Traumatomutilla parallela ( Klug, 1821 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2022, Revision of the Traumatomutilla indica species-group (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), Zootaxa 5108 (1), pp. 1-97 : 53-60

publication ID

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Traumatomutilla parallela ( Klug, 1821 )


Traumatomutilla parallela ( Klug, 1821)

( Figs 18A–C View FIGURES 18 , 19A–J View FIGURES 19 , 20A–G View FIGURES 20 )

Mutilla parallela Klug, 1821: 315 , holotype, ♀, Brazil, Para [sic] (ZMB), examined.

Mutilla optata Cresson, 1902: 53 , lectotype [designated by Cresson (1916)], ♀, Brazil (CMNH), examined, synonymized by Mickel 1964.

Mutilla almada Cresson, 1902: 74 , holotype, ♂, Brazil, [Pará], Santarém (CMNH), examined, syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) almada: André, 1902 , 54.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) optata: André, 1902: 55 .

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) parallela: André, 1902: 55 .

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lineifera André, 1903: 451 , lectotype [designated here], Brazil (MNHN), examined, syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla almada: André, 1904: 40 .

Traumatomutilla lineifera: André, 1904: 40 .

Traumatomutilla optata: André, 1904: 40 .

Traumatomutilla parallela: André, 1904: 40 .

Traumatomutilla indicoides Mickel, 1945: 42 , holotype, ♀, Bolivia, Santa Helena (USNM), examined, syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla gausapata Mickel, 1952: 129 , holotype ♀, Guyana, Rupununi savannah (UMSP), examined, syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla pillinata Casal, 1969: 285 , holotype, ♀, Brazil, Goiás, Aragarças (AMNH), examined, syn. nov.

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Distance between pronotal spiracles conspicuously wide than mesonotal width, propodeal spiracles strongly projected from lateral margin of mesosoma, lateral face of propodeum densely sculptured, intervals obliquely and indistinctly striate. MALE. Cuspis elongate, slender, mesopleuron tuberculate on dorsal half, meso and metatibial spurs yellowish-white, axillar projections acute, scutellum gibbose with well-defined dorsal and posterior faces, pronotum and propodeum with dense silvery-white setae obscuring integument.

Description. FEMALE. Body length 15–17 mm. Head. Posterior margin slightly convex. Occipital carina evenly equally wide throughout. Vertex width 0.7 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular, its length in frontal view 1.2 × the distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Front, vertex, and gena densely, coarsely and confusedly areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate with irregular intervals; sculpture overall sparser on gena and malar space; front with irregular longitudinal carina dorsomedially. Genal carina present. Mandible oblique, tapering slightly towards apex, with small subapical tooth, unarmed ventrally. Dorsal scrobal carina well-defined, reaching antennal tubercles, connected to irregular lateral scrobal carinae. Antennal tubercle coarsely punctate to irregularly rugose. Flagellomere 1 1.8 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.4 × pedicel length. Mesosoma . Mesosoma 0.9 × as long as wide. Mesosomal dorsum densely and coarsely areolate-punctate, with irregular intervals and narrow longitudinal carina extending virtually uninterrupted from anterior margin of mesonotum to posterior margin of dorsal propodeal face; sculpture adjacent to medial carina densely punctate. Anterior face of pronotum defined slightly longer than pronotal collar, with dense indistinct and coarse longitudinal striations ventrad, coarsely and densely punctate dorsad; dorsal face rounded into anterior face in lateral view. Humeral carina prominent, narrowly from produced subangulate epaulet; antero-lateral corners of pronotum subangulate in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracles strongly produced from lateral margins of pronotum. Lateral face of pronotum densely punctured with dense interspersed micropunctures, except low micropunctate swelling antero-ventral in relation to pronotal spiracle. Mesopleuron sculpture mostly concealed by dense setation, micropunctate anteriorly and densely foveolate-punctate along mesopleural ridge where visible. Metapleura concealed by dense setation on ventral half, unsculptured and smooth to indistinctly rugose on dorsal half. Lateral face of propodeum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate, with indistinctly rugose intervals. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 92:128:120:87:92. Lateral margin of mesosoma strongly constricted anterior to propodeal spiracle, strongly divergent anteriad thus expanded laterally. Propodeal spiracle strongly projected from lateral margin of mesosoma. Post-spiracular area absent. Scutellar scale present, as wide as and connected laterally to anterolateral carinae, which are connected thus forming a single straight transverse carina. Scabrous intervals on scutellar area absent. Propodeum convex, dorsal face shorter than and rounded into posterior face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 51:112:113. Disc of T2 partially concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to punctate with dense interspersed micropunctures where visible; foveolations sparser and micropunctures absent laterally and over integumental spots. T3–6 sculpture predominantly concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to simply punctate with interspersed micropunctures where visible; micropuncutres nearly absent on T6. S1 surface cuneiform, densely, coarsely and confusedly foveolate-punctate around short longitudinal medial carina equally high throughout. S2 densely foveolate-punctate; foveolations denser and larger laterad; anteromedial crest-fold well-defined. S3–4 sculpture mostly concealed by dense setation, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures where visible; S5–6 densely foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate subpyriform, defined by lateral carinae at apical third of plate; surface with transverse coarse and irregular rugosities; interstice granulose.

