Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis (Girault)

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 9-12

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Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis (Girault)


1. Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis (Girault) View in CoL

Figs 1, 6; Map 1

Idoleupelmus australiensis Girault, 1913: 94−95 View in CoL . Lectotype, female (QMBA, examined) designated by Bouček, 1988: 560 (see

Dahms, 1983: 101). Type data: Australia: Queensland, Nelson [Cairns], sweeping in forest, April 4, 1913. Eupelmus australiensis View in CoL ; Girault, 1915: 2. Eupelmus listeri Girault, 1915: 13 View in CoL . Syntypes, female (QMBA, examined). Type data: Australia: New South Wales, Chindera

[Tweed River]. Synonymy by Bouček, 1988: 560 (see Dahms, 1984: 758).

Eupelmus australicus Girault, 1915: 8 View in CoL . Lectotype, female (QMBA, examined) designated by Bouček, 1988 a: 560. Type data: Australia: Queensland, Brisbane. Synonymy by Bouček, 1988: 560.

Eupelmus popa Girault, 1917c: 4 View in CoL . Syntypes, female (USNM, examined). Type data: Dutch Antilles [Lesser Antilles], Curacao; reared from Contarinia sorghicola (Coq.) ( Diptera View in CoL : Cecidomyiidae View in CoL ) in sorghum. Synonymy by Bouček, 1988: 560.

Eupelmus Zangherii Masi, 1946: 27−28 View in CoL . Syntypes, female (MCSN, examined). Type data: Italy, Forli. Synonymy by Bouček, 1965b: 9.

Eupelmus alboannelatus Belanovsky & Dyadechko, 1951: 293 . Syntypes, both sexes (ZINR, plus 1♂ and 1♀ syntype NMPC, not examined). Synonymy by Bouček, 1965a: 545, 546 (proposed as synonym of E. zangherii View in CoL ).

Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis View in CoL ; Gibson, 1995: 202.

Description. FEMALE (Fig. 1). Length about 1.3−2.2 mm. Head capsule rarely brown with only slight metallic luster, more commonly bright metallic green or bluish-green; maxillary and labial palpi white to yellowish. Antenna dark brown except fl1 and extreme apex or up to about apical half of pedicel yellow. Mesosoma similar in color to head, but prepectus and tegula yellow. Legs beyond coxae yellow except mesotibia with short, subbasal brown band and anterior surface of mesofemur usually with subapical brown spot at same level of tibial band when femur and tibia appressed, and with apical 1 or sometimes 2 tarsomeres brownish. Gaster yellowish to darker orange or brown dorsally, or yellowish with somewhat darker brown bands dorsolaterally, and often with slight metallic green luster dorsobasally and sometimes laterally, but ovipositor plate ventrally and sheath brown to yellowish-brown.

Head very finely meshlike coriaceous-reticulate except scrobal depression finely, transversely wrinkled above interantennal region; IOD about 0.4−0.5× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 1.3−1.6: 2.6−3.4: 1.4−2.0: 1.0. Antenna with flagellum short-clavate, combined length of pedicel + flagellum only about 1.1−1.3× width of head, fl1 ringlike and subsequent funiculars increasing distinctly in width distally such that pedicel slightly longer than combined length of fl1−fl3, fl4 the most elongate-slender funicular but at most only about 1.4× as long as wide, and clava about half to almost two-thirds length of funicle and 2.1−2.6× as long as wide. Mesoscutum meshlike coriaceous-reticulate medially to more distinctly coriaceous with smaller cells on lateral lobes; scutellar-axillar complex meshlike coriaceous with somewhat smaller cells than mesoscutum medially. Acropleuron with fine meshlike sculpture, the sculpture minute mesally compared to much larger, isodiametric cells posteriorly. Forewing completely setose without linea calva; mv about 2.2−2.9× length of pmv and 3.2−4.1× length of stv; pmv about 1.4−1.5× length of stv. Mesotibia with yellowish, unobvious, spinelike apical pegs ( Gibson 1995, fig. 332); mesotarsus ventrally padlike-setose with slender, yellowish to apically reddish but difficult to distinguish mesotarsal pegs on tarsomeres 1−3, the basitarsus with sparse row of pegs along anterior margin and either an incomplete row or at least fewer pegs along posterior margin, second tarsomere with 1 or 2 pegs apically on anterior margin and 1 peg apically on posterior margin, and third tarsomere usually with 1 peg apically on either side. Propodeum with plical region U-like linear behind dorsellum. Ovipositor sheaths sometimes curved but similar in length to gaster and about twice as long as mv.

