flowering

Araújo, Diogo & Alves, Marccus, 2010, Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil), Phytotaxa 8, pp. 1-24: 5-12

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.8.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C3CA40-8711-FFC2-97A8-FA1BB9D71C0C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

flowering
status

 

Key to the identification of the climbing plants of Igarassu based on flowering  material

Note that for species of the Sapindaceae   flowering plant family, fruiting characters are included as these are essential for identification to species.

1. Tendrils present, but not associated with the inflorescence.......................................................................................... 2

1. Tendrils not present, or where present unbranched .................................................................................................... 34

2. Leaves opposite............................................................................................................................................................. 3

2. Leaves alternate ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

3. Leaves simple ................................................................................................................................ Strychnos parviflora  

3. Leaves compound. ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

4. Branches of the inflorescence flattened in cross-section, the calyx spathe-like… .............. Phryganocydia corymbosa  

4. Branches of the inflorescence circular in cross-section, the calyx campanulate .......................................................... 5

5. Glands of the calyx 5, discoid, present on the calyx outer surface ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ); corolla yellow, anthers glabrous............ ........................................................................................................................................... Adenocalymma hypostictum  

5. Glands absent from the outer surface of the calyx; corolla red to pink, anthers hairy .......................... Lundia cordata  

6. Leaves simple or 1-foliolate compound........................................................................................................................ 7

6. Leaves compound and with more than one leaflet ..................................................................................................... 26

7. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................... 8

7. Flowers actinomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 9

8. Basal third of the leaflet connate; bracts reniform; petal outer surface completely hairy ............... Phanera outimouta  

8. Basal two-thirds of the leaflets connate; bracts linear-lanceolate; petals outer surface hairy only along the midvein .. ..................................................................................................................................................... Phanera trichosepala  

9. Tendrils opposite the leaves ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ) ............................................................................................... Cissus verticillata  

9. Tendrils axillary to the leaves, either in the leaf sheath (appearing emergent from the petiole) or at the base of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, G View FIGURE 3 ) ............................................................................................................................. 10

10. Tendrils 2, at the apex of the leaf sheath (appearing emergent from the petiole, Fig. 3G View FIGURE 3 ) ................ Smilax syphilitica  

10. Tendril 1, in the leaf’s axils or borne at an acute angle to the petiole ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ) ........................................................ 11

11. Flowers unisexual ....................................................................................................................................................... 12

11. Flowers bisexual ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

12. Calyx urceolate ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ); stamens 2.......................................................................................................................... 13

12. Calyx infundibuliform or campanulate ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ); stamens 3 ..................................................................................... 15

13. Leaves 5-lobate; anthers straight ....................................................................................................... Psiguria umbrosa  

13. Leaves 1–3-lobate; anthers twice-folded from the base ............................................................................................. 14

14. Lobes of the calyx longer than the lobes of the corolla ................................................................... Gurania acuminata  

14. Lobes of the calyx shorter than the lobes of the corolla ................................................................... Gurania spinulosa  

15. Flowers solitary ............................................................................................................................ Momordica charantia  

15. Flowers borne in clusters (racemes) ........................................................................................................................... 16

16. Adaxial surface of the leaves with stiff recurved hairs; flowers grouped in lax, larger than 2cm long racemes, bearing more than 3 flowers ............................................................................................................................ Cayaponia tayuya  

16. Leaves glabrous; flowers grouped in congested, up to 2cm, racemes bearing less than 3 flowers ( Fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ) ................ ..................................................................................................................................................... Melothria fluminensis  

17. Ovary inferior ....................................................................................................................................... Gouania virgata  

17. Ovary superior ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

18. Plant hairy; petals absent ................................................................................................................ Passiflora suberosa  

18. Plant glabrous; petals 5 ............................................................................................................................................... 19

19. Leaves entire ............................................................................................................................................................... 20

19. Leaves lobate .............................................................................................................................................................. 22

20. Flowers grouped in racemes; styles 4 .................................................................................................. Passiflora ovalis  

20. Flowers solitary or in pairs; styles 3 ........................................................................................................................... 21

21. Stem 4-angulate; petiole with 2–6 sessile glands ................................................................................. Passiflora alata  

21. Stem cylindrical; petiole with 2 stalked glands ............................................................................... Passiflora galbana  

22. Stems 2-angulate; leaves bearing 8–12 circular glands on the adaxial surface .................................. Passiflora misera  

22. Stems not angulate; leaves eglandular ........................................................................................................................ 23