MALE. Body length 13–16 mm. Head. Transversely subrectangular with posterolateral angles rounded in dorsal view, 0.85 × as wide as pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 5.8 × DLO, IOD 1.5 × DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Head surface sparsely and finely punctate with dense interspersed micropunctures; sculpture conspicuously sparser around ocelli. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with well-defined transverse dorsal scrobal carina. Clypeus concave laterally immediately below antennal insertion, virtually flat elsewhere; densely and confusedly punctate; apical/ventral margin with a pair of short subrounded free teeth medially. Scape bicarinate. Flagellomere 1 1.7 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.9 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth larger than medial tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma . Epaulets well-defined, slightly projected from anterior margin of pronotum, broadly separated from humeral carina, anterolateral angles of pronotum subangulate. Anterior face of pronotum sparsely punctate with interspersed micropunctures throughout. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense coarse punctures along inner and anterior margins. Mesoscutum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate, notaulus and parapsis present, reduced to posterior half of mesoscutum. Scutellum slightly gibbose, with well-defined dorsal and posterior faces; densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate with broad medial longitudinal, slightly elevated, “carina-like” area on dorsal face; unsculptured area conspicuously broadened apicad. Axilla in dorsal view produced posterolaterally as short acute projection, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally. Metanotum slightly wider laterally, its surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeal dorsum convex, partially concealed by dense setation, densely areolate where visible; slightly depressed sublaterally at base; sculpture of lateral face less defined to indistinct along anterior margin; dorsal face rounded into and poorly distinguished from posterior face. Lateral face of pronotum sparsely and indistinctly punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures; mesopleura with conspicuous blunt tooth-like projection on dorsal half; mesopleural sculpture densely and coarsely areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures; simply micropunctate anteriad. Metapleuron sparsely micropunctate to smooth throughout, except for indistinct areolations on ventral fourth and indistinct rugosities in dorsal fourth. Wings. Forewing with elongate sclerotized pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0. 5 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.85 × its width. Dorsal metasomal sculpture partially concealed by dense setation, densely and finely punctate with interspersed micropunctures where visible. Pygidial plate coarsely and indistinctly rugose with granulose interstices, broader than long, weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, terminating in longitudinal carina with short spine-like projection posteriorly. S2 coarsely and sparsely foveolatepunctate to punctate, with indistinct micropunctures laterally; sculpture slightly sparser posteromediad; without setae filled pit, at most with small anteromedial tuft of silvery-white setae; longitudinal anteromedial crest-fold present. S3–6 sparsely and coarsely foveolate-punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures; S7 sparsely foveo- late-punctate with well-defined medial longitudinal unsculptured area; longer than broad, well-defined by lateral carinae throughout, posterior margin projected medially into a single tooth-like structure on posterior margin; apex of projection bilobate. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe not at all pronounced apically, subacute. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 76:53:22; paramere marginally sinuous in dorsal view, apex upcurved in lateral view and outcurved in dorsal view; with sparse setae ventrally at anterior half; cuspis slender, elongate, equally wide throughout in dorsal view and lateral view; with scattered inconspicuous long setae apically and sparse inconspicuous short setae elsewhere; paracuspis well-developed, not sessile, longer than wide with subtriangulate and sparsely setose posterodorsal margin in lateral view; setae shorter than paracuspis; digitus short, slightly curved inward in dorsal view and upcurved in lateral view, sparsely setose basodorsally, apex somewhat expanded, knob-like in lateral view; penis valve with inner surface strongly concave, and well-defined pair of short teeth posteroventrally; posterior tooth acute, subposterior tooth subrounded, blunt, with externolateral pocket; apical distance between teeth 0.1 × length of valve; dense setae present along subtruncate, shelf-like posterior margin; inconspicuous setae present at base of subposterior tooth on external surface.

