Eucyclops agiloides (G.O. Sars, 1909 ),

Hołyńska, Maria, Sługocki, Łukasz, Ghaouaci, Souad & Amarouayache, Mounia, 2021, Taxonomic status of Macaronesian Eucyclops agiloides azorensis (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Copepoda) revisited - morphology suggests a Palearctic origin, European Journal of Taxonomy 750, pp. 1-28: 15-22

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Eucyclops agiloides (G.O. Sars, 1909 )


Eucyclops agiloides (G.O. Sars, 1909) 

Figs 7−11View FigView FigView FigView FigView Fig; Tables 4−5

Cyclops agiloides G.O. Sars, 1909: 59  , figs 183−188.

? Eucyclops agiloides  − Alekseev & Defaye 2011: 61, fig. 7. — Alekseev 2019: 499.

Material examined


TANZANIA • ♀ (undissected); Lake Victoria , Bukoba [Musila?] island (locality information is from Sars 1909); 1°19.9′ S, 31°48.7′ E; 25(?) Apr. 1905; W.A. Cunnington, Third Tanganyika exped.; labelled as “ Cyclops agiloides GOS  , 269, Vict. Nyanza 437, Typical specimen, Type, ♀, 1909.6.24.303 ”; NHM.GoogleMaps 


TANZANIA • 1 ♀; same collection data as for holotype; labelled as “ Cyclops agiloides GOS  , 437, 269 Vict. Nyanza, Syntype, Anatomy, ♀, 1909.6.24.300 ”; body parts were re-embedded in glycerine after solving the old (likely Hoyer) mounting medium in water; NHMGoogleMaps  .

ZAMBIA • 1 ♀ (undissected); Lake Tanganyika, Niamkolo [Kumbula] island; 8°45.3′ S, 31°5.9′ E; 19 Sep. 1904; W.A. Cunnington, Third Tanganyika exped.; labelled as “ Cyclops agiloides GOS  , 437, Tanganyika 97, Syntype, ♀, 1909.6.24.302”; NHM. Collection data were retrieved from Sars (1909), information on the Sars collection deposited in Oslo Zoological Museum (Åse Ingvild Wilhelmsen, in litt. 21 June 2019), and a map showing the route of the W.A. Cunnington Expedition 1904−1905 in Lake Tanganyika, published by Karlsson & Karlsson (2019).

Other material

TANZANIA • 3 ♀♀; Lake Tanganyika , Kirando, river mouth ; 7°21.6′ S, 30°36.6′ E; 1926; S. Pask leg.; identified as Eucyclops agiloides  by R. Gurney, 1930 II 6 4−8; NHM. ♀-1 and ♀-2 were fully dissected, while in ♀-3 the antennule, antenna, the mouthparts and P1 were removed from the corpus and embedded in glycerol medium, and rest of the body remained in ethyl-alcoholGoogleMaps  .

Comparative material

Eucyclops roseus 

CHINA • 2 ♀♀; Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region , Bogda-Shan Mountain Range, Tianchi Lake; 43°53.2′ N, 88°7.95′ E; 2000 m a.s.l.; 1 Jun.−1 Jul. 2011; E.S. Chertoprud, A.Y. Sinev and I. Dimante- Deimantovica leg.; MIZ 1/2021/23, MIZ 1/2021/24GoogleMaps  .

IRAQ • 3 ♀♀; South Iraq, Al Salal marsh, 20 km NW of Basra; 30°40′ N, 47°36′ E; 24 Mar. 2012; S.D. Salman and M. Hołyńska leg.; lake shore; MIZ 5/2014/1 to 5/2014/3GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Shatt al Arab River, Basra; 30°31′ N, 47°49′ E; 21 Mar. 2012; S.D. Salman and M. Hołyńska leg.; MIZ 5/2014/4, MIZ 1/2021/21GoogleMaps  .

RUSSIA • 1 ♀; Siberia , Yakutia , Kobiyanskiy Ulus County, Anga River , Melnikov Island; 63°51.9′ N, 127°27.05′ E; 21 Aug. 2010; A.A. Kotov leg.; MIZ 1/2021/22GoogleMaps  .

SUDAN • 1 ♀; Khartoum State; Oct. 2012 – Jul. 2013; G.M. Idris leg.; MIZ 1/2021/20  .

UKRAINE • 2 ♀♀; Arabatska Strilka [Arabat Spit], Strilkove Village; 45°54′ N, 34°52.8′ E; originally labelled as Eucyclops serrulatus  ; V.I. Monchenko collection; IZANGoogleMaps  .

