Hyphessobrycon ericae, Lima, 2017
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Hyphessobrycon ericae new species
Hyphessobrycon sp. "machadinho": Lima et al., 2013: 284–285 (picture, short description; tributaries of middle rio Jamari basin, trib. rio Madeira ̗, Rondônia, Brazil).
Hyphessobrycon sp. "Humaitá": Lima et al., 2013: 284–285 (picture, short description; tributaries of rio Madeira, near Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil).
Holotype. MNRJ 50000, 34.9 mm SL, Brazil, Pará, Oriximiná, Igarapé do Almeidas, rio Trombetas basin, Almeidas plateau, Floresta Nacional Saracá-Taquera , 1°43'15''S, 56°25'3''W; F. Estrella & G. Beltrão, 17 Mar 2015. GoogleMaps
Paratypes. All from Brazil, Pará state, rio Trombetas basin. MNRJ 44481, 24, 4 c&s, 17.5–35.3 mm SL, same data as holotype GoogleMaps . MNRJ 50507, 1, 35.2 mm SL, same locality as holotype; T. Barros & L. Rocha, 14 Oct 2015 GoogleMaps . MNRJ 44482, 5, 26.4–32.5 mm SL, Oriximiná, Igarapé do Araticum , 1°48'38''S, 56°19'43''W; G. Ennes & R. Machado, 28 Mar 2014 GoogleMaps . MNRJ 44483, 15, 28.0– 36.2 mm SL: Oriximiná, Igarapé Urupuana, 1°55'41''S, 56°28'38''W; F. Estrella & G. Beltrão, 24 Mar 2015. MNRJ 44484, 6, 24.5–33.4 mm SL, Oriximiná, Igarapé do Saracá , 1°45'34''S, 56°28'38''W; T. Barros & M. Xavier, 21 Mar 2015 GoogleMaps . MNRJ 44485, 3, 21.4–26.7 mm SL, Oriximiná, Igarapé do Jamari , 1°55'38''S, 56°32'46''W; T. Barros & M. Xavier, 24 Mar 2015 GoogleMaps . MNRJ 44486, 7, 20.2–30 mm SL, Oriximiná, Igarapé Urupuana, 1°55'41''S, 56°28'38''; W.T. Barros & G. Proux, 26 Mar 2014. MNRJ 44487, 10, 21.2–27.8 mm SL, Oriximiná, Igarapé do Jamari , 1°55'38''S, 56°32'46''W; T. Barros & M. Xavier, 24 Mar 2015 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52753, 20, 17.0– 36.4 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°38'58''S, 56°22'37''W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 30 Sept 1997 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52796, 4, 16.5–27.1 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Periquito; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 2 Oct 1997. MZUSP 52784, 13, 20.2–32.9 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°39’S, 56°22’W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 1 Oct 1997 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52687, 13, 1 c&s, 13.6–27.2 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°38'58''S, 56°22'37''W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 15 Mar 1997 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52676, 3, 19.1–26.3 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°39’S, 56°22’W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 17 Mar 1997 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52703, 11, 15.3–29.4 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°38'58''S, 56°22'37''W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 18 Mar 1997 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 52652, 2, 31.5–34.5 mm SL: Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracazinho , c. 1°43'14''S, 56°26'10''W; E.P. Caramaschi & R.A. Reis, 19 Mar 1997 GoogleMaps . ZUEC 7529, 5, 30.3–39.1 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracazinho (trib. igarapé Saracá ), c. 1°42’S, 56°25’W; D.S.C. Lin, M.C. Santos & P.E. Pantoja, 28 Nov 2001 GoogleMaps . INPA 31755, 1, 36.3 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracazinho , 1°43'14''S, 56°26'10''W; R.R. de Oliveira et al., 11 Aug 2008 GoogleMaps . INPA 31757, 1, 38.9 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé trib. igarapé Saracá , 1°38'25''S, 56°25'7''W; R.R. de Oliveira et al., 12 Aug 2008 GoogleMaps . INPA 31756, 1, 27.7 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé trib. Igarapé Saracá , 1°40'6''S, 56°28'7''W; R.R. de Oliveira, 11 Aug 2008 GoogleMaps . INPA 31185, 55, 14.1–37.9 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , 1°38'30''S, 56°24'54''W; R.R. de Oliveira et al., 12 Aug 2008 GoogleMaps . MZUSP 113713, 43, 4 c&s, 13.4–32.5 mm SL; ANSP 203159, 10, 14.7–31.8 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Saracá , c. 1°39’S, 56°22’W; D.S.C. Lin, E.P. Caramaschi, M.C. Santos & R.P. Ferreira, 15 Sept 2000 GoogleMaps .
