Almafuerte peripampasica, Grismado & Carrión, 2017

Grismado, Cristian J. & Carrión, Nicolás López, 2017, Description of Almafuerte, a new genus of ground spiders from South America (Araneae, Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4338 (2), pp. 263-291 : 268-276

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4338.2.3

publication LSID


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scientific name

Almafuerte peripampasica

sp. nov.

Almafuerte peripampasica View in CoL sp. nov.

( Figs. 1–11 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 , 22a View FIGURE 22 )

Types. Holotype male from Argentina: Buenos Aires Province: Partido deTornquist: Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park : 300 m from seismograph forest, S 38.0548444°, W 61.9808750°, elev GoogleMaps . 534 m (GPS), M. Izquierdo, N.

Ferretti, G. Pompozzi, S. Copperi coll., 23.VII.2013, in Eryngium (MACN-Ar 32441, prep. CJG-1517). Paratypes: same data as the holotype: 1 male (MACN-Ar 32251, prep. MAI-1516, 4150), 1 male (MACN-Ar 32235, prep. MAI-1505, 4157), 1 female (MACN-Ar 32238, prep. MAI-1493, 4167); Partido de Tornquist : Estancia Fundación Funke, road to Cerro Tres Picos, S 38.1313611°, W 62.0345833°; elev GoogleMaps . 396 m. 19–21.VI.2009, C. Grismado, M. Izquierdo, L. Piacentini, A. Ojanguren coll, hand collecting, 1 male, 10 females (MACN-Ar 30442, SEM preparations CJG 1470−1474, 1478−79), 1 male (MACN-Ar 30443, SEM prep. CJG 1477); Partido de Tornquist : Ruta Provincial 76, Abra del Pantanoso , +/- 30 Km N Sierra de la Ventana, S 37.97925°, W 61.879805°; elev GoogleMaps . 400 m. 19-21.VI.2009, C. Grismado, M. Izquierdo, L. Piacentini, A. Ojanguren coll., hand collecting, 1 female (MACN-Ar 30447, prep. EMS-04023), 1 female (MLP).

Etymology. The species epithet is an adjective that refers to the distribution of this species, mostly in the hilly systems of central Argentina (Córdoba, San Luis, and Buenos Aires provinces) and Uruguay. These regions belong to the “peripampasic arc”, the extra-Andean orogenic system that comprises a group of low, ancient mountain ranges from Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil ( Frenguelli 1950). These areas are largely known for their interest for biogeographic studies, harboring a high number of endemic species, especially plants and soil arthropods (see Ferretti et al. 2012 and references therein).

Diagnosis. Males of A. peripampasica are similar to that of A. giaii in the shape of RTA (with the base of the ventral branch curved to ventral), but the male palp is less elongated, with the cymbium and embolus proportionately shorter, the latter not surpassing the conductor’s tip ( Figs. 6 View FIGURE 6 ; 9 a, b; 10 a, b). Females are distinguished from all other known females (except A. kuru ) by the copulatory openings ventrally directed, in a transverse epigynal groove ( Figs. 5 a, b View FIGURE 5 ; 9d–e); they differ from A. kuru by the shorter, not convoluted copulatory ducts.

