Hasemania uberaba, Serra & Langeani, 2015
Serra, Jane Piton & Langeani, Francisco, 2015, A new Hasemania Ellis from the upper rio Paraná basin, with the redescription of Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry (Characiformes: Characidae), Neotropical Ichthyology (Neotrop. Ichthyol.) 13 (3), pp. 479-486: 480-482
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Hasemania uberaba , new species
u r n:l s i d:z o o b a n k.o r g:a c t: 5515B2 2 2-B 4F3- 4 858-A B31- 903B44F7F508
Hasemania crenuchoides non Zarske & Géry, 1999: Langeani et al., 2007 (119: fig. 1; 119 and 120: rio Grande basin; 121: morphometrics and meristics comparisons with H. crenuchoides holotype ( MZUSP 52723 View Materials ) and two paratypes ( MHNG 2594.044 View Materials ).
Hasemania melanura non Ellis, 1911: Uieda et al., 1987 (rio Claro, rio Paranaíba basin; 101: fig. 2A; 102: reference; 107: tab. IV and 108: tab. V, stomach contents).
Holotype. DZSJRP 18781, male, 70 mm SL, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Ponte Alta, Serra do Grotão, road BR 262, headwaters of rio Uberaba , córrego São Pedro , rio Grande basin, upper rio Paraná, 1020 m a.s.l., 19 o 40’59”S 47 o 40’09”W, 15 Feb 2013, D. C. Ribeiro. GoogleMaps
Paratypes. DZSJRP 8730, 133 (4 c&s), 29.6-62.4 mm SL, 30.9-43.8 mm SL, same locality as holotype, 8 Sep 2006, F. Langeani, J. P. Serra-Sanches, F GoogleMaps . R. Carvalho, H. F. Chaves, C. P. Ferreira & F. O. Martins . DZSJRP 15803, 66, 14.2- 52.4 mm SL, same locality as holotype, 11 Mar 2012, F. Langeani, F. O. Martins & F GoogleMaps . R. Carvalho . DZSJRP 19239, 5, 33.9-54.1 mm SL, collected with the holotype .
Diagnosis. Hasemania uberaba is distinguished from congeners by having a black, vertically-elongate humeral spot (vs. spot absent except for H. crenuchoides , H. kalunga , H. nambiquara , and H. piatan ), a single ossification in the position primitively occupied by infraorbitals four and five (vs. infraorbitals four and five separate, except in H. kalunga and H. piatan ), 4 inner row premaxillary teeth (vs. 5 except in H. nana , H. melanura , and H. piatan ), and scales covering the anal-fin base (vs. scales absent except in H. crenuchoides , H. hanseni , H. maxillaris , H. melanura , H. nambiquara , and H. nana ). Hasemania uberaba can be also distinguished from H. kalunga and H. piatan by having 14- 18 circumpeduncular scales (vs. 10-12); from H. hanseni , H. maxillaris , and H. nambiquara by having 10-15 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 16-19); from H. hanseni , H. melanura , and H. nana by having 6-10 scales covering the anal-fin base (vs. 2-5), and from H. maxillaris and H. nambiquara by having 7-8 branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 9). Additionally, H. uberaba differs from H. melanura by having maxillary teeth (vs. absent); from H. maxillaris by having, 6-7 branched pelvicfin rays (vs. 5), from H. nambiquara by the absence of a broad black band in the midlateral line, from the humeral region to the caudal-fin (vs. presence of such band). Finally, most specimens of H. uberaba have 18 principal caudal-fin rays (vs. 19 in most other species except H. piatan ).
Description. Morphometric data in Table 1 View Table 1 . Body deep and transversely rounded; greatest body depth between tip of supraoccipital spine and dorsal-fin origin. Head moderately deep, rounded anteriorly in lateral profile; eye small. Dorsal profile of head distinctly convex from margin of upper lip to region of vertical through anterior nostril, straight to slightly concave from that point to posterior tip of supraoccipital spine in mature males and immatures, greatly concave in mature females. Dorsal profile of head and body slightly convex from tip of supraoccipital spine to dorsal-fin origin, posteroventrally inclined along dorsalfin base, straight from terminus of dorsal-fin base to origin of caudal-fin rays. Ventral profile of head and body convex from margin of lower lip to posterior terminus of anal-fin base. Ventral profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave. Infraorbital series incomplete, with only four bones, single ossification in position primitively occupied by infraorbitals four and five and infraorbital 6 absent. Rhinosphenoid cartilaginous.
Jaws equal, mouth terminal. Premaxillary dentition in two rows. Outer row with 3(4) or 4*(28) tricuspid teeth and inner row with 4*(31) or 5 (1) teeth with 3 to 6 cups. Maxilla with 1(5), 2(17), 3(8), 4(1) or 5*(1) teeth bearing 1 to 6 cusps. Dentary with 4*(32) larger teeth anteriorly with 4 or 5 cusps, followed by 5 to 9 distinctly smaller teeth with 1 to 3 cusps.
