Pharothrips, Mound & Wells, 2020

Mound, Laurence A. & Wells, Alice, 2020, Two new monobasic thrips genera for a gall-inducing species and its kleptoparasite (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae), Zootaxa 4759 (3), pp. 421-426 : 424

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4759.3.8

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gen. nov.

Pharothrips View in CoL gen.n.

Macropterous sexually dimorphic Phlaeothripinae ; head more than twice as long as wide ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 8–17 ), eyes large, genae weakly concave with small tubercle behind each eye; po setae pointed, shorter than dorsal eye length; female head ventrally with pair of small tubercles between compound eyes ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 8–17 ), and long bifurcate tubercle extending forward from tentorial pits ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 8–17 ); males without anterior tubercles, and with bifurcate tubercle little more than a small ridge ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 8–17 ); maxillary stylets scarcely retracted anterior to postoccipital ridge. Antennae 8-segmented ( Figs 16–17 View FIGURES 8–17 ), III with one sense cone, IV with three; VIII scarcely half as long as VII. Pronotum longer than wide, without long setae; notopleural sutures complete ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 8–17 ). Prosternal basantra absent, ferna large with median margins parallel in female ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–17 ) but not in male ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 8–17 ); mesopresternum reduced to two very small oval sclerites; metathoracic sternopleural sutures present. Fore tibia stout with tubercle at inner apex, fore tarsus as long as tarsal width. Fore wing broad, parallel sided and apex not tapered, with relatively few duplicated cilia; sub-basal setae small to minute. Mesonotum broad, weakly sculptured with lateral setae small; metanotum without sculpture medially, with longitudinal reticulation laterally. Pelta reticulate, triangular ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–17 ); tergites II–VII each with 2 pairs of long wing-retaining setae situated close to lateral margins; often with one median campaniform sensilla or these sensilla absent; tergite IX setae pointed, almost as long as tube ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 8–17 ). Sternites with irregular transverse row of discal setae; marginal setae S1 shorter than sternite length, arising submarginally. Male similar to female but smaller; head ventrally with area posterior to tentorial pits recessed and bearing several setae ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 8–17 ); prosternal ferna with convex inner margins; tergite IX setae S2 slightly shorter than S1; sternite VIII without pore plate.

Type species Pharothrips hynnis sp.n.

Comments. This genus is clearly a member of the Liothrips lineage of Phlaeothripinae , judging from the antennal sense cones, the absence of prosternal basantra, and the parallel-sided fore wings ( Minaei & Mound 2014). General similarities in body form to genera from Southeast Asia such as Phasmothrips and Gigantothrips could be related to the large body size and long head. The maxillary stylets are not deeply retracted into the head in the species of all three genera, and the tergal wing-retaining setae are similarly lateral in position, although this could be related to the broad fore wings. A particularly large number of character states are shared with the two species of Turmathrips , described from Australia as kleptoparasites of certain Kladothrips species that induce galls on Acacia phyllodes ( Crespi et al. 2004). However, both Turmathrips species have the mesonotum with a complete median longitudinal division. The presence of structurally remarkable autapomorphies, such as the unique tubercle ventrally on the head in Pharothrips , is a frequent problem when considering relationships among Phlaeothripinae ( Dang et al. 2014; Mound & Ng 2018). Despite this remarkable structure, the genus is possibly related to Drypetothrips , but again molecular data would be needed to consider such a possibility.

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