Description. Male holotype: Measurementes: Total length 7.98, carapace 3.91 long, 2.95 wide; sternum 2.16 long, 1.60 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.183, ALE 0.186, PME 0.166, PLE 0.155; AME-AME 0.086, AME-ALE 0.0228, PME-PME 0.082, PME-PLE 0.188, ALE-PLE 0.101. Legs (femur/patella/tibia/metatarsus/ tarsus); I 2.43/1.64/1.87/1.42/1.06, II 2.19/1.46/1.58/1.29/0.98, III 1.98/1.22/1.28/1.37/0.93, IV 2.58/1.47/1.9/1.94/ 1.06. Leg spination: femora: I d1-1-0, pd0-0-1, p0-0-1; II d1-1-0, pd 0-1-1; III d1-2-1-2; IV d1-1, p1, rd1/2; patellae: III r1, IV r1; tibiae: I p1-0, v2-2 -2ap, II p1-0-1, v2-2 -2ap, III d1-0-0, p1-1-1-1/0, v2-2 -2ap, r1-1; IV p1-1- 1, v2-2 -2ap, r1-1; metatarsi I v2-2, II p1, v1-2 -0-2-0 (right), 2-2 (left) III d2-2, p1-1-0-1, v2-2 -2ap, r1-1-0-1, IV d2- 2, p1-1-1, v2-2 -2ap, r1-1-0-1. Note: the male holotype has lost many body setae. Palp ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 , 9 A −C View FIGURE 9 , 10 A −B View FIGURE 10 ): central part of the tegulum ventrally bulging, nearly obtuse angular in lateral view; conductor relatively thin, pointed. All other characters are common for the genus.

Female paratype (MACN-Ar 30442): Measurements: Total length 7.42, carapace 3.42 long, 2.65 wide; sternum 1.95 long, 1.54 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.126, ALE 0.158, PME 0.185, PLE 0.137; AME-AME 0.104, AME-ALE 0.0524, PME-PME 0.0629, PME-PLE 0.197, ALE-PLE 0.126. Legs (femur/patella/ tibia/metatarsus/tarsus); I 2.43/1.64/1.87/1.42/1.06, II 2.19/1.46/1.58/1.29/0.98, III 1.98/1.22/1.28/1.37/0.93, IV 2.58/1.47/1.9/1.94/1.06. Leg spination: femora: I d1-1-0, p0-0-1; II d1-1-0, pd 0-1-1; III d1-1-0, dp 1-1, dr 0-1-1; IV d1-1-0, rd 0-1; patellae: III r1, IV r1; tibiae: II v1 ap, III d1-0-0, p1-1-1/0, v2-2 -2ap, r1-1; IV v2-2 -2ap, p1-1 (left), 1-1-1 (right), r1-1; metatarsi I v2 -0-0, II v2-2, III d1-0, dp 1-0-0, p1-2, v2-2 -2ap, r1-2/1-2ap, IV d0-2-0-2 (right), 0-2-0-2 (left, not paired), p1-1-0-2ap, v2-2 -2ap (right), 2-2 (not paired)-2ap (left), r0-1-0-1. Epigynum ( Figs. 5 View FIGURE 5 , 9 d–g View FIGURE 9 ): anterior hood far from the copulatory openings (but see below), separated by a field of soft, whitish cuticle; paired spermathecae dark, visible by transparency, copulatory openings ventral, in a transverse furrow (inconspicuous in some specimens, Fig. 9 f View FIGURE 9 ). All other characters are common for the genus.

Variation. We found a remarkable variation in the female genitalia, in the shape and location of the anterior hood, the extension of the soft cuticle between the hood and copulatory openings, and also the general shape of the primary spermathecae and copulatory ducts, even in specimens collected in the same locality (see, for example, Fig. 10 c–e View FIGURE 10 ). In comparison, the male genitalia is very uniform. We discard for the moment the possibility of the existence of sympatric species, mainly because of the uniformity of the males in all the distribution range.

Natural history and habitat preferences. The specimens collected by the authors in the localities belonging to the Sierra de la Ventana system (Buenos Aires) were found under stones, in low hills with variable density of herbaceous cover, in a characteristic habitat of the region. In Estancia Fundación Funke and Abra del Pantanoso ( Fig. 11 a, b View FIGURE 11 ), the most conspicuous accompanying fauna of spiders are the gnaphosid Echemoides argentinus (Mello-Leitão) and the nemesiid Acanthogonathus centralis Goloboff ; other specimens (for example, those of the type series) were obtained between the spiny leaves of Eryngium . The male of Pasos Malos (San Luis) were also collected under a stone, but in a relatively wetter habitat, near the course of a stream ( Figs. 11 c, d View FIGURE 11 ). Finally, in Isla Martín García and Marindia ( Uruguay), A. peripampasica were collected by pitfall traps placed in sandy substrate of the Río de la Plata estuary coastline.