Not types: Brazil, Pará state: Rio Trombetas basin. INPA 31754, 11, 13.1–26.4 mm SL, Porto Trombetas, igarapé Araticum, 1°47’11’’S, 56°27’49’’W; R.R. de Oliveira et al., 10 Aug 2008 GoogleMaps . MPEG 21458, 1, 24.6 mm SL, Oriximiná, rio Araticum , Porto Trombetas, 1°49’7’’S, 56°17’7’’W; W.B. Wosiacki, 20 Oct 2007 GoogleMaps . MPEG 18986, 1, 25.7 mm SL, Oriximiná, rio Saracá, Porto Trombetas, 1°46’3’’S, 56°17’48’’W; L.F.A. Montag, 9 Jun 2007. Pará state, Rio Curuá-Una basin GoogleMaps . INPA 41127, 7, 16.6–20.4 mm SL; INPA 41088, 20, 18.7–29.0 mm SL, Santarém, stream at Fazenda Nelore Branco, 3°1'39''S, 54°43'52''W; J. Zuanon & T.F. Teixeira, 10 Aug 2010. INPA 41087, 16, 21.1–27.5 mm SL, Santarém, stream trib. rio Curuá-Una , 2°46'17''S, 54°32'15''W; J. Zuanon, 10 Aug 2010 GoogleMaps . ZUEC 12436, 35, 18.2–28.7 mm SL, Santarém, stream at Estação Santa Rosa, 2°40'1''S, 54°33'9''W; J.D. Bogotá-Gregory, 28 Jan 2015. Pará state, rio Jamari basin GoogleMaps . MZUSP 7907, 36, 16.5–34.0 mm SL; ZUEC 14606, 5, 21.7–29.8 mm SL, Terra Santa, igarapé trib. rio Jamari , above Terra Santa, c. 2°5'S, 56°31'W; EPA, 14 Dec 1967. GoogleMaps
Amazonas state, rio Madeira basin: INPA 35829, 105, 13.1–23.5 mm SL, Careiro, Parque Estadual Matupiri, stream trib. rio Madeira , 4°9'35''S, 60°8'17''W; A. Galuch et al., 4 Jul 2007 GoogleMaps . INPA 40971, 1, 26.9 mm SL, Borba , igarapé do Jeju, Parque Estadual Matupiri, 4°49'54''S, 61°1'4''W; W. Pedroza & A. Oliveira, 4 Dec 2012 GoogleMaps . INPA 35875, 39, 12.9–26.0 mm SL, Manicoré, Parque Estadual Matupiri, stream trib. rio Madeira , 4°54'27''S, 61°6'45''W; A. V. Galuch et al., 14 Jul 2007 GoogleMaps . INPA 48154, 4, 18.5–22.0 mm SL, Tapauá, rio Campinarana, trib. lago Matupiri , 5°36'51''S, 61° 15'59''W; S. Arrolho et al., 3 Nov 2010 GoogleMaps . MCP 41887 View Materials , 8, 19.8–27.0 mm SL, Humaitá, 43 east of rio Madeira, Transamazônica road, 7°37'11''S, 62°40'57''W; R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, E.H.L. Pereira & A.R. Cardoso, 27 Jul 2004 GoogleMaps . MCP 41889 View Materials , 21, 19.6–29.7 mm SL, Humaitá, stream 68 km E from rio Madeira, Transamazônica road, 7°43'58''S, 62°29'40''W; R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, E.H.L. Pereira & A.R. Cardoso, 27 Jul 2004 GoogleMaps . MCP 41888 View Materials , 5, 20.4– 28.7 mm SL, Humaitá, rio Traíra, 35 km E of rio Madeira, Transamazônica road, 7°35'33''S, 62°44'45''W; R.E. Reis, F. Langeani, E.H.L. Pereira & A.R. Cardoso, 27 Jul 2004. GoogleMaps
Rondônia state, rio Madeira basin: ZUEC 7654, 3, 18.9–27.0 mm SL, Machadinho d'Oeste, vila Tabajaras, flooded area near rio Machado , 8°55'21''S, 62°5'43''W; D.T.B. Nielsen, A.C. Baptista, L. Van den Berg & W. Jan Hoetmer, 29 Apr 2013 GoogleMaps . MCP 41890 View Materials , 49, 4 c&s, 14.2–37.9 mm SL, Rio Preto do Crespo , 13 km N of Rio Preto do Crespo, 9°35'56''S, 62°52'43''W GoogleMaps ; F. Langeani, F.C.T. Lima, E.H.L. Pereira & R.E. Reis, 17 Jul 2004. MCP 41886 View Materials , 87, 15.3–33.0 mm SL, stream trib. rio das Garças , road BR-364, 9°0'52''S, 63°0'33''W GoogleMaps ; P. Lehmann, A.R. Cardoso, V.A. Bertaco & J.F. Pezzi da Silva, 18 Jul 2004. ZUEC 7242, 5, 21.6–26.8 mm SL, Porto Velho, stream at Balneário Cachoeirinha ( rio Jamari basin), 8°54'50''S, 63°55'52''W GoogleMaps ; W.M. Ohara, T.H.S. Pires & F.C.T. Lima, 12 Jun 2012. ZUEC 7657, 6, 16.0– 23.7 mm SL, 1 c&s, Ariquemes, stream trib. rio Jamari , 9°38'33''S, 63°2'5''W GoogleMaps ; D.T.B. Nielsen, A.C. Baptista, L. Van Den Berg & W. Jan Hoetmer, 30 Apr 2013.
Diagnosis. Hyphessobrycon ericae new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners, with exception of H. amapaensis Zarske & Géry , H. heterorhabdus (Ulrey) , H. montagi Lima, Coutinho & Wosiacki, and H. wosiackii , new species, by presenting humeral blotch continuous with midlateral stripe that becomes blurred posteriorly, not reaching beyond adipose fin (vs. humeral blotch, when present, not continuous with midlateral stripe, or stripe extending to caudal fin). It is distinguished from the aforementioned species, except H. montagi and H. wosiackii , by presenting a caudal peduncle blotch (vs. caudal peduncle blotch absent). The new species is distinguished from H. montagi by the presence of a single humeral blotch (vs. two connected humeral blotches), and from H. wosiackii by presenting humeral blotch vertically elongated (vs. humeral blotch rounded).
Description. Morphometric data for the holotype and paratypes presented in Table 1. Body compressed. Greatest body depth situated at vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile of head convex from upper lip to vertical through posterior nostril, straight from that point to posterior tip of supraoccipital spine. Dorsal profile of body slightly convex from supraoccipital spine tip to anterior terminus of dorsal fin. Dorsal-fin base straight to slightly convex, posteroventraly slanted, approximately straight from posterior terminus of dorsal fin to adipose-fin insertion and concave between adipose-fin insertion and origin of anteriormost dorsal procurrent caudal-fin ray. Ventral profile of head and body convex from tip of lower jaw to anal-fin anterior terminus. Anal-fin base slightly convex, posterodorsally slanted. Ventral profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave.
Jaws equal, mouth terminal. Posterior terminus of maxilla reaching vertical through anterior margin of iris. Maxilla approximately at 45 degree angle relative to longitudinal axis of body. Nostrils close to each other, anterior opening oval, posterior opening crescent-shaped. Premaxillary teeth in two rows. Outer teeth row with 2(18), 3*(44), or 4(6) tricuspid teeth. Inner row with 5*(65) or 6(4) tri- to pentacuspid teeth, symphyseal tooth of inner series narrower than adjacent teeth. Maxilla with 2(3), or 3(1) conical to tricuspid teeth. Dentary with anteriormost four* (31) teeth larger, tri- to pentacuspid teeth, and posterior 8–15 teeth small, cylindrical, uni- to tricuspid. Central cusp of all teeth more developed than remaining lateral cusps.
