Scaralis (Alphinoides) inbio Yanega, 2024

Yanega, Douglas, Goemans, Geert, Dam, Matthew Van, Gómez-Marco, Francesc & Hoddle, Mark, 2024, Description of a new genus of North and Central American planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) with fourteen new species, Zootaxa 5443 (1), pp. 1-53 : 46-48

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.5443.1.1

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scientific name

Scaralis (Alphinoides) inbio Yanega

sp. nov.

Scaralis (Alphinoides) inbio Yanega , sp. nov.

( Figs 11 View FIGURES 10–11 , 72 View FIGURES 69–72 , 93 View FIGURES 91–93 , 95–98 View FIGURES 95–98 )

Etymology. This species is named for the Costa Rican Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), responsible for the major cataloguing and collection effort to document that nation’s biodiversity. The epithet is here treated as a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. Despite considerable variability in the darkness and connectedness of the mesonotal markings, and variation in the forewing membrane from almost clear (especially common in specimens from Guanacaste) to brownish translucent, the available material is all clearly a single species. The thin, continuous black line along the rims of the vertex is unique among all Mesoamerican poiocerine species examined, though some Alphinoides species from South America (e.g., fluvialis ) share this feature, and the anterior rim is more dorsally produced than any other species we have seen. The smoky infuscation of the anal area of the hindwing is slightly less pronounced in this species than any other Alphinoides examined (other than semilimpida ), which typically have much more extensively pigmented anal and basal regions, and the pale blue markings are slightly more extensive than in fluvialis, quadricolor , or spectabilis . It has bands on the fore- and midtibiae, similar to Scaralina , though not on the femora, and has noticeable setae on the thoracic dorsum, though still much shorter than in any Mesoamerican Scaralina . It shares with its relatives a feebly carinate frons, and slightly ovoid second antennal segment. The male gonostyli are somewhat incurved at the extreme apex, but otherwise outcurved and open dorsally, with the setose bulge along the swollen lateral margin, and the gonostylar hooks are very small but acutely pointed (these features therefore not quite matching the condition in either Scaralis s.s. or Scaralina ). The anal tube is more broadly open at the apex than in Scaralis s.s., therefore similar to Scaralina . The pigmented portion of the forewing is distinctly smaller than in other Alphinoides , and more similar to Scaralina . The head is similar to other Alphinoides species, however, with the eyes relatively larger and vertex relatively narrower (longer relative to its width, and also relative to the pronotum). The forewing shape is intermediate between Scaralina and other Alphinoides ; if one draws a line from the point where the claval vein reaches the wing margin to the point where the subcostal reaches the wing margin, in most Alphinoides the angle between this line and the claval vein is only barely more than a right angle (less than 100 degrees), where in Scaralina this angle is closer to 110 degrees. In this species, the angle is close to 100 degrees, and therefore not quite matching any genus (the angle is even wider in Scaralis s.s.). This species therefore highlights the difficulty in finding clear synapomorphies for the different related lineages, a problem we feel will be considerably more complicated when the South American fauna is more exhaustively assessed.

Description. Head ( Figs 96–97 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Most features conforming to subgeneric diagnosis. Supraocular lobe of vertex not appressed, slightly upturned at apex.Anterior and lateral rims of vertex dark, anterior rim greatly elevated relative to dorsal surface of vertex, which is unmarked. Frons evenly convex, pale and unmarked, with lateral margins concave and lower corners expanded and lobate. Clypeus concolorous with frons basally, but dark apically.

Thorax ( Figs 95–96 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Most features conforming to subgeneric diagnosis. Dark markings on dorsal thorax variable in development, prothorax generally mostly dark except margins and midline; mesothorax varying from mostly pale with numerous separated dark marks to mostly dark with only the raised carinae pale (compare Figs 95 & 96 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Legs with strong contrasting bands on the fore- and midtibiae, femora basally dark, becoming lighter apically, though not well-defined bands. Faint traces of wax pollinosity on pleura.

Wings ( Figs 72 View FIGURES 69–72 , 95 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Basal pigmented area of forewings well-developed, with very strongly arcuate outer edge, markedly prolonged along the subcosta. Costal crossveins numerous, closely-spaced, highly contrasting, mostly straight or slightly arcuate but oblique, well-defined basally. Apical membrane varying from almost clear hyaline to uniformly brownish stained, cells unpigmented and mostly short-rectangular. Hindwings mostly hyaline, with basal markings blue and black, anal area smoky translucent. Versteifung black, very low and short, and trapezoidal in posterior view.

Abdomen ( Fig. 95 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Tergites mostly black, with broad reddish margins posteriorly on terga 4–6, and some small pollinose wax deposits laterobasally on terga 3–4. Female with supra-anal plate mostly concealing anal tube.