23. Leaves 5-lobate ............................................................................................................................. Passiflora cincinnata  

23. Leaves 3-lobate ........................................................................................................................................................... 24

24. Petiole with 2 sessile glands ................................................................................................................ Passiflora edulis  

24. Petiole with 2–6 stalked glands .................................................................................................................................. 25

25. Apex of the leaves and stipules mucronate; bracts lanceolate, green… ..................................... Passiflora watsoniana  

25. Apex of the leaves and stipules truncate; bracts obovate, pink ..................................................... Passiflora edmundoi  

26. Tendrils opposite to the leaves ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ) .................................................................................................... Cissus erosa  

26. Tendrils in the axils of the leaves or at the base of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, G View FIGURE 3 )....................................... 27

27. Flowers actinomorphic ............................................................................................................................................... 28

27. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 29

28. Calyx narrow in its length, geen, glabrous ........................................................................................ Psiguria triphylla  

28. Calyx wide at basis with narrowed entering, orange, hairy .......................................................... Gurania bignoniacea  

29. Fruit divided into three samaras.................................................................................................................................. 30

29. Fruit a simple capsule ................................................................................................................................................. 31

30. Sepals with velvety margin ( Fig. 2G View FIGURE 2 ) ....................................................................................... Serjania subimpunctata  

30. Sepals entirely glabrescent or glabrous ( Fig. 2H View FIGURE 2 ) ........................................................................ Serjania salzmaniana  

31. Fruit without wings ............................................................................................................................. Paullinia pinnata  

31. Fruit with wings.......................................................................................................................................................... 32

32. Fruit with one wing ................................................................................................................... Machaerium aculeatum  

32. Fruit with three wings ................................................................................................................................................. 33

33. Leaf margin entire; wings of the fruit obovate, apiculate ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ) ................................................ Paullinia racemosa  

33. Leaf margin dentate; wings of the fruit elliptical, not apiculate ( Fig. 2F View FIGURE 2 ) ......................................... Paullinia trigonia  

34. Leaves opposite or verticillate .................................................................................................................................... 35

34. Leaves alternate .......................................................................................................................................................... 50

35. Flowers grouped into a capitate compound inflorescence ................................................................... Mikania obovata  

35. Flowers grouped but not into a capitate compound inflorescences ............................................................................ 36

36. Nectariferous disk conspicuous, surrounding the ovary............................................................................................. 37

36. Nectariferous disk inconspicuous or absent............................................................................................................... 38

37. Plant with hairs that are rough to the touch .............................................................................. Prionostemma asperum  

37. Plant without hairs or with hairs that are not rough to the touch ................................................ Hippocratea vollubilis  

38. Petiole glandular, glands 2, discoid ............................................................................................................................ 39

38. Petiole glandular or eglandular, where glandular glands not discoid ......................................................................... 41

39. Glands 2 at the base of the petiole ( Fig. 2J View FIGURE 2 ) ............................................................................. Heteropterys nordestina  

39. Glands 2 at the apex of the petiole ( Fig. 2I View FIGURE 2 ) ............................................................................................................... 40

40. Surface abaxial of the leave hirsute ........................................................................................ Stigmaphyllon blanchetii  

40. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrous ...................................................................................... Stigmaphyllon salzmanii  

41. Stipules borne between the petioles ........................................................................................................ Sabicea grisea  

41. Stipules not borne between the petioles...................................................................................................................... 42

42. Flowers actinomorphic, the number of stamens more than double the number of petals ......................................... 43

42. Flowers zygomorphic, the number of stamens double, equal, or less than number of petals .................................... 48

43. Petiole twining; latex absent; stigma feather-like .................................................................................. Clematis dioica  

43. Petiole not twining; latex present; stigma not plumose .............................................................................................. 44

44. Plant glabrous ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

44. Plants hairy ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

45. Leaves oblong-elliptic; glands 2, broader at the base ( Fig. 2K View FIGURE 2 ) ................................................... Blepharodon nitidum  

45. Leaves obovate; glands 2,not broader at the base ( Fig. 2L View FIGURE 2 ) ................................................. Mandevilla moricandiana  

46. Glands absent from the leaf lamina ............................................................................................. Temnadenia odorifera  

46. Glands 2–6, borne on the leaf lamina ......................................................................................................................... 47

47. Glands 2–6, borne along the midvein ............................................................................................... Mandevilla scabra  

47. Glands 2–6, borne at the base of the midvein ( Fig. 2M View FIGURE 2 ) ................................................................... Matelea maritima  

