Pronomaea rostrata ERICHSON , 1837, ERICHSON, 1837
Assing, Volker, 2007, A revision of the species of Pronomaea E of the Western Palaearctic region, including Middle Asia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Pronomaeini), Beiträge Zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology 57 (2), pp. 367-396: 369-374
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|Pronomaea rostrata ERICHSON , 1837|
Pronomaea horioni LOHSE, 1968: 41 f.; synonymy by LOHSE (1974).
Type material examined:
Lectotype ♀, here designated: " ♀ / Berolin / 5652 / rostrata Er. Berol. / Pronomaea rostrata Er. , Lectotypus, det. Dr. G. A. Lohse / Pronomaea rostrata det. J. Vogel 2000 / Lectotypus ♀ Pronomaea rostratarostrata Erichson desig. V. Assing 2007 / Pronomaea rostrata Erichson , det. V. Assing 2007 " ( MNHUB). Paralectotypes: 3 ♀ ♀: " ♀ / Berolin, Nr. 5652 / Pronomaea rostrata det. J. Vogel 2000" ( MNHUB); 1 ♀: " ♀ / Austr. / Nr. 5652" ( MNHUB); 1 ♀: " ♀ / Austria / Nr. 5652" ( MNHUB).
The original description of P. rostratarostrata is based on an unspecified, but apparently low number ("ein seltener Käfer") of syntypes ( ERICHSON 1837). A type locality is not specified. Six syntypes, all of them females and four of them from Berlin, were found in the collections at the MNHUB. A specimen from "Berolin" is here designated as the lectotype.
Without examination of the type material of P. rostratarostrata and P. picea, LOHSE (1968) described Pronomaea horionihorioni based on a female holotype and a male paratype from "Leifers, Prov. Bozen, Norditalien", as well as a female "paratypoid" [sic] from "Avisio-Adge (Trentino)". He distinguished the new species from P. rostratarostrata and provided simple sketches of the genitalia of the two species. He inferred from the details in the original description of P. picea HEER (smaller size, paler coloration especially of the basal antennomeres) that P. horionihorioni was unlikely to be conspecific with the type material of that name. Inspired by this paper, FAGEL (1969) studied the material of the IRSNB and his own collection and listed numerous additional localities for both P. rostrata sensu LOHSE (1968) and P. horioni . However, only some years later Lohse was informed by H. Korge (Berlin), who had studied the type material of P. rostratarostrata at the MNHUB, that his description of P. horionihorioni in fact referred to P. rostrata . In his key to Central European Pronomaea, LOHSE (1974) then synonymised P. horionihorioni with P. rostratarostrata and introduced the name P. korgei - as a replacement name ("n. n.") [sic] - for his previous interpretation of P. rostrata . Remarkably, he made no reference to P. picea , although the paler basal antennomeres, which he had previously emphasised to distinguish P. picea from P. horioni , are one of the external characters given in the key to separate P. korgeikorgei from P. rostrata .
The types of P. horioni are apparently not deposited in the MHNG and were not studied, but the morphological details and figures in the original description leave no doubt that the synonymy with P. rostrata is correct.
Additional material examined: Tunisia: 2 exs., Aïn Draham, leg. Normand ( MHNG, cAss) .
Gibraltar: 1 ex., "Gibraltar", leg. Walker (cAss) .
Spain: Castilla-León: 1 ex., Caboalles , leg. Paganetti ( DEI) . Castilla-La Mancha: 1 ex., Cuenca, Tragacete , leg. Champion ( BMNH) . Andalucía: 1 ex., Sierra Nevada, above Capileira , 1900 m, 23.III.1994, leg. Assing (cAss) ; 2 exs., Sierra de Cazorla , 6.X.1993, leg. Wunderle (cWun, cAss).
France: Languedoc-Roussillon: 1 ex., Pyrénées-Orientales, Les Bains de la Preste, leg. Perrot ( MHNG) .
