Trisuloides Butler, 1881,

Behounek, Gottfried, Han, Hui-Lin & Kononenko, Vladimir, 2011, A revision of the genus Trisuloides Butler, 1881 with descriptions of three new species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution I, Zootaxa 3069, pp. 1-25: 3

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Trisuloides Butler, 1881


Genus Trisuloides Butler, 1881 

Trisuloides Butler, 1881  , Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 7: 36. Type-species: Trisuloides sericea Butler, 1881  , Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 7: 36, by monotypy. Syntypes, [ India]: Darjiling ( BMNH); Assam, Shillong ( BMNH).

Synonymy: Smilepholcia Prout, 1924  , in Prout & Talbot, Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 406.

Type-species: Trisuloides luteifascia Hampson, 1894  , Fauna Br. India (Moths) 2: 437, by original designation. Lectotype male, [ India]: [Assam], Khasis ( BMNH), designated (as type) by Hampson, 1913, Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae  in the British Museum 13: 342, a junior synonym of Trisuloides catocalina Moore, 1883  .

The usage of the name Trisuloides  in the old literature ( Warren 1912; Hampson 1913; Draudt 1937, 1950) was confusing and incorrectly associated with Tambana Moore 1882  and Anacronicta Warren, 1909  as synonyms, along with other related genera ( Anepholcia Prout, 1924  and Xanthomantis Warren, 1909  ). Prout & Talbot (1924), in a preliminary revision of Trisuloides  , placed Trisuloides caerulea Butler, 1889  to the genus Disepholcia Prout, 1924  , but left albiplaga Warren, 1912  in Trisuloides  (it is currently placed in Tambana: Speidel & Kononenko 1998  ). They also noted that Tambana catocalina Moore, 1882  (presently Antitrisuloides catocalina  = polyphaenaria Warren, 1919) may belong to Trisuloides  .

Sugi (1976) restricted the genus to T. sericea Butler, 1881  (type-species), associated with trigonoleuca Prout, 1922  , from Ceram, and hawkeri Prout, 1924, from Buru (both considered to be subspecies of sericea  by Prout & Talbot 1924) and papuensis Warren, 1912  , known from southeast New Guinea. Sugi also described two new species T. rotundipennis Sugi, 1976  and T. taiwana Sugi, 1976  from Japan and Taiwan.

Poole (1989) incorrectly referred Tambana  (type-species: Tambana variegata Moore, 1882  ( Fig 40, 43View FIGURES 39 – 44), Xanthomantis Warren, 1909  (type-species: Acronycta cornelia Staudinger, 1888  ( Figs 41, 44View FIGURES 39 – 44, 71View FIGURES 67 – 71) and Disepholcia  (type species: Trisuloides caerulea Butler, 1889  ( Figs. 39, 42View FIGURES 39 – 44) as junior subjective synonyms of Trisuloides  . He listed 21 valid names in Trisuloides  ; however, ten of these belong to Tambana  ( albiplaga Warren, 1912  , albitessellata Hampson, 1913  , bella Mell, 1935  , c-album Leech, 1900, enoxantha Hampson, 1894, glauca Hampson, 1898  , klapperichii Mell, 1958  , subflava Wileman, 1911  , succinta Berio, 1983, and variegata Moore, 1882  ), three to Xanthomantis  ( contaminata Draudt, 1937  = tamsi Park & Lee, 1977  , referred by Poole as full species, and cornelia Staudinger, 1888  ), one to Disepholcia  ( caerulea Butler 1889  ), one to Anacronicta  (pulcherrima Draudt, 1950), and one to Antitrisuloides Holloway, 1985  ( catocalina Moore 1882  = polyphaenaria Warren, 1919). Only T. rotundipennis  , T. papuensis Warren, 1912  , T. sericea Butler, 1881  ( sericea  ssp. trigonoleuca A.E. Prout, 1922  , sericea  ssp. hawkeri A.E. Prout, 1924), and T. taiwana  listed by Poole (1989) belong to the genus Trisuloides  . The name Smilepholcia A.E. Prout, 1924  with the type species Trisuloides luteifascia Hampson, 1894  (with catocalina Moore, 1883  , as synonym) was referred by Poole (1989) as a distinct genus containing luteifascia  (currently in Trisuloides  ) and burmana Berio, 1873  (currently placed in Tambana  by Speidel & Kononenko (1998).

