Bulboctenus, Pereira & Labarque & Polotow, 2020

Pereira, Maria Paula, Labarque, Facundo & Polotow, Daniele, 2020, Description of a new Neotropical spider genus in the family Ctenidae Keyserling 1877 (Araneae: Lycosoidea) from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, Zootaxa 4890 (3), pp. 375-396: 376-377

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4890.3.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7A820343-9165-4275-9963-DC6B27FCAD3B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BD297F-3E73-3D32-FF48-3DE26B2059D7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bulboctenus
status

gen. nov.

Bulboctenus   gen. nov.

Type species. Bulboctenus kayapo   sp. nov.

Etymology. The generic name is a contraction of the words “bulbo” (Portuguese word for “bulb”) and “ctenus”, from the type genus Ctenus   . It refers to the presence of bulbous setae on the male legs III and IV. The gender is masculine.

Diagnosis. Bulboctenus   males are distinguished from those of other Cteninae   by the following characters: median apophysis oriented retrolaterally, perpendicular to the tegulum longitudinal axis ( Figs 1A View FIGURE 1 , 10 View FIGURE 10 A–C); RTA strongly excavated anteriorly ( Figs 1B View FIGURE 1 , 10B View FIGURE 10 ); the presence of bulbous setae in metatarsus III and IV ventrally ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 18A View FIGURE 18 ); and thick setae on the sternum and coxae, slightly thinner in females ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Bulboctenus   females are distinguished from those of other Cteninae   by the following characters: median sector of the epigyne hexagonal ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ); the presence of two posterior conical projections (PLP) in the median sector ventrally ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ); and elevated lateral margins of the median sector, forming a concavity next to the copulatory openings ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ).

Description. Medium sized ecribellate spiders. Total body length (males and females): 7.78–9.22. Carapace piriform, more accentuated in females, reddish brown, varying in specimens between lighter or darker ( Figs 9 View FIGURE 9 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 13 View FIGURE 13 ). Thoracic groove longitudinal, in the posterior third of the carapace ( Figs 4F View FIGURE 4 , 9 View FIGURE 9 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 13 View FIGURE 13 ). Eyes: 2-4-2 ctenoid pattern ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ), with the anterior and posterior row recurved in dorsal view ( Figs 9 View FIGURE 9 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 13 View FIGURE 13 ). Eyes round, except the oval ALE ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Clypeus with long, erect black bristles. Chelicerae: coloration like the carapace. Chelicerae promargin with three teeth, median twice as large as laterals, retromargin with four teeth of similar size, and intermarginal denticles ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ). Cheliceral basal boss prominent. Endites three times longer than labium ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ), with external lateral margins slightly excavated, and dense apical scopula ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Serrula subapical ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Maxillary glands clustered, labral tongue present ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Labium short, as long as wide, with rounded tip and dense apical scopula ( Figs 4B View FIGURE 4 , 5 View FIGURE 5 ). Sternum oval, not extending between legs IV ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). Trochanters deeply notched ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). Tibiae I and II with five pairs of ventral spines, and metatarsi I and II with three pairs of ventral spines. Metatarsi III and IV with bulbous setae, conical, grooved longitudinally, with a flatted tip that might extend into a small projection distally ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 18A View FIGURE 18 ). Trichobothrial bases transversely ridged ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ). Capsulated tarsal organ with dropshaped opening ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ). Tarsi with two pectinated claws with tufts of adhesive tenent setae inserted on moving plates (CT) in males and females ( Fig. 6A, B View FIGURE 6 ). Female palp with pectinated claw, apical teeth elongated ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ). Opisthosoma oval, light brown ventrally, dark brown dorsally, with a lighter central longitudinal band and numerous erect black bristles ( Figs 9 View FIGURE 9 , 11 View FIGURE 11 , 13 View FIGURE 13 ). Six spinnerets, no colulus ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ). ALS ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8A, D View FIGURE 8 ) and PLS ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8C, F View FIGURE 8 ) with two segments, PMS with one segment ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8B, E View FIGURE 8 ). ALS field with PI spigots interspersed with tartipores ( Fig. 8A, D View FIGURE 8 ). ALS with a pair of large MAP spigots on the inner side, one reduced to a nubbin ( Fig. 8A, D View FIGURE 8 ). PMS with small AC spigots ( Fig. 8B, E View FIGURE 8 ), two large apical mAP spigots in females ( Fig. 8E View FIGURE 8 ), without paracribellar spigots, and one large apical mAP spigot with a nubbin in males ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ). Female PMS have additional large CY spigots, with conical bases and long, conical shafts ( Fig. 8E View FIGURE 8 ). PLS conical apical segment with numerous AC spigots ( Fig. 8C, F View FIGURE 8 ), and CY spigots ( Fig. 8F View FIGURE 8 ) in females. Male palp ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 A–C, 10A–C, 12A–C, 17A–C): tibia straight, short (more than two thirds the size of the cymbium) ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 A–C); RTA strongly sclerotized, with wide base and rounded tip, excavated anteriorly ( Figs 1B View FIGURE 1 , 10 View FIGURE 10 A–B); ventral tibial process (VTP) short and round ( Figs 1B View FIGURE 1 , 10A View FIGURE 10 ); cymbium drop-shaped ventrally, with ventrobasal depression to accommodate the VTP, retrolateral cymbial process (RCP), and posterior dorsal projection ( Figs 10 View FIGURE 10 A–C, 15A–C); subtegulum enlarged prolaterally, visible next to the embolus ( Fig. 15A View FIGURE 15 ); tegulum suboval, with spermatic duct visible medially ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 A–C); embolus and median apophysis in a median hyaline area of the bulb ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 A–C); embolus wide with rectangular base and rounded tip, slightly curved retrolaterally ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 A–C); median apophysis cup-shaped, excavated laterally ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 A–C); conductor hyaline, wider than long, fixed by the center, guiding the tip of the embolus ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 A–C). Epigyne ( Figs 1D View FIGURE 1 , 10D View FIGURE 10 , 12D View FIGURE 12 , 17D View FIGURE 17 ): divided into median (MS) and lateral sectors ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ); copulatory opening located anteriorly, on the elevated lateral margins of the median sector ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ); lateral sectors with elongated and robust lateral projections (LP) medially, extending until the posterior margin of the epigyne ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ). Vulva ( Figs 1E, F View FIGURE 1 , 10E View FIGURE 10 , 12E View FIGURE 12 , 14E View FIGURE 14 , 17E View FIGURE 17 ): straight copulatory ducts ( Fig. 16E View FIGURE 16 ); short fertilization ducts, originating at the base of the spermathecae ( Fig. 16E View FIGURE 16 ); spermathecae small and round ( Fig. 16E View FIGURE 16 ).

Composition. Bulboctenus kayapo   sp. nov.; Bulboctenus itunaitata   sp. nov., and Bulboctenus munduruku   sp. nov.

Distribution. State of Pará, Brazil, in the cities of Santarém, Vitória do Xingú, Altamira and Novo Progresso ( Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 ).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Ctenidae