extensively yellowish-orange. Mesosoma usually completely yellowish-orange, though most of mesosoma of smallest specimen light brownish-orange with very slight and limited metallic green luster on mesonotum and lateral panel of pronotum under some angles of light. Forewing with base of costal and basal cells at most only obscurely yellowish, the wing usually hyaline basally and apically but broadly brown from level of base of parastigma to somewhat beyond pmv, the infuscation sometimes faded to absent posteriorly, and discal setae brown except for at least a few white setae behind extreme base of parastigma. Legs, including coxae, usually yellowishorange except for black mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs, though metacoxa of smallest specimen with very slight metallic green luster under some angles of light and femora and tibiae extensively brownish-orange to dark brown. Gaster dark brown with comparatively inconspicuous hairlike setae similar in color to cuticle; projecting strigose part of inner plate of ovipositor and about basal 0.1−0.15× of ovipositor sheaths black, hence about basal quarter to third of apparent sheath length dark and remainder yellowish-orange similar to mesosoma.

Head with frons sometimes uniformly meshlike coriaceous but more commonly variably extensively reticulate-coriaceous along inner orbits and smoothly, indistinguishably merged with parascrobal region, and vertex more transversely coriaceous-alutaceous to somewhat reticulate-imbricate; scrobal depression distinctly reticulaterugulose; IOD about 0.32−0.36× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−0.6: 2.1−2.4: 1.2−1.4: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.3−1.4× head width; scape about 5.7× as long as maximum width, in outer view ventral margin evenly curved and without evident flange; pedicel in lateral view about 2.1−2.2× as long as wide; fl1 transverse, up to about 1.2× as wide as long, to quadrate; fl2 about 2.5−3.4× as long as wide and 3.8−4.5× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to quadrate or usually slightly longer than wide (up to about 1.2×) fl8; clava about 2.2× as long as wide, 0.6−0.8× as long as combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.23−0.33× as long as funicle. Mesoscutum with convex anterior portion of medial lobe transversely reticulate-imbricate anteriorly to meshlike reticulate posteriorly, but posterior concave portion shiny and at most very finely meshlike coriaceous, usually the sculpture almost effaced posteriorly, and lateral lobes finely meshlike coriaceous, usually less distinctly on inner than outer inclined surface; scutellar-axillar complex with axillae reticulate-rugulose, but scutellum longitudinally reticulate-strigose to strigose on either side of median. Prepectus often bare or superficially bare, with at most 2 white, unobvious setae. Acropleuron shiny, very finely but at least obscurely meshlike coriaceous anterior of medial microsculptured region, posterior of microsculptured region with somewhat more elongate, longitudinally aligned coriaceous sculpture except meshlike coriaceous along posterior margin. Forewing with basal cell bare except for a few brownish setae basally and white setae distally behind extreme base of parastigma; costal cell ventrally with unobvious light-colored setae at least basally and apically, variably broadly bare or with much sparser setae medially, and dorsally bare excluding setae on submelanized band above parastigma; disc with linea calva; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 4.7−6.2: 4.0−4.6: 1.1−1.2: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 4−7 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with 14−18 pegs arranged distally in double row on either side, second tarsomere with 5−8, third tarsomere with 2 or 3, and fourth tarsomere with single apical peg on either side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus with dense white setae obscuring cuticle. Gaster with strigose inner plate of ovipositor extending conspicuously beyond apex by distance similar to length of hind basitarsus and about 0.2× length of ovipositor sheaths; ovipositor sheaths about 1.1−1.25× length of metatibia and about 1.8−2.0× length of marginal vein, but apparent sheath length about 1.4−1.55× length of metatibia and 2.3−2.5× length of marginal vein.

MALE. See remarks.

Material examined (19♀, 1♂). USA. FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville — 24.III.48, H.V. Weems Jr., reared (1♀ USNM); 14.IV.63, H.V. Weems Jr., mixed mesophytic woods (2♀ FSCA); 5 mi. W., 30.VI.73, E.E. Grissell, ex Amphibolips cinerea galls on Quercus cinerea (1♀ UCDC). Beville Heights, 5-12.IV.86, L.A. Stange (1♀ FSCA). Duval Co., Jacksonville (♀ holotype of E. conigerae , 3♀ labelled “Type”, USNM). Highlands Co., Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, G. Melika — 10.XI.94 (1♀), 14.XI.94 (1♂) ex galls of Amphibolips murata on Quercus myrtifolia ; 14.IV.2008, ex galls of Andricus femoratus on Q. laurifolia, FL 1040 (1♀). Levy Co., Cedar Key, 21.III.76, em. 29.III.76, E.E. Grissell, Amphibolips murata on Quercus myrtifolia (1♀ USNM). Martin Co., J. [Jonathan] Dickinson State Park, 6.XII.94, G. Melika, ex galls of Amphibolips murata on Quercus myrtifolia (1♀). Palm Beach Co., Boca Raton, L.H. Weld, Q. myrtifolia , ex gall 367 Amphibolips gall bud (2♀ USNM). Pinellas Co., Tarpon Springs, ex 567, Q. myrtifolia (2♀, CNC Photo 2010-13). Putnam Co., Crescent City (1♀ USNM). SOUTH CAROLINA: Greenville Co., Greenville, X.52, L. & G. Townes (1♀ AEIC).

Distribution. Restricted to southeastern USA (Map 5).

Map 5. Regional distribution of E. conigerae .

Biology. A parasitoid in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) , including * Amphibolips cinerea (Ashmead) , * Amphibolips murata Weld , * Andricus femoratus Ashmead and Callirhytis quercusventricosa (Bassett) (= Cynips conigera ) ( Ashmead 1885), on species of Quercus .

Remarks. As discussed under E. cynipidis , typical females of E. conigerae are differentiated by their unique color pattern (dark head contrasting strongly with yellowish-orange mesosoma and legs, Fig. 22) in combination with some features shared with E. cynipidis (conspicuously protruding inner plate of ovipositor, long ovipositor sheaths, and extensively bare basal cell, cf. Figs 21, 22) or E. cynipidis and E. nitifrons (forewing extensively, darkly infuscate behind marginal and stigmal veins, cf. Figs 21−23).

I have seen only a single male of E. conigerae reared in association with a female from the same host and locality, though a few days earlier. This male is insufficient to confidently characterize males of E. conigerae , particularly because it appears to be abnormally small for the species, only about 1.3 mm in length. It is similar to males of E. cynipidis , including having an entirely dark scape and dark legs, except for having an unusually gracilefiliform flagellum, which might be correlated with its small body size.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


American Entomological Institute














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) conigerae Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus conigerae

Ashmead 1885
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