Male terminalia ( Figs 11 View FIGURES 10–11 , 93 View FIGURES 91–93 , 98 View FIGURES 95–98 ). Gonostyli black, barely reaching apex of anal tube, outcurved near setose bulge, so the inner gonostylar face is explanate and visible in dorsal view, if the anal tube is removed. Basal gonostylar hooks small, short, acute. Dorsal margin swollen at setose bulge but very thin, and incurved, apically, only enclosing the extreme tip of the aedeagal apparatus. Anal tube pale but epiproct black and slightly crenulate at margins.

Type material. Holotype, male: COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: Estación Pitilla , 700m, 9 km S. Santa Cecilia, P.N. Guanacaste, 6–19.ix.1993, P. Rios, LN 330200_380200 #2345 ( CRI001614251 at MNCR-A).

Paratypes (46 specimens; all 44 Costa Rican specimens are from MNCR-A) as follows: COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: same data as holotype but 19–, C. Moraga, #2897, 1F ( CRI001869876 ) ; same but vi.1994, #3002, 1M ( CRI002048273 ) , 2F ( CRI002048274–75 ) ; same but 6–19.ix.1993, P. Rios, #2345, 1M ( CRI001614251 ) ; same but vi.1994, #2996, 1M ( CRI001883435 ) , 2F ( CRI001883436–37 ) ; same but vii.1994, #3140, 1M ( CRI002049191 ) ; same but xi.1992, (no #), 1M ( CRI000959431 ) ; same but ix.1989, C. Moraga & P. Rios, 1M ( CRI000078094 ) ; same but xi.1989, 1F ( CRI000112433 ) ; same but xii.1989, 1F ( CRI000166379 ) ; same but xi.1988, “GNP Biodiversity Survey”, 1M ( CRI000109980 ) ; same but v.1990, “II curso Parataxon.”, 1M ( CRI000254114 ) ; same but LN 329950, 380450, xii.1994 P. Rios, #4372, 1M ( CRI002137090 ) ; same but ii.1995, #4356, 1M ( CRI002134969 ) ; same but ix.1996, C. Moraga, #8398, 1M ( CRI002473361 ) ; Herédia: “ Estación Magsasay ”, 200m, P.N. Braulio Carrillo, LN 264600, 531000, v.1991, A. Fernández, 1M ( CRI001204106 ) ; same but M.A. Zumbado, 1F ( CRI001311274 ) ; Puntarenas: Estación Quebrada Bonita , 50m, Res. Biol. Carara, LN 194500, 469850, iv.1993, J.C. Saborio, #1997, 1M ( CRI001805694 ) ; same but xi.1993, #2470, 1F ( CRI001969828 ) ; same but iii.1994, #2690, 1M ( CRI001681049 ) ; same but x.1994, #3288, 2M ( CRI002045455–56 ) , 1F ( CRI002045457 ) ; same but v.1992, no #, 1M ( CRI000804585 ) ; same but viii.1989, R. Zuniga, 1M ( CRI000037027 ) ; same but x.1989, 1M ( CRI000017404 ) ; same but iii.1991, 1M ( CRI000066547 ) ; same but vi.1991, 1F ( CRI000349140 ) , 2M ( CRI000349166 , CRI000349167) ; same but 1–29.vii.1992, R. Guzmán, 1M ( CRI000878221 ) ; same but 4– 26.i.1993, 1M ( CRI001329574 ) ; same but 17.iii–30.iv, P. Campos, 1F ( CRI000507258 ) ; Finca Cafrosa, Estación Las Mellizas , 1300m, P.N. Amistad, LS 316100, 596100, v.1990, M. Ramirez & G. Mora, 2M ( CRI000653183–84 ) ; Finca Cafrosa, 1300m, Avenida El Pizote , 1.4 km NE la Tigra, LS 318500, 597100, 28–29.xi.1997, A. Picado, #48774, 1F ( CRI002524839 ) ; same but 25.ii.1998, #49666, 1F ( CRI002411863 ) ; Estación Sirena , 0–100m, P.N. Corcovado, LS 270500, 508300, vii.1992, J.C. Saborio, 1M ( CRI000777873 ) ; Estación Biol. Las Alturas , 1500m, Coto Brus, LS 322500, 591300, viii.1991, M. Ramirez, 1F ( CRI000631825 ) ; Rancho Quemado , 200m, Peninsula de Osa, LS 292500, 511000, 8–28.xi.1993, A. Marin, #2469, 1M ( CRI001622777 ) ; Bosque Esquinas , 200m, Peninsula de Osa, LN 302450, 545100, v.1994, M. Segura, #2937, 1F ( CRI001964951 ) ; GUATEMALA: Izabal: “ Finca Firmeza , 1000m ” 15°22’44”N, 88°41’41”W, 27–30.viii.2007, J. Monzón, F.R. Camposeco, 1F ( UVGC) GoogleMaps ; “ Finca Firmeza del Banco, Sierra de Caral , 350m ” 15°24’57”N, 88°42’53”W, 18.iv.2009, J. Monzón, F.R. Camposeco, 1M ( UVGC) GoogleMaps .

Distribution. From Guatemala to the northern half of Costa Rica.


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