Coloration and variations. FEMALE. Integument black to brownish-black, except mandibles and antennal flagellomeres partially reddish-brown, and T2 with four yellowish integumental spots; T2 spots shape and size highly variably: posterior pairs from transversely rectangulate to linear, narrow, completely confluent medially, thus forming single transverse line on T2; anterior pair from longitudinally subelliptical to linear, elongate, separated from posterior pair by a fourth of its length. Spots color varying from bright yellow to opaque orange. Body setae highly variable, usually predominantly silvery-white varying in density, except the following areas with black setae varying in density: head, pronotal dorsum, lateral face of pronotum (except ventral third), mesonotal dorsum medially, propodeal dorsum medially, T1 medially, disc of T2 (except over integumental spots), fringe of T2–5 sublaterally (sometimes extending to lateral margins of T5); T6 medially (except pygidial plate); fringe of S5, and S6. Some specimens have a transverse band of silvery-white setae covering the vertex; the silvery-white longitudinal lateral stripes of silvery-white setae vary in width and length, from reaching the midlle of pronotal dorsum to ending before pronotal spiracles. MALE. Integument black to brownish-black, except flagellomeres and mandibles partially reddish-brown. Body setae predominantly silvery-white varying in density, except following areas with black setae varying in density: mesoscutum, axillar projections, scutellum, posterior half to posterior third of T2, fringe of T5 medially, T6–7 (except pygidial plate), fringe of S6, and S7. Tibial spurs yellowish-white. Wings light brown infuscated on apical third, hyaline with brown veins elsewhere.

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay.