MALE (Fig. 6). Length about 1.2−1.6 mm. Color similar to female except antenna also with about basal half to two-thirds of scape yellow, mesosoma with only tegula yellow, legs beyond coxae entirely yellow except for apical tarsomeres, and gaster brown.

Sculpture similar to female except median mesoscutal lobe more uniformly meshlike coriaceous; mesoscutum with complete, fine, linear notauli; mesopleuron finely, meshlike coriaceous to coriaceous-alutaceous, including lower mesepimeron (apical region posterior to vertical sulcus originating at anterodorsal angle of mesocoxa); metacoxa finely, meshlike coriaceous; propodeum with median carina, but otherwise very finely, meshlike coriaceous. Head with short white setae not differentiated in length or density on lower face or gena below malar sulcus. Antenna short-clavate similar to female, with fl4 sometimes slightly longer than wide and fl5 sometimes quadrate, but other funicular articles transverse and increasing distinctly in width to clava; pedicel ventrally without line of long, distally curved setae. Forewing with speculum closed posteriorly by complete mediocubital setal line; mv about 1.9−2.0× length of pmv and about 2.3−2.6× length of stv; pmv at most about 1.25× length of stv.

Regional material examined (490♀, 56♂). USA. ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Portal , South West Research Station, 14.IX.78, G. Gordh (1♀ UCRC). Santa Cruz Co., Patagonia — 16.VIII.93, M. Sharkey (1♀); Sonoita Creek Reserve, 31.53ºN 10.77ºW, 4.XI.93, Brown/Wilk (4♀). ARKANSAS: Mississippi Co., Nodena, 22.VI.66, ragweed (1♀ MEMS). COLORADO: Eagle Co., Minturn, 7800', 1.VIII.87, J.D. Pinto (1♀). FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville — 12.VIII.82, N. Backus, Cenchrus echinatus (2♀ FSCA); AEI, 20.VIII-14.IX.87, D.B. Wahl (1♀). Manatee Co., Bradenton, 11.XII.85, D. Schuster (1♀). Marion Co., Eureka, 3.IX.76, E.E. Grissell (2♀ FSCA). St. Johns Co., Hastings, VIII.77, R. Workman, Sorghum (9♀, 1♂ FSCA). GEORGIA: Clarke Co., Lake Herrick, Oconee Forest Park, 11-12.VII.87, J. Huber (4♀). INDIANA: Posey Co., New Harmony, 5.X.83, J.T. & D.E. Huber (1♀). LOUISIANA: East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton Rouge, 5.VIII.72, L.O. Newsom, [?] Paspalum (1♀ USNM). Lafayette Parish, Duson, 1 km N., 11.VIII.96, L.A. Baptiste (27♀, 4♂ UCDC). Madison Parish, Tallulah (85♀, 1♂ MEMS; 1♀ USNM). MARYLAND: Calvert Co., American Chestnut Land Trust, Warrior’s Rest Sanctuary, 38º32.006'N 36º35.326'W, 22.VI-8.VII.2007, SEL Hym. Unit (1♀ USNM). MISSISSIPPI: Oktibbeha Co., State College, 22, 30.IX.42, A.L. Hamner, reared from C. sorghicola (2♀ MEMS). MISSOURI: Boone Co., Columbia , 10.X.21 (6♀, 2♂ USNM). Pemiscot Co., Lee Farm, Delta Center, Portageville, 21.VII-12.VIII.77, R.D. Sheeley, Sorghum (43♀, 4♂ USNM). St. Charles Co., St. Charles near Mississippi River, 5.IX.83, J.T. Huber (1♀). St. Louis Co., St. Louis, Overland, 30.VI.83, E.E. Grissell (4♀ USNM). Wayne Co., Williamsville, VIII.87 (1♀), 10-26.IX.87 (2♀, 3♂), 8-13.VIII.88 (1♀), 21.X-11.XI.88 (2♀), J. Becker. NEW MEXICO: Hidalgo Co., Cotton City, 4.IX.71, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno (1♀ UCDC). NORTH CAROLINA: Cleveland Co., Shelby, 8 mi. N., 26.IX.78, T.J. Bradway (1♀ NCSU). Mecklenburg Co., Davidson, 14.IX.54, T. Daggy (4♀ NCSU). Scotland Co., Sandhills, 34.98013ºN 79.55366ºW, 138 m, 17.X.2010, G. Gibson (1♀). Wake Co., Raleigh, 20.X.40, 12.VIII.40, S.C. Schell (3♀ USNM). Near Raleigh, Centen. campus, 19.IX.94, C.R. Bartlett (3♀ NCSU). Mid Pines Road, 18.X.2010 — 35.741ºN 78.705ºW, G. Gibson (1♂); 35.711ºN 78.705ºW. E. Talamas (1♀). OKLAHOMA: Payne Co., Stillwater, X.58, E.A. Wood, ex Sorghum midge (1♂ USNM). SOUTH CAROLINA: Greenville Co., Greenville, 17.IX.55, G. & L. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Pickens Co., Clemson, Cherrys Crossing, 25-31.VII.87, J. Johnson (1♀). TEXAS: Bandera Co., Lost Maples State Park, 21.VII.86, J.B. Woolley & G. Zolnerowich (5♀ TAMU). Bexar Co., San Antonio — 15.VII.20, 18.VIII.20, C.H. Gable, ex C. sorghicola ; 1934, E.V. Walter, ex Sorghum midge (1♀ CSCA; 23♀, 11♂ USNM); IX.42, E.S. Ross (1♀, 2♂ CASC); Green Mountain Road, 20.V.95, D.M. Pollock (1♀ MEMS). Brazos Co., College Station — 16.X.36, R.J. Reinhard (1♀ USNM); 30.VI.81, G.W. Brooks, voucher spec. #16 Texas A&M Univ. (7♀, 11♂ TAMU); Lick Creek Park, 16.X.-17.XI.87, Woolley & Heraty (1♀). Koppe’s Bridge, 5 mi. SW Wellborn, 22.VI.72, E.E. Grissell (19♀ TAMU). Brewster Co., park 5 mi. S. Marathon, 19.VII.63, A.B. Gurney (1♀ USNM). Burnet Co., Inks Lake State Park, 2.V.87, G. Zolnerowich (1♀). Caldwell Co., near Lockhart, 1983, C. Cole (1♀). Cameron Co., Brownsville, upper six, VIII-IX.56 (4♀ USNM). Rancho Viejo Olmito, 3-9.III.66, D.F. Gunz (1♂). Sabal Palm Grove, Brownsville — 6.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson (3♀); 10.VIII.83, M. Kaulbars (1♀). Southmost Ranch, 7 mi. SE Brownsville, 3-5.XII.78, E. Grissell & A. Menke (1♀ USNM). Southpoint Nursery, 1.0 mi. S. Southmost Ranch, 5-6.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson (32♀). Collingsworth Co., 29.IX.61, R. Lynch (6♀, 2♂ TAMU). Colorado Co., Altwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, 3.VII.91, J.B. Woolley (1♀). Frio Co., Pearsall, 6 mi. SE, 7.VII.72 — E.E. Grissell & J. Smith (11♀, 3♂ TAMU); E.E. Grissell, sweeping Sorghum halepense (21♀, 4♂ FSCA). Hidalgo Co., Bensten, Rio Grande State Park, 100', 3.VII.82 (1♀). Edinburg, X.51, R.T. Rihard, on Rhodes grass (1♀ USNM). Santa Ana National Wildlife refuge, 150', 4.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson (27♀, 4♂; ♀ CNC Photo 2010-1, ♂ CNC Photo 2010-2). Kerr Co., Kerrville — 18.VII.56, L.J. Bottimer (2♀); 13.VIII.63, N.L.H. Krauss (1♀ USNM). Stumbergs Patio Ranch, 5.6 mi. W. Hunt, 2000', 1- 2.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson (18♀ CNC; 5♀ AEIC). Lubbock Co., 4.IX.63, D.R. Rummel (13♀ TAMU). Lubbock, 25.V.64, J. Arding (2♀, 1♂). Refugio Co., Woodsboro, 8 mi. SW, 14.VI.72, sweeping Parthenium, E.E. Grissell (4♀ TAMU). San Patricio Co., Corpus Christi State Park, 5 mi. W. Mathis, 16.VII.54, J.G. Chillcott (1♀). Welder Wildlife Refuge, Pollito Lake, 29.VI.84, J.C. Schaffner (1♀). Travis Co., Austin, Zilker Park — 8.X.83, J.B. Woolley (45♀); 27.VI.86, Heraty (4♂ CNC; 5♀, 5♂ TAMU). Heap Farm, 11 mi. S. Austin, 2.VIII.72, E.E. Grissell (1♀ TAMU). Ulvalde Co., Garner State Park near Rio Frio, 1400', Woolley & Zolnerowich (5♀, 1♂). Val Verde Co., Del Rio, 20 mi. E., 21.VII.63, A.B. Gurney (1♀ USNM). VIRGINIA: Fairfax Co., near Annandale, 7-13.X.90, D.R. Smith (1♀).