Aquitaine: 1 ex., Gironde, Mérignac, Eyquems , leg. de Borre ( MHNG) ; 6 exs., Gironde, Cambes , 27.II.1938, leg. Giraud ( MHNG, cAss) ; 1 ex., same data, but 28.IX.1941 (cAss) ; 4 exs., same data, but 11.III.1939 ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Gironde, Daignac , 26.V.1929, leg. Tempère ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Madirac , 21.VIII.1938, leg. Giraud ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Bordeaux, Garonne inundation ( MHNG) . Picardie: 3 exs., Oise, Cinqueux , VIII.1912, leg. Méquignon ( MHNG, cAss) ; 1 ex., Le Crotoy , II.1891 (cAss) . Poitou-Charentes: 3 exs. Vienne, Morthemer , leg. Mesmin ( BMNH, MHNG) . Île-de-France: 1 ex., Seine-et-Martne, Moretsur-Loing , inundation, I.1924, leg. Royer ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Herblay , IV.1891 ( BMNH) ; 2 exs., Chaville , IX.1901 ( BMNH) ; 1 ex., Valmondois , IX.1891 ( BMNH) ; 1 ex., Lardy , VII.1903 ( BMNH) . Centre: 1 ex., Loire-et-Cher, Vendôme, S La Rippe , 30.IV.1960 ( MHNG) . Rhône-Alpes: 1 ex., Vienne, Les Bourielles , 18.III.1887, leg. Mesmin ( NHMW) . Provence: 1 ex., Var, Toulon , 3.IV.1947, leg. Barbier ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Pontevès , in moss near stream, 31.VIII.1955, leg. Bureau ( SMNS) ; 1 ex., Alpes-Maritimes, Loup inundation, XI.1957 (cAss). Corse : 3 exs., locality not specified, leg. Revelière ( NHMW, cAss). Locality not specified : 4 exs. ( BMNH) .
Switzerland: 1 ex., Vaud, Jura, Givrins , IX.1964, leg. Toumayeff ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Vaud, forest above Trélex ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Bern, Aarberg , 7.VIII. ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Bern, Bienne , 7.VI. ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., Aargau [" Argovie "], Jura ( MHNG) ; 1 ex., locality not specified ( MHNG) .
Germany: Nordrhein-Westfalen: 1 ex., Neuss ( DEI) . Hessen: 1 ex., Frankfurt , leg. Heyden ( DEI) ; 7 exs., locality not specified [" Hassia "], leg. Scriba ( DEI) . Rheinland-Pfalz: 1 ex., Heidesheim, park (cAss) ; 1 ex., Bad Dürkheim ( NHMW) ; 3 exs., Grünstadt , leg. Eppelsheim ( DEI) . Baden-WüBaden-Wü rttemberg: 2 exs., Heilbronn ( NHMW, cAss) ; 1 ex., Bodensee, Überlingen , VII.1957, leg. Folwaczny ( SMNS) ; 1 ex., Bodensee , 9.VII.1952, leg. Vogt ( BMNH) . Bayern: 1 ex., Aschaffenburg , leg. Singer ( FMNH) . Hamburg: 2 exs., Bergedorf , 31.III.1893 ( DEI) ; 2 exs., Boberg , 2.VII.1881 ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Geesthacht , 6.X.1867 ( DEI) ; 2 exs., Geesthacht , 17.V.1880 ( DEI) . Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: 1 ex., Waren, IX.1031, leg. Hainmüller (cVog) . Brandenburg / Berlin: 2 exs., Borgsdorf , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Oderberg , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Berlin env., Klein Machnow , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Berlin , Grunewald ( DEI) ; 2 exs., Röntgental , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Mellensee, Königswusterhausen , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Königswusterhausen , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Mittenwalde env., leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 2 exs., Strausberg env., leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 4 exs., Stahnsdorf , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI, cAss) ; 1 ex., Hönow env., leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 3 exs., Chorin , leg. Neresheimer ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Berlin , Wannsee ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Kladow am Wannsee , leg. Wagner (cAss) ; 3 exs., Berlin ( DEI) ; 2 exs., Frankfurt / Oder , 8.VIII.1933, leg. Schukatschek ( MHNG, cAss) . Sachsen-Anhalt: 2 exs., Laucha ( Unstrut ) [51°13'N, 11°40'E] ( DEI) GoogleMaps . Thüringen: 3 exs., locality not specified ( NHMW) . Sachsen: 1 ex., Eilenburg , 15.II.1953, leg. Linke (cAss) ; 3 exs., Leipzig [" Lipsia "], Ranzau ( DEI) ; 1 ex., locality not specified, leg. Märkel (cVog). Locality not specified: 1 ex., "Germ. bor." ( NHMW) ; 7 exs., "Germany" ( BMNH) .