Material examined. (341♀, 54♂) Type material. Holotype of Mutilla parallela , ♀, BRAZIL, Para [sic] ( ZMB) ; holotype of M. almada , ♂, Brazil, [Pará], Santarém ( CMNH) ; lectotype of Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lineifera , ♀, BRAZIL ( MNHN) ; holotype of T. indicoides , ♀, BOLIVIA, Santa Helena ( USNM) ; holotype of T. gausapata , ♀, GUYANA, Rupununi savannah ( UMSP) ; holotype of T. pillinata , ♀, BRAZIL, Goiás, Aragarças ( AMNH) . Additional material. COLOMBIA, Vichada, Gaviotas Sabana, Mpio. [sic] del Viento 170m [above sea level], 1♂, II.1995, Cortez & Mora (IAvH) ; VENEZUELA: Monagas: 42 km SE [kilometers southeast of] Maturin , 1♀, 03.VII.1958, A.S. Menke ( LACM) ; 1♀, 09.VII.1958, A.S. Menke ( FSCA) ; Zamora: Libertad , 1♀, 1923, Mayeul Grisol ( MNHN) ; Suapure, Caura River , 1♀, 25.VI.1900 ( EMUS) ; 1♀, 09.IX.1899 ( EMUS) ; 1♀, 03.XII.1900 ( EMUS) ; BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Berizal, Faz. [Fazenda] Veredão , em flores, 850m (above sea level), 15°39’54’’S 41°39’56’’W, 1♂, 11.XII.2012, J.A. Rafael ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; Araxá , 1♀, 6.XI.1965, Elias, C. & Elias, T. ( DZUP) ; Paraopeba N.o proc.16/38 [sic], 1♀ ( MNRJ) ; Belo Horizonte , 3♀, 06–11.V.1993, S.D. Gaimari ( INHS) ; Uberlândia, Cachoei- ra do Mirandão , 1♀, 7.IX.2005, Rocha-Filho, L.C. ( DZUP) ; Janaúba , Poção de Santa Cruz, 1♀, 26.I.2008, Melo, G.A.R. & Costa ( DZUP) ; Berizal, Faz. [Fazenda] Veredão , 1♀, 14.XII.2007, Grossi, P., Rafael, Parizotto, D. ( DZUP) ; Bom Despacho, Bom Despacho , 1♀, VII–IX.2000, Ramos, L.S., Marinho, C.G.S. ( CPDC) ; Campos de Diamantina, Fazenda do Riacho Fundo , 1♀, XII.1902, E. Gounelle ( MNCN) ; Sertão de Diamantina , Fazenda das Melancias, 1♀, 10.XI.1902 ( MNCN) ; Lagoa Santa , 1♀, Reinhardt ( ZMUC) ; Lassance , 1♀, 05.VI.1911 ( UMSP) ; Santa Rita do Cedro , 1♀, 1904, E. Gounelle ( MNCN) ; 15 km SE [southeast] de Riacho dos Machados , 1♀, 12.IV.1998, Melo, G.A.R. ( DZUP) ; Ponto dos Volantes, 14 km ao S [South] de Ponto dos Volantes , 1♀, 12.II.2010, Melo, G.A.R., Parizotto, D., Grossi, P. ( DZUP) ; Mato Grosso: Rosário do Oeste , 1♀, 1970, Hummelgen ( DZUP) ; Serra Roncador , 1♀, 11.VII.1968, Laroca & Azevedo ( DZUP) ; Gleba Uirapuru , 1♀, 12.VII.1972, Mielke & Brown ( DZUP) ; Barra do Tapirape , 1♀ ( MZSP) ; Utiariti , 1♀ ( MZSP) ; Estação Ecológica Iquê , 1♀, 16.V.1984, P.T. Nasci- mento ( MPEG) ; Nova Lacerda , 14°28’38’’S 59°33’30’’W, 1♀, 27.IV.2006, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier Filho ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; Nova Mutum, Fazenda Buriti , 1♀, 9.VII.1997, Ribeiro, G.C., Mendes, H.F. ( DZUP) ; marg. esq. [margem esquerda] rio Sucuriu, Faz. [Fazenda] Canaã , Três Lagoas , 1♀, IV.1967, F. Lane ( MZSP) ; Andradinha , 2♀, VIII.1971, Ol- iveira, F.M. ( DZUP) ; P. N. [Parque Nacional] do Xingu, Jacaré , 1♀, XI.1961, Alvarenga & Werner ( DZUP) ; Con- fluencia Xingu Kuluene , 2♀, VI.1947 ( MNRJ) ; Santo Antônio da Barra [sic], 1♀ ( MNHN) ; Vacaria [sic], 1♀, XII.1922 ( DEI) ; Sinop , 12°31’S 55°37’W, 1♂, X.1974, M. Alvarenga ( EMUS) GoogleMaps ; Cáceres , 1♂, 27.III.1985, Elias, C. ( DZUP) ; Chapada dos Parecis , 1♂, 15.XII.2001 ( EMUS) ; Mato Grosso do Sul: Chapada dos Guimarães, Chapada dos Guimarães , 1♀, 17.XI.2013, Melo, G.A.R., Luz, D.R., Williams, K.A. ( DZUP) ; Porto Murtinho , 1♀, XI.1929 ( DEI) ; Selviria, UNESP [Universidade Estadual de São Paulo] Farm , 1♀, 