1. = body length (μm); 2. = cephalothorax, length/ width; 3. = genital double-somite, length/ width; 4. = length of prosome/ length of urosome; 5. = length of caudal seta V/ length urosome; 6. = P5, length of medial spine/ length of segment; 7. = P5, length of apical seta /length of segment; 8. = P5, length of lateral seta / length of segment; 9. = caudal ramus, length/ width; 10. = length of caudal seta II/ length of caudal ramus; 11. = distance of insertion of caudal seta II, measured from posterior end of ramus/ length of caudal ramus; 12. = caudal setae, VII / III; 13. = caudal setae, VI/ III; 14. = caudal setae, V/ III; 15. = caudal setae, IV/ III; 16. = length of caudal seta VI/ length of caudal ramus; 17. = length of caudal seta V /length of caudal ramus; 18. = length of caudal seta IV/ length of caudal ramus; 19. = length of caudal seta III/ length of caudal ramus; 20. = P4, length of coxopodite seta /height of medial expansion of basipodite; 21. = P4 enp3, length/width; 22. = P4 enp3, medial terminal spine /lateral terminal spine; 23. = P4 enp3, medial terminal spine /segment length.



HABITUS. Total body length 0.9−1.1 mm (for morphometric characters see Table 4). Pediger 4 and pediger 5 posterolaterally bearing long fine hairs and thick (spinule-like) hairs, respectively ( Fig. 8View Fig A−B) – pilosity of pediger 4 could only be verified in females from Kirando, Lake Tanganyika. Genital double-somite ( Fig. 8BView Fig) as long or slightly shorter than wide. Seminal receptacle as common in genus ( Fig. 8BView Fig), anterior and posterior parts short in length, posterior part wider than anterior, single large copulatory pore in anterior fifth of somite. Anal operculum ( Fig. 8DView Fig) nearly straight, anal sinus with longitudinal rows of hairs, posterior margin bearing continuous row of robust spinules. Caudal rami ( Fig. 8DView Fig) 4.0−6.0 times as long as wide, no hairs on medial margin. Serra extending from insertion of anterolateral (II) caudal seta to anterior ⅕−⅙ of rami. Seta II inserted in posterior ¼−⅕ of caudal ramus. Spinules present next to insertion of posterolateral (III) caudal seta. Relative length of caudal setae in Table 4.

ANTENNULE. 12-segmented, reaching middle length to posterior margin of pediger 2. Setation formula same as in E. azorensis  . Aesthetasc ( Fig. 7AView Fig) on segment 9 short, ~12 μm in length, not reaching distal margin of segment. Segments 10−12 with smooth (very finely serrate) hyaline membrane. First antennular segment bearing spinules on ventral surface, spinules absent on other segment. Terminal antennulary segment 5.0−7.1 times as long as wide.

ANTENNA. Composed of coxobasis and three-segmented endopodite, and bearing 3, 1, 9 and 7 setae, respectively. Exopodite seta reaching slightly (paratype, Lake Victoria) or distinctly (Kirando, Lake Tanganyika) beyond enp3, proximal setules can be similar in length or distinctly longer than setules in distal section of seta ( Figs 7BView Fig, 8FView Fig). Caudal surface ornamentation of antennal coxobasis ( Figs 7BView Fig, 8EView Fig) with same groups of spinules as those in E. azorensis  in lateral half of segment, except for additional group of spinules next to distal margin (group marked with arrow in Fig. 7BView Fig). Medial half of segment with reduced ornamentation: few spinules sometimes present at height of insertion medial setae ( Fig. 7BView Fig), or below setae ( Fig. 8EView Fig). Frontal surface ( Figs 7CView Fig, 8FView Fig) adorned with spinule-like hairs next to distal margin, hairs absent mediodistally, longitudinal/oblique row of spinules (8−13) along lateral margin, and oblique rows of large and small spinules near proximal margin.