48. Corolla with wholly distinct petals; stamens 10 ....................................................................... Niedenzuella acutifolia  

48. Corolla with wholly or partially fused petals; stamen 4 ............................................................................................ 49

49. Plant herbaceous; petiole winged; flowers orange ............................................................................. Thunbergia alata  

49. Plant woody; petiole not winged; flowers white ( Fig. 4I and J View FIGURE 4 )… ......................................... Mendoncia blanchetiana  

50. Ochrea present ( Fig. 2N View FIGURE 2 ) ............................................................................................................. Coccoloba ochreolata  

50. Ochrea absent.............................................................................................................................................................. 51

51. Leaves compound ....................................................................................................................................................... 52

51. Leaves simple or compound unifoliolate.................................................................................................................... 71

52. Palms. Terminal leaflets reduced, stiff and hook-like ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 )................................................................................. 53

52. Not palms. Terminal leaflets not hook-like, foliaceus ................................................................................................ 54

53. Raphe unarmed, leaflets unarmed or sometimes armed with thorns at the base of the leaflets; apex of bracts covered in narrow thorns ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ) ..................................................................................................... Desmoncus orthacanthos  

53. Raphe and abaxial surface of the leaflets armed with stiff and twisted thorns; apex of bracts covered in pustular thorns ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ) ...................................................................................................................... Desmoncus polyacanthos  

54. Inflorescences opposite to the leaves.......................................................................................................... Cissus erosa  

54. Inflorescences never opposite to the leaves................................................................................................................ 55

55. Leaves digitate ............................................................................................................................. Merremia macrocalyx  

55. Leaves with 3 or more leaflets, never digitate ............................................................................................................ 56

56. Prickles or thorns present ................................................................................................................ Senegalia tenuifolia  

56. Prickles or thorns absent ............................................................................................................................................. 57

57. Calyx 2-lobate/divided................................................................................................................................................ 58

57. Calyx 4 or 5 lobed....................................................................................................................................................... 60

58. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrous ........................................................................................... Canavalia parviflora  

58. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrescent to pubescent................................................................................................ 59

59. Calyx lobes of differing lengths .................................................................................................. Canavalia braziliensis  

59. Calyx lobes of uniform length ......................................................................................................... Canavalia dictyota  

60. Calyx 5 lobed .............................................................................................................................................................. 61

60. Calyx 4 lobed ............................................................................................................................................................. 68

61. Calyx including a spur ................................................................................................................................................ 62

61. Calyx lacking a spur ................................................................................................................................................... 63 62. Stem cylindrical in cross-section; calyx lobes unequal in size, the larger lobe twice the length of the calyx tube, flowers lilac ................................................................................................................................ Centrosema pubescens  

62. Stem angulate in cross-section; calyx lobes equal in size, the lobes not twice the length of the calyx tube; flowers yellow ........................................................................................................................................... Centrosema plumieri  

63. Bracteole caducous; calyx campanulate ..................................................................................................................... 64

63. Bracteole persistent; calyx tubular.............................................................................................................................. 65

64. Stems bearing lenticels, glabrous; leaflets lanceolate .................................................................... Connarus blanchetii  

64. Stem lacking lenticels, hairy; leaflets ovate ............................................................................... Rynchosia pyramidalis  

65. Stigma straight ....................................................................................................................................... Clitoria falcata  

65. Stigma twisted............................................................................................................................................................. 66

66. Corolla wings conspicually larger than the standard ............................................................ Macropitilium prostratum  

66. Corolla wings never larger than the standard ............................................................................................................. 67

67. Plants glabrous; bracteoles stiff, adpressed to the rachis ........................................................................... Vigna luteola  

67. Plants hirsute; bracteoles membranaceous, free ..................................................................................... Vigna vexillata  

68. Lobes of the calyx of differingt lengths ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ) .............................................................................. Mucuna pruriens  

68. Lobes of the calyx of uniform length.......................................................................................................................... 69

69. Plants herbaceous ..................................................................................................................... Centrosema brazilianum  

69. Plants woody............................................................................................................................................................... 70

70. Stem hairy; calyx glabrous .................................................................................................................... Dioclea virgata  

70. Stem glabrous; calyx hairy .................................................................................................................. Dioclea violacea  

71. Flowers grouped in a flower-like inflorescence ......................................................................................................... 72

71. Flowers borne in racemes, panicles, glomerules or solitary ....................................................................................... 75

72. Flowers arranged into a capitate head .................................................................................... Cyrtocymura scorpioides  