16.I.1990, C.A.H. Flechtmann ( EMUS) ; Tres lagoas, Horto Rio Verde, Champion , 1♀, 27.X.1994, C.A.H. Flechtmann ( EMUS) ; Corumbá, Imbirissú , 1♀, 01.XII.1960 ( MNCN) ; Maranhão: Mirador, Parque Estadual do Mirador: Base da Geraldina , 06°37’25’’S 45°52’08’’W, 1♀, 30.VII–06.VIII.2006, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, T.T.A. Silva & A.A. Santos ( CZMA) GoogleMaps ; Base dos Cágados , 06°48’29’’S 45°06’34’’W, 1♂, 27.IX–02.X.2011, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira & D.W.A. Marques ( CZMA) GoogleMaps ; Cândido Mendes, Fazenda Sete Irmãos , 01°51’37’’S 49°46’10’’W, 1♂, 03–06.X.2008, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, J.A. Rafael & P.A.M. Moraes ( CZMA) GoogleMaps ; Bom Jardim, Reserva Biológica do Gurupi , 1♀, 17–27.I.2010, F. Limeira-de- Oliveira, J.T. Câmara & M.B. Aguiar Neto ( CZMA) ; Caxias, Reserva Ecológica do Inhamum , 1♀, 10.VIII.2005, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira et al. ( CZMA) ; Carolina, Balneario Urupuxete , 2♀, 08–09.I.2008, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira ( CZMA) ; Imperatriz , 1♀, 1.VII.1974, Exp. Dept. Zoo. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] - UFPR [Universidade Federal do Paraná] ( DZUP) ; Roraima: Boa Vista, Cbio [sic] UFRR [Universidade Federal de Roraima], 1♀, 11.IX.2014, P.C.S. Barroso ( UFRR) ; Serra do Tepequém , Estrada do Igarapé do Barata, 2♀, 2♂, 14.XII.2015, Ra- fael et al. ( INPA) ; ESEC [ Estação Ecológica ] Maracá, L 4 - 2500 - P.50 – 250 [grid coordinates], 1♀, 24.II.2007 ( INPA) ; Alto Alegre, ESEC Maracá , 03°21’59’’N 61°26’04’’W, 8♂, 01–15.IV.2016, R. Boldrini e J.A. Rafael ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; Serra Grande , 2♀, 11–20.X.1992, D.W. Davis ( EMUS) ; Amajari, Estância Ecológica do SESC, Serra do Tepequém , 03°44’46’’N 61°43’40’’W, 1♂, 15–31.III.2016, R. Boldrini e J.A. Rafael ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; Caracaraí, P.N. [Parque Nacional] Viruá , 01°29’23.3’’N 61°00’08’’W, 4♂, 19.IV.2015, J.A. Rafael, R.A. Heleodoro, D.M.M. Mendes, D.W.A. Marques e C. Maldaner ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; Pacaraima , 1♂, 05–08.III.1988, Eq. [Equipe] J.A. Rafael ( INPA) ; Rondônia: Rancho Grande, 62 km S [South of] Ariquemas , 1♀, 08–20.IV.1997, A. Rehn & C. Alexander ( UCDC) ; Vil- hena, 1♀, 17.XII.1986, Elias,C. ( DZUP) ; 62 km SW [southwest of] Ariquemas, nr [near] Fzda [Fazenda] Rancho Grande : 1♀, 03–15.XII.1996, J.E. Eger ( FSCA) ; 5♂, 08–20.XI.1994, W.J. Hanson ( EMUS) ; Pará: Mangabeira, Mocajuba , 25♀ ( MNRJ) ; 1♀, III.1955 ( MNRJ) ; Gorotire, Xingú , 2♀, 18.IV.1983, W. Overal ( MPEG) ; [Santarém], Altér do Chão , 1♀, 16.X.1987, Izeldinha Miranda ( INPA) ; [ Ilha de] Marajó, Soure , 1♂, O. Bertram S.V. ( ZMB) ; Goiás : 24 mi E [miles east of] Formosa, 1♀, 16.V.1956, F.X. Truxal ( LACM) ; Leopoldo Bulhões , 1♀, XII.1933, Spitz ( MNCN) ; Serra da Mesa , 13°52’S 48°23’O, 1♀, Campinaçu, 02–15.XII.1995, Silvestre, Diaz & Campaner ( MZSP) GoogleMaps ; Trindade , 3♀, IX.1892 ( MNHN) ; Jatai , 1♀, XI.1971, Oliveira, F.M. ( DZUP) ; Niquelândia , 14°01’S 48°18’O, 1♀, 24.IX–06.X.1995 ( MZSP) GoogleMaps ; Rio Grande do Norte: Extremoz , 1♀, 07.IX.2007, Barca, R.R.B. ( UFRN) ; Macaíba, E.A.J. [Escola Agrícola Jundiaí] UFRN [ Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte ], 1♀, 07.V.2010, Castro, E.S. ( UFRN) ; Parnamirim, Mata do Jiqui , 1♀, 28.V.2008, Lima, D.C. ( UFRN) ; Tocantins: Ilha