Scales cycloid. Three to seven radii strongly marked, circuli well marked anteriorly, weakly marked posteriorly. Lateral line slightly deflected downward and incompletely pored, with 6(3), 7(32), 8*(40), 9(23), or 10(5) perforated scales. Longitudinal scales series including lateral-line scales 28(1), 29(1), 30(9), 31(31), 32*(40), 33(14), or 34(4). Longitudinal scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 5*(110). Longitudinal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 3*(110). Scales in median series between tip of supraoccipital spine and dorsal-fin origin 8(2), 9*(52), 10(54), or 11(5). Circumpeduncular scales 10(3), 11(24), or 12(61). Caudal fin with scales basally along most of fin, extending posteriorly to basal third of ventral portion of ventral lobe.
Dorsal-fin rays ii,8 (2), or ii, 9*(114). Dorsal-fin origin slightly anterior from middle of standard length. First dorsal-fin pterygiophore main body located behind neural spine of 8 th (2) or 9th (13) vertebrae, with small bony expansion over 9th neural spine. Adipose fin present. Anteriormost anal-fin pterygiophore inserting posterior to haemal spine of 15th (12) or 16th (2) vertebrae. Anal-fin rays iv, 15(1), 16(1), 17(10), 18(27), 19*(37), 20(29), or 21(10). Last unbranched and first to third anteriormost branched rays distinctly longer than remaining rays, subsequent rays gradually decreasing in size; distal margin of anal fin slightly concave, with distinctive anterior lobe. Pectoral-fin rays i, 9(8), 10*(45), 11(58), or 12(4). Pelvic-fin rays i, 6(2), 7*(113), or 8(1). Tip of pelvic-fin reaching anterior anal-fin rays. Caudal fin forked, lobes roughly rounded and of similar size. Eight (3), 9(5), 10(6) or 11(1) dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays, and 7(6), 8(4), or 9(5) ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays. Vertebrae 32(5), 33(8), or 34(2). Supraneurals 4(10), with distalmost portion wider. Branchiostegal rays 4. First gill arch with 1(5), 2(10) hypobranchial, 7(2), 8(12), or 9(1) ceratobranchial, 1(15) on cartilage between ceratobranchial and epibranchial, and 5(10) or 6(4) epibranchial gill-rakers.
Color in alcohol. Overall ground coloration of head and body light beige ( Fig.1 View FIGURE 1 ). Dorsal portion of head and body dark. Snout, anterior portion of dentary and maxilla dark. Infraorbitals and preopercle with scattered dark chromatophores, more concentrated on opercle. Uppermost three scale rows with pigmentation concentrated as inverted c-shaped marks close to posterior margin of scales, leaving margin of scales clear, and forming an overall reticulate pattern. Immediately ventral to reticulated pattern, dark chromatophores uniformly distributed, imparting homogeneous brownish color, decreasing in intensity ventrally. Some specimens with faint concentration of dark chromatophores on ventrolateral portion of abdomen. Ventral portion of head and body pale. Humeral blotch arrow-shaped, composed by humeral blotch and typically short, narrow longitudinal stripe extending from supracleithrum to vertical through dorsal-fin origin, extending further to vertical through dorsal-fin terminus and overlapping with midlateral stripe in some populations (see Remarks, below). Rectangular- to wedge-shaped humeral blotch. Areas surrounding anterior portion of humeral blotch almost devoid of dark chromatophores, increasing contrast with humeral blotch. Lateral stripe thinning and becoming blurred posteriorly. Thin longitudinal midlateral line of deep dark chromatophores from vertical through dorsal-fin origin to caudal blotch. Caudal peduncle and caudal fin with a caudal peduncle blotch, slightly dislodged ventrally, with anterior half, at caudal peduncle, roughly triangular, extending into middle caudal-fin as an elongate, roughly rectangular blotch. Small dark chromatophores scattered on interradial membranes of all fins, occasionally over rays of caudal and dorsal fins. Adipose fin with few scattered dark chromatophores.