Austria: Oberösterreich: 1 ex., Linz ( NHMW) . Niederösterreich: 1 ex., Kritzendorf, Donauauen ( NHMW) ; 1 ex., locality not specified, leg. Zoufal ( MHNG) . Wien: 1 ex., Wien env., leg. Breit ( NHMW) .
Italy: Lombardia: 1 ex., Teglio (SO), 800 m, 15.V.1973, leg. Dioli (cZan) . Veneto: 1 ex., Venezia, N Lisbinolo [?] [date illegible], leg. Gridelli (cAss) . Toscana: 2 exs., Mte. Cetona, leg. Bargagli ( NHMW, cAss) .
Poland: 4 exs., Podkowa Leśna , 12.VII.1934, leg. Tenenbaum ( FMNH, cAss) ; 1 ex., Wrocław , 1.VI.1901 (cVog) ; 1 ex., Wrocław , 21.VI.1905 (cVog) ; 1 ex., Legnica , 16.V.1908 (cVog) ; 1 ex., Legnica ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Jankowice ["Jankowitz"], 21.III.1855 ( DEI) ; 1 ex., Jedwabno [53°31'N, 20°44'E], 22.XI.1936, leg. Folwaczny ( SMNS) GoogleMaps ; 1 ex., Tarnowiec , 26.XII.1927 ( SMNS) ; 1 ex., Henryków ["Heinrichan", recte Heinrichau; 50°39'N, 17°00'E], leg. v. Bodemeyer ( SMNS) GoogleMaps ; 1 ex., Lomnica [53°06'N, 16°31'E] [" Netzekreis, Lemnitz "], III.1940 (cVog) GoogleMaps .
Czech Republic: 2 exs., Vrané , VII.1926 ( FMNH, cAss) ; 3 exs., Praha env., Vrané , leg. Rodt, Skalitzky ( NHMW, cAss) ; 1 ex., Praha, garden, 1892, leg. Skalitzky ( NHMW) ; 1 ex., Brandys n. L., 31.III.1895 leg. Skalitzky (cAss) .
Slovakia: 2 exs., Bratislava, leg. Zoufal ( NHMW, cAss) .
Ukraine: 1 ex., Tscherniwzi ["Bukowina, Cernowitz"] (cAss).
Locality not specified or illegible: 12 exs. ( BMNH, DEI) .
3.1-4.0 mm. Usual coloration: Body blackish brown to blackish, with the posterior part of the elytra usually slightly paler brown; legs reddish to brown; antennae dark brown to blackish brown, basal antennomeres at most only slightly paler; maxillary palpi reddish brown to blackish brown.
Head with puncturation variable, coarse and distinct to shallow; interstices without microsculpture. Eyes usually slightly longer than postocular region in dorsal view, with numerous short setae. Antenna with antennomeres I-III of subequal length and distinctly oblong; IV-V usually weakly oblong; VI approximately as wide as long; VII-X of increasing width and increasingly transverse, but X usually less than 1.5 times as wide as long.
Pronotum relatively large in relation to head and of variable shape, 1.10-1.25 [sic] times as wide as long and about 1.3-1.4 times as wide as head; lateral margins not sinuate in posterior half; puncturation variable, ranging from moderately sparse to dense and from fine to moderately coarse, usually slightly finer and denser than that of head; interstices without microsculpture; pubescence of moderate length, usually depressed, rarely suberect, directed cephalad in anterior half and caudad in posterior half of midline; pronotal hypomera visible in lateral view.