do Bananal , 1♀, 1931 ( MNHN) ; Miracema, P 12 e CM [sic], UHE [Usina Hidrelétrica] Lajeado , 1♀, 30.X.2001, Equipe de Res- gate ( UFT) ; Palmas , 1♀, 05.VI.2011, Fabiana Maione ( UFT) ; Porto Nacional , 1♀, 12.VII.2005, Parente S.G.G. ( UFT) ; São Paulo: Ilha Solteira , urban area, 1♀, 26.IX.1992, Vilamaior, P.S.L. ( EMUS) ; Estação Raiz da Serra , 1♀, XII.1907, H. Luederwaldt ( MZSP) ; Cajuru , 1♀, 30.XII.1985, Moure, J.S. ( DZUP) ; Distrito de Sousas, Jundiaí , 1♀, 03.VIII.1987 ( UFMG) ; Estrada Itú-Pau D’Alho, Km 4, Cerrado , 1♀, 30.X.1960 ( MNCN) ; Jundiahy [Jundiaí], 1♀, 1899 ( CUIC) ; Ribeirão Preto , 1♀, X.1953 ( MNCN) ; Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade, Rio Claro : 2♀, 14.VII.1987 ( UFMG) ; 2♀, 24.VI.1987 ( UFMG) ; T. [Teodoro] Sampaio, Pq.Est. [Parque Estadual] Morro do Diabo , 1♀, 5.XII.2010, Melo, G.A.R. & Luz, D. ( DZUP) ; Presidente Epitácio , 1♀, 10.X.1954 ( MZSP) ; Faz. [Fazenda] Itaquerê, Nova Europa , 1♀, 03.X.1964 ( EMUS) ; Distrito Federal: Brasília: FLONA [Floresta Nacional] de Brasília, Gleba 1 [sic], 1♀, 14.XI.2012, Luz, D. ( DZUP) ; Bahia: Riachão das Neves, BR 135, Faz. [Fazenda] Jacuba , 12°00’08”S 45°57’53”W, 1♀, 22.I.2009, Figueiredo, Almeida, Cezar ( MZSP) GoogleMaps ; Vitoria da Conquista, Poço Escuro , 14°50’28’’S 04°05’16’’W, 1♀, 12.I.2001, Maia, J.R. ( CPDC) GoogleMaps ; Amazonas, Manaus, AM 010, Km 29, EMBRAPA [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuárias] Amazônia Ocidental , 1♀, 13.V.2016 ( INPA) ; Paraná: Piraquara, Rede Entomológica , 1♀, 24.IV.2003, Maria, V.A. ( DZUP) ; Diamante do Norte, Estação Ecológica Caiuá , 1♀, 28.I.2012, Dias, F. ( DZUP) ; Ceará, Viçosa do Ceará, estrada para Padre Vieira , Km 3 ‘N [sic], 1♀, 28.V.2013, Dolibana & Pessoa ( DZUP) ; Barbalha : 1♂, V.1969, M. Alvarenga ( EMUS) ; 2♂, V.1969, M. Alvarenga ( FSCA) ; Espírito Santo, Linhares, Sooretama , 1♀, I.1949 ( MNRJ) ; PERU: El Campamiento, Col. Perone, 1♀, 04–07.VI.1920, Cornell Univ. [University] Expedition ( CUIC) ; Chanchamayo , 2♀, 22.VII.1948 ( UMMZ) ; Ucayali, Pucallpa , 200m [above sea level], 2♀, 11–20.XI.1964, J. Schunke ( EMUS) ; BOLIVIA: Beni: Guayaramerin , 2♀, XII.1956, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH) ; Versailles , 1♀, 19.VII.1964, J.K. Bouseman & J. Lussenhop ( AMNH) ; La Paz, Mupiri, Arroyo Tuhiri , 508m [above sea level], 15°17’26’’S 68°15’46’’W, 1♀, 12.IV.2004, S.D. Gaimari ( CSCA) GoogleMaps ; San Miguel , 2♀, XI.1906, Dr. T. Staecker S.V. ( ZMB) ; Yungas, Guanay, Uyapi , 2♀, X.1995, Gerlach ( AMNH) ; Santa Cruz: 3.7 mi SSE [miles south-southeast of] Buena Vista, Hotel Flora y Fauna , 2♀, 02–13.II.2000, B.K. Dozier ( FSCA) ; 40 km NW [northwest of] Santa Cruz, Potrerillo de Guenda , 1♀, 22.XI–12.XII.2005, B.K. Dozier ( FSCA) ; Buena Vista , 09.I.1991, Carpenter & Wenzel ( AMNH) ; Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens , 1♀, 15.XII.2004, Gino Nearns ( CMBC) ; PARAGUAY: San Pedro, Rio Ypane, Cororo , 8♀, XII.1983, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH) ; Tupi Loma , 23°30’S 56°45’W, 1♀, 11–20.XII.2006, U. Dreschel ( EMUS) GoogleMaps ; Concepcion, Cororo , 1♀, II.1993, Arriagada ( AMNH) . An additional 177♀ and 67♂ from various localities in BRAZIL, PERU, BOLIVIA, VENEZUELA and PARAGUAY have also been examined ( AMNH, ANSP, INHS, UCRC, DZUP, ZMUC, UFRR, MZSP, DGMC, MIUP, MNHN, MNRJ, EMUS, MNCN, CZMA, INPA, MPEG, FSCA, LACM, ANSP, RBINS, UFRN, UFT, UFMG, DEI, UMMZ, CUIC, NHM, CMBC, MCZC) .