Distribution. Widely throughout southern half of USA to about 40ºN (Map 1). Noyes (2010) listed E. australiensis from all biogeographic realms and continents except Antarctica. Callan (1941) stated that the species was apparently accidentally introduced into the Nearctic region from Asia.

Biology. A primary or secondary parasitoid of species of Contarinia Rondani ( Diptera : Cecidomyiidae ) in Sorghum L. ( Poaceae ) and other grasses and herbaceous plants, including the sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola (Coquillett) . When a hyperparasitoid, reported primary hosts are Aprostocetus diplosidis Crawford and Tetrastichus sp. ( Hymenoptera : Eulophidae ) ( Woodruff 1929). Woodruff (1929) also reported that E. australiensis larvae sometimes feed on the sap of the sorghum plant if only a single host larva is available and this is insufficient for complete development. Haseman (1933) reared E. australiensis in “breeding jars” along with adults of the sorghum webworm, Celama sorghiella (Riley) ( Lepidoptera : Noctuidae ), and three other parasitic Hymenoptera . This host association has not been confirmed by a subsequent rearing and it is possible there were also unmentioned midges in the mass rearings by Haseman (1933). See Noyes (2010) for complete host list and extensive literature citations.

Map 1. Regional distribution of E. australiensis .














Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis (Girault)

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus (Episolindelia) australiensis

Gibson, G. A. P. 1995: 202

Eupelmus alboannelatus

Boucek, Z. 1965: 545
Belanovsky, I. D. & Dyadechko, N. P. 1951: 293

Eupelmus Zangherii Masi, 1946: 27−28

Boucek, Z. 1965: 9
Masi, L. 1946: 28

Eupelmus popa

Boucek, Z. 1988: 560
Girault, A. A. 1917: 4

Eupelmus australicus

Boucek, Z. 1988: 560
Girault, A. A. 1915: 8

Idoleupelmus australiensis

Boucek, Z. 1988: 560
Girault, A. A. 1913: 95
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