Color in life. Based on photographs taken on the field of specimen from the rio Trombetas basin, Porto Trombetas, Pará ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ) and from pictures from specimens collected at the rio Madeira basin near Porto Velho, Rondônia, provided by W.M. Ohara (also Lima et al., 2013: 284). Overall ground coloration light beige. Guanine concentrated on most of iris, and sides of head, ventral half of body with a plumbeous tinge resulting from the combination of guanine pigmentation and dark chromatophores. Yellowish pigmentation with guanine underneath rendering maxilla, anterior tip of dentary, infraorbitals 1–2 and portion of iris golden. Dorsal one-third of eye red. A diffuse orange longitudinal band, immediately dorsal to humeral band, running from immediately behind head to caudal blotch, present in specimens from the rio Trombetas basin. Midlateral area with a purplish tinge. Proximal portions of pectoral and pelvic fins yellowish, more marked on pelvic fin. Except for distal margins, most of dorsal, adipose and caudal fins yellowish to orangish. Anal-fin lobe yellowish to orangish.
Sexual dimorphism. Not detected.
Distribution. Hyphessobrycon ericae is known from lower rio Trombetas basin and the adjacent small rio Jamari basin at the northern bank of the Amazon River, the rio Curuá-Una basin at the southern bank of the Amazon basin, and westward to tributaries of the middle rio Madeira basin, Pará, Amazonas, and Rondônia states, Brazil ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). The rio Jamari basin adjacent to the rio Trombetas basin is not to be confused with the better-known rio Jamari, a tributary of the rio Madeira near Porto Velho, from where Hyphessobrycon ericae is also known.
Ecological notes. Most, if not all, known localities of Hyphessobrycon ericae are small to medium-sized clearwater terra firme streams, i.e., streams that are not inundated during the flood season (E. P. Caramaschi, pers. comm.; J.D. Bogotá-Gregory, pers. comm.; FCTL, pers. obs.). The type locality is a shallow first order clearwater stream, with sandy bottom and abundant aquatic vegetation ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). However, Hyphessobrycon ericae is usually collected in the portions of the stream lacking aquatic vegetation (F. Estrella, pers. comm.) Stomach contents were examined for 4 specimens (MZUSP 52867, MZUSP 113713, ZUEC 12436, and MCP 41890), and unidentified vegetal matter and insect remains were found. Insect items that could be identified were winged and wingless ants, and a small aquatic beetle.
Etymology. The specific epithet honors our fellow ichthyologist Érica Pellegrini Caramaschi, in recognition to her extensive contributions to the knowledge on Neotropical freshwater fish Ecology, and for presenting us with the first specimens of this species. Also, for patiently awaiting for almost two decades for the description of this species.
Remarks. Some samples herein assigned to Hyphessobrycon ericae possess a humeral blotch considerably more elongated than the typical condition, in which the narrow stripe component of the humeral blotch does not extend beyond the vertical through the dorsal-fin origin. In these specimens ( MCP 41887 View Materials , MCP 41888 View Materials , MCP 41889 View Materials , ZUEC 7654) the narrow stripe component of the humeral blotch extends to the vertical through dorsal-fin terminus and overlaps with the midlateral stripe at its end ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 c). Specimens displaying this color pattern were previously identified as a putative undescribed species ( Hyphessobrycon sp. “Humaitá”), then thought to be distinct from Hyphessobrycon ericae (Lima et al., 2013: 284–285), and were collected in tributaries of the middle rio Madeira basin near Humaitá and at the lower rio Machado (a tributary of the middle rio Madeira), an area situated between populations displaying the typical, shorter humeral blotch pattern ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Since no other characters distinguishing both color morphs could be uncovered, we preferred to treat them as a single species. See additional comments at the Discussion, below.
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