Remarks. After the sex association of T. indica and T. selligera , the repeated co-ocurrence of T. almada and the four female species synonymous with T. parallela were the main basis for associating and synonymizing these species. Females of T. parallela are distinct in the shape of their mesosoma, with pronounced pronotal and propodeal spiracles, as well as the densely sculptured and obscurely striate lateral propodeal face. The type specimens of T. parallela , T. lineifera , T. indicoides , T. gausapata , and T. pillinata are structurally identical, differing only in setal and color patterns.


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Minnesota Insect Collection


American Museum of Natural History


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Illinois Natural History Survey


Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi


Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


Cornell University Insect Collection


University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology


California State Collection of Arthropods


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia














Traumatomutilla parallela ( Klug, 1821 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2022

Traumatomutilla pillinata

Casal, O. H. 1969: 285

Traumatomutilla gausapata

Mickel, C. E. 1952: 129

Traumatomutilla indicoides

Mickel, C. E. 1945: 42

Traumatomutilla almada: André, 1904: 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla lineifera: André, 1904: 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla optata: André, 1904: 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla parallela: André, 1904: 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lineifera André, 1903: 451

Andre, E. 1903: 451

Mutilla optata

Cresson, E. T. 1902: 53

Mutilla almada

Cresson, E. T. 1902: 74

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) optata: André, 1902: 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) parallela: André, 1902: 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Mutilla parallela

Klug, J. C. F. 1821: 315