MOUTHPARTS. Labrum ( Fig. 8GView Fig) with naked epistoma, distal fringe hairs arranged in two groups, teeth acute on distal rim, obtuse lateral lobes with tiny spinules. Paragnaths ( Fig. 8HView Fig) bearing longitudinal rows of hairs on outer (ventral) surface, longitudinal row of spinules more dorsally (indicated by dotted line in Fig. 8HView Fig), mediodistal lobe with group of spinules. Four medial claw-like elements (three inserted close to each other and one inserted more distally) located slightly dorsally to hairs on outer (ventral) surface (not shown in figure). Long spinules present posterior to paragnaths. Mandible ( Figs 7DView Fig, 9AView Fig) bearing two long and one short seta. Near palp transverse row of long spinules and smaller spinules arranged in row rather than oval pattern present on anterior surface of gnathobase. Maxillulary palp ( Figs 7DView Fig, 9View Fig B−C) with few spinules arranged in discontinuous row/arc. Setation of maxilla ( Fig. 9View Fig D−E) as common in Eucyclops  , endopodite 2-segmented. Praecoxopodite and coxopodite separated on caudal surface and partially fused on frontal surface; short transverse row of spinules present near lateral margin on caudal surface ( Fig. 9EView Fig, marked with arrow). Armature of maxilliped ( Fig. 9View Fig F−G) as common in Eucyclops  , arthrodial membrane between terminal endopodal segment and its medialmost seta failed to form. Basipodite with two rows of spinules on caudal surface. Tiny dents on free margin of flap-like structure ( Fig. 9GView Fig, marked with arrow) sometimes present (maxilliped could be verified in specimens from Kirando, Lake Tanganyika).

P1−P4. Setation formula same as in E. azorensis  ( Table 2). P1 intercoxal sclerite ( Fig. 9HView Fig) naked on both frontal and caudal surfaces in all specimens examined (one paratype from Lake Victoria and three females from Kirando, Lake Tanganyika). P2−P3 intercoxal sclerites ( Fig. 10 B, DView Fig): hairs arranged in two groups present on frontal surface in both legs; transverse row of spinules present or absent on caudal surface in P2 and present in P3. P4 intercoxal sclerite ( Figs 7EView Fig, 10EView Fig) caudally bearing hairlike spinules in two (three) rows, free margin avoid of hairs in middle; frontal surface naked. Coxopodite setae with long and fine setules in P1, and short and thick setules in P2−P4 ( Figs 9HView Fig, 10BView Fig, D−E). P4 coxopodite seta lacking setules in short proximal section on lateral margin (two ♀♀, Kirando, Lake Tanganyika) – whole length (continuous) setulation shown in Sars (1909). Caudal surface ornamentation of P4 coxopodite ( Figs 7EView Fig, 10EView Fig) as common in genus; number of spinules 20, 21 (two ♀♀, Kirando, Lake Tanganyika) in transverse row along distal margin. Medial expansion of basipodites pilose in P1−P4. Medial seta of P1 basipodite ( Fig. 9HView Fig) with short setules, seta reaching beyond distal margin of enp2. Second exopodal segment laterally pilose, exp1 and exp3 laterally naked in P1−P4 ( Figs 7View Fig E−F, 9H−I, 10A, C, E−F). P4 enp3 ( Figs 7GView Fig, 10GView Fig) 2.2−2.4 times as long as wide, medial terminal spine 1.4−1.5 times as long as lateral spine, and about as long as segment ( Table 4). None of setae of P4 enp3 reaching beyond tip of longer (medial) terminal spine.

P5 ( Fig. 8CView Fig). One-segmented, with three appendages. Medial spine distinctly longer than segment ( Table 4), small spinules present at insertion of spine. Apical seta 1.4 (paratype, L. Victoria) to 2.3 (Kirando, Lake Tanganyika) times as long as medial spine, lateral seta and medial spine subequal in length.



Geographic distribution and habitat preferences

Eucyclops agiloides  has been reported from various regions of Africa, Asia and even Eastern Europe: Lake Malawi ( Alekseev & Defaye 2011), Ethiopia ( Defaye 1988), Nigeria ( Boxshall & Braide 1991), Northern Algeria ( Hamaidi et al. 2010), Crimea, Lesser Caucasus and Talysh region (South Azerbaijan) ( Monchenko 2003), China ( Tai & Chen 1979 − E. agiloides  was considered by these authors as a synonym of E. serrulatus  ), India ( Kiefer 1939; Lindberg 1939; Dev Roy & Venkataraman 2018), Sumatra and Java ( Kiefer 1933), and Borneo ( Alekseev et al. 2016). Part of these records may refer to other taxa (e.g., E. roseus  ), and the geographic distribution of the species is still poorly understood ( Fig. 11View Fig shows only the verified records). The same holds true for the habitat preferences of E. agiloides  . The specimens examined here were collected in large lakes and a river mouth in Lake Tanganyika, yet precise information on the collection sites is missing.














Eucyclops agiloides (G.O. Sars, 1909 )

Hołyńska, Maria, Sługocki, Łukasz, Ghaouaci, Souad & Amarouayache, Mounia 2021

Eucyclops agiloides

Alekseev V. R. 2019: 499
Alekseev V. R. & Defaye D. 2011: 61

Cyclops agiloides G.O. Sars, 1909: 59

Sars G. O. 1909: 59