Other material examined. ARGENTINA: La Rioja: without date and precise locality, C. Gómez coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35576) . Entre Ríos: Ruta Provincial 11 Km 103 y Arroyo Manantiales; 23.X.1982, Ramírez & Goloboff coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35574) . Córdoba: Departamento Punilla: La Falda, V.1975, Cesari coll., 1 male, 1 female, 1 juvenile (MACN-Ar 35578); Departamento Santa María: Bosque Alegre , IX.1981, P. Goloboff coll., 4 females (MACN-Ar 35559); Departamento Calamuchita: Calamuchita , XII.1938, J. M. Viana coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35577). San Luis: Departamento Junín: Merlo, XI.1970, collector no provided, 1 male (MACN-Ar 35569), Quebrada Merlo , 12.XI.1982, A. Roig coll., 1 male (MACN-Ar 36700 [ex 18246]); Villa de Merlo, Parque Recreativo Pasos Malos S32.319197º, W64.972447º, elev. 1211 m ( Google Earth ), near stream, under stone (CJG-Loc-26) GoogleMaps , 9.III.2015, C. Grismado & A. Raya coll., 1 male (MACN-Ar 34429); Departamento Ayacucho: San Francisco , XI.1970, Williner coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35583); Departamento Coronel Pringles: Carolina , IX.1970, Viana & Williner coll., 7 females (MACN-Ar 35593). Buenos Aires: Partido de Tornquist: Sierra de la Ventana , III.1939, H. Gario coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35561), 22–26.X.1980, Zanetic & Goloboff coll. 3 females (MACN-Ar 35582), 18.IX.1982, M. Ramírez coll., 2 males, 2 females (MACN-Ar 35575), IV.1969, M. E. Galiano coll. 1 male (MACN-Ar 35579), 29.IX–2.X.1972, M. E. Galiano coll., 5 males, 12 females, 7 juveniles (MACN-Ar 35588), VII.1973, Cesari & Amarilla coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 35567), VII.1973, Cesari coll. 2 females (MACN-Ar 35564); Fortín Chaco , I.1972, collector illegible, 1 female (MACN-Ar 35585); Las Espadañas , X.1973, Maury & Cesari coll., 1 male, 1 female (MACN-Ar 35594); Abra de la Ventana , X.1970, M. E. Galiano coll. 1 female (MACN-Ar 35592); Villa Ventana, Arroyo El Loro , VI–VII.1972, Cesari coll., 2 males, 2 females (MACN-Ar 35589); Ruta Provincial 76, Abra del Pantanoso , +/- 30 Km N Sierra de la Ventana , S 37.97925°, W 61.879805° GoogleMaps ; elev. 400 m. 19-21.VI.2009, C. Grismado, M. Izquierdo, L. Piacentini, A. Ojanguren coll., hand collecting, 1 male (MACN-Ar 30444), 1 male, 7 females (MACN-Ar 30445, prep. CJG-3353, 3354, 3355); 15 km NE Tornquist por Ruta 76, Estancia Funke , S 38.07199º, W 62.05442°, elev. 432 m. (GPS), col: M. Izquierdo, N. Ferretti, G. Pompozzi, S. Copperi, 04.VII.2013, under stones, 1 male (MACN-Ar 32243, prep. MAI- 1492, 4173); Funke ranch: grassland slope GoogleMaps , 650m, S38.0722°, W62.0522°, N. Ferretti coll. 31.X.2012, 5 females, 2 males (LZI); Cerro Negro , V.1972, Cesari coll. 2 males, 1 female, 2 juveniles (MACN-Ar 35586), 9.VII.1972, Cesari coll. 1 male (MACN-Ar 35590), 2 males, 3 females (MACN- Ar 35562) , 12.IV.1974, Cesari coll., 2 males, 