Elytra distinctly wider than pronotum and at suture approximately as long as pronotum; posterior margin distinctly sinuate near posterior angles; puncturation rather dense and moderately fine; interstices without microsculpture. Hind wings fully developed.
Abdomen widest at base, gradually tapering posteriad; tergites III-V with pronounced anterior impressions, tergite VI without such impression; puncturation rather coarse and sparse, but density somewhat variable; interstices without microsculpture and with pronounced shine; posterior margin of tergite VII with distinct palisade fringe; tergite VIII with strongly convex posterior margin, without appreciable sexual dimorphism; sternite VIII with obtusely pointed posterior margin in both sexes.
♂: median lobe of aedeagus 0.39-0.44 mm long, shaped as in Figs 1-7 View Figs 1-8 .
♀: spermatheca with relatively long duct ( Fig. 8 View Figs 1-8 ).
Owing to the pronounced intraspecific variation of the external characters of this (and other) species, as well as the similarity - and character overlap - with other Western Palaearctic congeners, a reliable separation is often possible only based on the primary sexual characters. The distribution of P. rostratarostrata only overlaps with that of P. picea , from which it is distinguished by a completely different morphology of the aedeagus, the longer duct of the spermatheca, and often also the darker coloration of the body (especially of the antennae) and the relatively larger pronotum with generally shorter and more depressed pubescence.
Distribution and bionomics:
Based on the revised material, P. rostratarostrata has anQtlanto-Mediterranean distribution, ranging from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula to Poland and Ukraine ( Map 1 View Map 1 ). There are no records from the British Isles and Scandinavia. It is apparently absent also from the extreme south of Italy, Sardinia, and the Balkans. In Italy, the southernmost confirmed record is from Toscana. In the eastern part of the distribution, the southern limit crosses Austria, Slovakia, and Ukraine. There are no confirmed records from Slovenia, Hungary, and Romania. Previous records (see e. g. COIFFAIT 1976; GANGLBAUERGANGLBAUER 1904; HORION 1967; LUZE 1904; SCHEERPELTZ 1937, 1964, 1965; SMETANA 2004) from the following regions and countries are doubtlessly erroneous and refer to other species: Balkans ( Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece), southern Italy (including Sicily and Sardinia), the Caucasus region, all of the eastern Mediterranean (e. g. Turkey), Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan. The presence in Romania and Hungary seems possible, but requires verification. FAGELFAGEL (1969) reports the species (as P. horioni )) from the following additional localities, all of them zoogeographically plausible: Tunisia (Fernana), Algeria (Mont Edough), Morocco ( Tanger), Portugal (Caldas de Monchique), Spain (Andalucía: Lanjaron), France (Paris, Limoges, Toulouse), Belgium (Forêt de Soignes near Bruxelles), Italy (Piemonte), and Belarus (Minsk); for additional records from North Africa, which almost certainly refer to P. rostrata , see FAUVELFAUVEL (1902). Remarkably, the vast majority of records are very old. Specimens collected after 1950 were seen only from Spain (2 records), France (3 records), Switzerland (1 record), Germany (Baden-Württemberg: 2 records; Sachsen: 1 record; last revised record from 1957!), and Italy (1 record).
Owing to the previous confusion with other species, literature data on the ecology of the species are unreliable. The availabe evidence suggests that it is associated with moist habitats. In southern Spain it was found in wet moss at the source of a stream at an altitude of 1900 m. One specimen from southeastern France was taken under similar conditions, but at lower altitudes. Another specimen was found in flood debris in southeastern France. Near Hamburg ( Germany) the species was collected with a sweep-net on damp meadows ( HORION 1967; material revised). The revised specimens were collected throughout the year with maxima in March and during the period from July through September : January (1 specimen /1 sample), February (8/3), March (11/7), April (3/3), May (5/4), June (3/3), July (11/6), August (8/5), September (6/5), October (2/2), November (2/2), December (1/1) .
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