Dorsal-fin rays ii,7(1) or ii,8*(32). Distal margin of dorsal fin usually rounded. Anal-fin rays iii-iv,10(1), 11(2), 12(3), 13(14), 14*(9) or 15(4). Pectoral-fin rays i, 10(6), 11*(22) or 12(5). Tip of pectoral fin falling short of vertical through pelvic-fin insertion. Pelvic-fin rays i,6*(27) or 7(4). Caudal fin forked, lobes rounded and of similar size. Principal caudal-fin rays i,8/7,i(2); i,8/8/,i*(43); i,9/8,i(5). Adipose fin absent.
Scales cycloid. Lateral line incomplete. Pored scales 8(3), 9(8), 10(6), 11(1), 12(7), 13(4), 14*(1) or 15(1). Longitudinal scale series including perforated scales 28(2), 29(2), 30(9), 31(5), 32(6), 33(3), 34(3) or 35*(1). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin 5*(15) or 6(17). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 4(23) or 5*(9). Scale sheath along basal portion of anal-fin rays with 6(2), 7(5), 8*(7), 9(7) or 10(3) scales in single series. Scales between tip of supraoccipital process and dorsal-fin origin 10(2), 11(5), 12*(10), 13(1), 14(3), 15(1) or 16(1). Horizontal scale rows around caudal peduncle 14(2), 15(8), 16*(17), 17(1) or 18(1). Scales present only over caudal-fin base. Vertebrae 34(2) or 35(2). First gill arch with 6(2) epibranchial, 8(2) ceratobranquial, 1(2) on cartilage between ceratobranchial and epibranchial, and 2(2) hypobranchial gill-rakers. Supraneurals 5(2) or 6(2).
Color in alcohol. Preserved specimens with dark bodies, chromatophores concentrated mainly dorsally and along posterior margin of scales, resulting in slightly reticulated pattern. Irregular, vertically elongate humeral spot. Longitudinal, mid-lateral stripe extending from vertical midway between head and dorsal-fin origin posteriorly to middle caudal-fin rays. Fins with chromatophores more concentrated along rays than on membranes ( Figs. 1-2 View Fig View Fig ).
Color in life. Live specimens have conspicuous reticulated color pattern, scales with metallic bluish-purple reflections. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, mainly the last one, reddish with dark rays.
Sexual dimorphism. Females with a conspicuous concavity along dorsal profile between vertical passing through the posterior nostril to the posterior portion of the head ( Fig. 2 View Fig ). Bony hooks along pelvic and anal-fin rays were not observed in any specimen.
larvae ( Diptera ), other angiosperms and Trichoptera, and one mostly Diptera larvae, followed by angiosperms and tecamoebas; Uieda et al. (1987: tables IV and V) refer to algae, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Trichoptera, Diptera, Megaloptera , and organic matter (autochthonous items) and angiosperms, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Hymenoptera (allochthonous items) in the stomachs of the specimens of the species they examined (identified therein as H. melanura ).
Etymology. The species name, uberaba , is in reference to the rio Uberaba, where the species is found. A noun in apposition.
Distribution. Hasemania uberaba is only known from its type locality in the headwaters of the rio Uberaba, rio Grande basin, upper rio Paraná basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil (see Carvalho & Langeani, 2013: figs. 4-5).
Ecological notes. Headwaters of the rio Uberaba are a marshland with abundant Cyperacea, Poacea and algae, crystalline water and muddy bottom (Carvalho & Langeani, 2013: fig. 5). Hasemania uberaba was captured jointly with a new genus and new species of Crenuchidae , the most abundant species (under analysis), Hyphessobrycon uaiso Carvalho & Langeani , and Rivulus sp. The larger, less numerous, specimens among H. uberaba could be easily seen among the smaller specimens of the other species. They swim in open water or sheltered areas with submerged vegetation. Among the specimens examined for stomach contents, one consumed angiosperms and Chironomidae Conservation status. Hasemania uberaba until now was only confirmed to occur in the type-locality (area of occupancy AOO less than 10 km 2). There is a putative new reference for the species, based on a fish drawing (fig. 2A, Uieda et al., 1987, referred as Hasemania melanura ), in the rio Claro, rio Paranaíba basin, a locality very near the type-locality; this additional occurrence, however, could not be confirmed because the specimens analyzed by Uieda et al. (1987) were not conserved and all recent efforts to collect the species in the rio Claro were unsuccessful. The small geographic area (one location) harbors a very peculiar kind of habitat (see “Ecological notes” above) and is limited by a paved road (BR 262) and land areas with agriculture. Furthermore, the waters of the rio Uberaba are used by human consumption and since the southeastern Brazil is suffering a long drought ( Escobar, 2015), this can contribute to a decay of the water levels in the basin, which now seems to be a serious plausible threat that can drive the species to critically endangered or extinct in a very short time, allowing to its classification as Vulnerable (VU D2) according to the IUCN (2001, 2011). In spite of that, it is now preferable to consider Hasemania uberaba as Data Deficient (DD) until more information about its biology and geographical distribution is available, as already pointed out by Carvalho & Langeani (2013) for Hyphessobrycon uaiso , a syntopic characid species.
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
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