2 females (MACN-Ar 35572); Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park : 20.IX.1982. M. Ramirez coll. 1 male, 2 females, 1 juvenile (MACN-Ar 35587); 300 m from the seismograph of the forest, grasses, 525 m, S38.05611°, W61.96666°, N. Ferretti coll., 03.VIII.2009, 2 females, 5 males (LZI); same data , 13 males (LZI); same data , 30.IX.2009, 4 females, 8 males (LZI), same data , 30.X.2009, 3 males (LZI); Partido de Coronel Suárez: in the border with partido de Coronel Pringles, around cerro La Querencia , under stones , 24.IX.2016, A. Porta & E. Guerrero coll., 1 female (MACN-Ar 37178); Partido de La Costa: Mar del Tuyú , 2.V.1981, M. Ramírez coll., 1 male, 1 female (MACN-Ar 33071); Partido de Las Flores : Las Flores ; 24.V.1931, Daguerre coll., 1 female, 1 juvenile (MACN-Ar 35595); Partido de Azul: Sierras de Azul ; 1–2.X.1983, Goloboff & Zanetic coll., 1 male (MACN-Ar 35568), 5.V.1979, without collector, 1 male (MACN-Ar 35584); Partido de Tandil: Tandil , VII.1965, Maury coll. 1 female (MACN-Ar 35581), I.1982, M. Ramírez coll., 1 female, 1 juvenile (MACN-Ar 35591), Villa del Lago , V.1973, Cesari coll., 2 females (MACN-Ar 35571); Partido de Balcarce: Balcarce, Sierra La Barrosa ; 19–21.VII.1974, E. Maury coll., 1 male, 3 females, (MACN-Ar 35560); Partido de Saavedra: Saavedra, Sierra de Curamalal ; 15.VI.1980, Spivak & Goloboff coll. 1 male, 1 female (MACN-Ar 35580); El Tropezón, road between Puan and Pigüé , XI.1967, E. Maury & J. Gallardo coll., 4 females (MACN-Ar 35573); Partido de Patagones : Carmen de Patagones, Daguerre coll., no date, 1 female (MACN-Ar 35563). Partido de La Plata: Isla Martín García, Scioscia, C.L.; González , S. ; Barneche, J. & Labarque, F.M. coll. 26–28.X.2004 (IMG Campaña VI), sand dunes, S34.180406° W58,250210°, pitfall, 1 juv. (MACN-Ar 36830), pitfall, xerophytic forest around sand dunes, S34.180651° W58,250435°, 1 female, 1 juv. (MACN-Ar 36829); Scioscia, C.L.; González, A.; González , S.; Barneche, J. & Rodríguez Gil, S.G. coll., 15-17.II.2005 (IMG Campaña VIII) sand dunes GoogleMaps , S34,180406° W58,250210°, pitfall, 1 female (MACN-Ar 36818). Río Negro or Buenos Aires: two labels, “ Río Negro , XI.1938, Birabén, Maximiliano coll.” ( MLP 14328) and “ Necochea, M. Biraben leg.” GoogleMaps . URUGUAY: Canelones: Marindia, S 34.77759º, W 55.81780º, Pitfall nº 14 GoogleMaps , 14.VIII.1997, F. Costa coll., 1 male (FCE Ar-5635), Pitfall nº 0 9 , 23.IX.1998, F. Costa coll., 1 female (FCE Ar-5658, prep. CJG 1543), Pitfall nº 0 7 , 14.VIII.1997, F. Costa coll., 1 female (FCE Ar-5654), Pitfall nº 14 , 14.VIII.1997, F. Costa coll., 1 male (FCE Ar-5631). Treinta y Tres: Quebrada de los Cuervos , S 32.92456º, W 54.45844º, 21–22.IX.1990, M. Simó & F. Perez-Miles coll.,1 female (FCE).

Distribution. Central Argentina (Córdoba, San Luis, Buenos Aires Provinces, with few records in Entre Ríos, La Rioja and Río Negro), and Uruguay ( Fig. 22a View FIGURE 22 ).


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