These positions were repeated by Chen (1982), who reported for China ten species of Trisuloides  ; however, eight of these belong to Tambana  , Anacronicta  and Elydnodes  . Subsequently Chen (1999) placed 11 species in Trisuloides  , of which only sericea  and zhangi  belong to the genus, the other nine species belonging to Disepholcia  , Xanthomantis  and Tambana  ; Trisuloides luteifscia  in this work was placed in Smilepholcia  ; Hua (2005) continued a similar treatment.

Speidel & Kononenko (1998) separated Trisuloides  and Tambana  as distinct genera, presented an updated checklist of Tambana  from Vietnam, and illustrated Vietnamese species of Tambana  with photographs of imagines and genitalia. Kononenko & Pinratana (2005) gave full status to Disepholcia  , Xanthomantis  and Tambana  . Nevertheless, the genera Trisuloides  and Tambana  are often still confused.

To summarize, Trisuloides  is a small Oriental pantheine genus distributed from Pakistan and North India to Japan and South Korea eastward and southward to Indonesia. In the current concept the genus contains 11 taxa: T. catocalina  (North India, Thailand and Vietnam to Sumatra), T. serice  a (wide ranging, Pakistan to Japan and Indonesia with subspecies trigonoleuca  and hawkeri), T. rotundipennis  ( Japan and Korea), T. taiwana  ( Taiwan), T. zhangi Chen, 1994  ( China), T. papuensis  ( Papua New Guinea) and three species from China described herein.

Diagnosis. Medium sized moths with brown-grey forewing and basally yellow with broad terminal band on hindwing. Wingspan 40–70 mm. By external morphology, i.e. structure of antennae, frons, labial palps, venation and wing pattern all species are very similar to each other, and in some cases hardly distinguishable. Antennae of male bipectinate, those of female filiform, fasciculate, labial palps short, compressed, 3 rd segment short, less than half of length of 2 nd; frons smooth, proboscis short, weakly developed; forewing broad; M 2 in hindwing well developed. Abdomen with crest formed by erected scales on 1–5 segments. Forewing dark brown, grey or brownish; hindwing yellow or yellowish-orange in basal part, with dark wide terminal band. In male genitalia uncus short, wide, with pointer apex or short, medially expanded; tegument broad, without peniculus, equal to vinculum in height; juxta shield-shaped, leaf-like or cordate; valva relatively short, lobe-like, narrower or abrupt apically; sacculus large, massive; costa with extremely developed sclerotised tongue-like editum, covered with strong setae; harpe directed longitudinally, heavily sclerotised, elongate, tooth or comb-like, serrate; Apex of valva rounded, without cucullus or corona. Aedeagus relatively short, massive, in some cases protruded apically; vesica tubularwide, with 1–2 small diverticula, projecting ventrally. In female genitalia papillae anales short, quadrangular; apophyses anterior and posterior ones short, equal in length; ductus bursae short, proximally sclerotised; corpus bursae large, saccular. Compared to Tambana  , the male genitalia of Trisuloides  have a short and massive uncus, the valva is relatively short and bearing the tongue-like and well developed editum (costal flap-like process). The harpe is digitate, comb-like, or tooth-like and serrated, positioned longitudinally in the middle of the valva. The aedeagus of Trisuloides  is short and the vesica lacks cornuti, unlike Tambana  . The monotypic genus Disepholcia  (type-species Trisuloides caerulea Butler, 1889  ( Figs 39, 42View FIGURES 39 – 44, 70View FIGURES 67 – 71) is closest to Trisuloides  (see below).