72. Inflroescence protected by two bright involucral bracts, flowers not arranged into a capitulum.

73. Involucral bracts entire ( Fig 4E View FIGURE 4 ) ....................................................................................... Dalechampia convolvuloides  

73. Involucral bracts 3-lobate ........................................................................................................................................... 74

74. Stipules linear-subulate; seeds rough, dark-brown ( Fig 4F View FIGURE 4 ) .................................................. Dalechampia braziliensis  

74. Stipules reniform; seeds smooth, light-brown ( Fig 4F View FIGURE 4 ) .................................................. Dalechampia pernambucensis  

75. Flowers unisexual ....................................................................................................................................................... 76

75. Flowers bisexual ......................................................................................................................................................... 80

76. Hairs urticating; flowers of both sexes borne in the same inflorescence.................................................................... 77

76. Hairs not urticating, when present; male and female flowers borne in separate inflorescences ................................ 78

77. Leaves 5-veined .................................................................................................................................... Tragia volubilis  

77. Leaves 3-veined ................................................................................................................................ Tragia lessertiana  

78. Plants dioecious; nectariferous disk present; ovary inferior ........................................................ Dioscorea marginata  

78. Plants monoecious; nectariferous disk absent; ovary superior ................................................................................... 79

79. Leaves peltate; bracts cordate; stamens fused at their base, sessile ........................................ Cissampelos glaberrima  

79. Leaves not peltate; bracts filiform; stamens fused at their base, stalked ............................. Cissampelos andromorpha  

80. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 81

80. Flowers actninomorphic ............................................................................................................................................. 85

81. Perianth composed of distinct sepals and petals ......................................................................................................... 82

81. Perianth composed of tepals ....................................................................................................................................... 84

82. Papilionoid corolla ..................................................................................................................... Securidaca diversifolia  

82. Corolla not papilionoid ............................................................................................................................................... 83

83. Basal third of the leaflets connate; bracts reniform; petals hairy over their entire surface ............. Phanera outimouta  

83. Apical third of the leaflets connate; bracts linear-lanceolate; petals hairy along the midvein only ............................... ..................................................................................................................................................... Phanera trichosepala  

84. Pseudo-stipules reniform; lip (expanded part of corolla tube) smooth .................................... Aristolochia braziliensis  

84. Pseudo-stipules absent; lip (expanded part of corolla tube) papillose ........................................ Aristolochia papillaris  

85. Flowers with completely separate petals .................................................................................................................... 86

85. Flowers with the petals fused...................................................................................................................................... 89

86. Flowers borne in axillary or cauliflorous glomerules .................................................................. Doliocarpus dentatus  

86. Flowers borne in panicles or cymes............................................................................................................................ 87

87. Plant glabrous; inflorescences borne opposite to the leaves ............................................................. Cissus verticillada  

87. Plant with rough hairs; inflorescences terminal.......................................................................................................... 88

88. Sepals unequal, inner two larger than the outer three, surrounding the flowers ( Fig. 4H View FIGURE 4 ) ..................... Davilla aspera  

88. Sepals equal, not surrounding the flowers ...................................................................................... Tetracera breyniana  

89. Flowers solitary .............................................................................................................................. Operculina altissima  

89. Flowers grouped in inforescences............................................................................................................................... 90 90. Stigma globose............................................................................................................................................................ 91

90. Stigma oblong ............................................................................................................................................................. 96

91. Leaves pinnatifid.............................................................................................................................. Ipomoea quamoclit  

91. Leaves entire to 3–5 lobed .......................................................................................................................................... 92

92. Leaves sagitate; sepals with liguliform appendix on their inner surface.......................................... Ipomoea bahiensis  

92. Leaves never sagitate; sepals without an appendix on their inner surface ................................................................. 93

93. Leaves 3–5-lobed; sepals corniculate ............................................................................................ Ipomoea hederifolia  

93. Leaves entire; sepals not corniculate .......................................................................................................................... 94

94. Leaves and sepals glabrous................................................................................................................. Ipomoea obscura  

94. Leaves and sepals hairy to velvety ............................................................................................................................. 95

95. Leaves elliptic; hairs golden .......................................................................................................... Bonamia maripoides  

95. Leaves cordate; hairs white.................................................................................................................... Ipomoea martii  

96. Plants velvety, hairs stellate ........................................................................................... Jacquemontia menispermoides  

96. Plants glabrous to glabrescent, where glabrescent the hairs simple ............................................... Merremia umbelata