Espeson titschacki BERNHAUER, 1941: 278,

Irmler, U., 2012, The Neotropical species of the genera Pseudespeson L, 1994 and Espeson S, 1882 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Osoriinae), Beiträge Zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology 62 (2), pp. 331-360: 348-351

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.21248/contrib.entomol.62.2.331-360

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4812915

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03BB87E5-FFE5-FFC3-AEC7-FBFEFDE5FEBD

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Espeson titschacki BERNHAUER, 1941: 278
status

 

Espeson titschacki BERNHAUER, 1941: 278  ( Figs 7View Figs 6-8 a-e, 16B)

Type material examined:

Peru: Ayacucho, Sivia (73°51.09'W, 12°30.45'S) (male holotype FMNH); 3 females with same data as holotype (paratypes, FMNH, NHMW)GoogleMaps  ; from the same location, leaf litter; female 22.5.1936, leg. Titschack (paratypes, FMNH)GoogleMaps  .

Further material examined:

Mexico: Nayarit (104°50.42'W, 21°45.07'S), junction San Blas and Tepec roads 300 m elevation, 64 specimens, 4.8.1960, without information of the collector ( AMNH, UIC)GoogleMaps  ; Venezuela: Bolivar, Carabobo (61.24'W, 6.18'N), Via Palmichal , 750-850 m elevation, 3 males, 9 females, Nov. 2005, leg. Brachat ( UIC, VAC)  , 900 m elevation; 2 females, 22.11.2005, leg. Brachat ( UIC, VAC)  ; Ecuador: Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Colorados (79°10'W, 0°14'S), 17 km SE, Tinalandia, 900 m elevation, 1 male, 1 female, 16.- 21.10.1988, 1 female 19.- 20.5.1998, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Pastaza, 2.6 km S of Santa Clara , (01°17'20"S, 77°53'20"W), 790 m elevation, secondary lowland forest with sparse understory vegetation, shaded, sifting leaf litter between tabular roots, 2 females, 15.- 16.11.2006, leg. Fikacek & Skuhrovec ( NMPC)GoogleMaps  ; Alluriquin, 43 km N, Las Palmeras, old Qto-Sto. Dgo. rd. km 59, litter, 23.10.1988, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH)  ; Limoncocha , 40 km E Puerto Francisco  Orellana, Rio  Napo, 2 females, 21.- 27.9.1979, leg. Balogh ( HNMB)  ; Napo, 35.5 km NE El Chaco, Cascadas San Rafael (00°06'00"S, 77°34'51"W), 1200 m elevation, low primary forest on summit of river gorge, sparse understory vegetation, lot of leaf litter, sifting leaf litter, 2 males, 1 female, 29.11.2006, leg. Fikacek & Skuhrovec ( NMPC)GoogleMaps  ; Peru: Cuzco, Madre de Dios, Cuzco Amazonica , secondary forest (69°02'06W, 12°36'48S), 300 m elevation, 5 males, 16 females; 17.5.1995, leg. D. Agosti ( AMNH, UIC)GoogleMaps  ; Junin, San Ramón de Pangoa (75°19'60W, 11°07'60S), 40 km SE Satipo, 750 m elevation, male, 25.3.1972, leg. R. T. Schuh ( UIC)GoogleMaps  ; Huanuco, Panguana (74°56'W, 9°37'S), Chocha, female, 15.3.1976, leg. W. Hanagarth ( UIC)GoogleMaps  ; Brazil: Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia , Aug. 1953, female, leg. F. Plaumann ( AMNH)  ; Mato Grosso, Nossa Sinhora de Livramento (56°36.24'W, 16°15.24'S), Pirizal, Faz. Retiro Novo , from V. divergens tree collected by fogging, female, 22.02.2000, leg. M. Marques ( UFMT)GoogleMaps  . Paraguay: Puerto Presidente Stroessner (Ciudad del Este: 54°61.67'W, 25°51.67S) Hungarian Soil-Zoology Exp. , 1 females, 5.1.1966, leg. Balogh et Mahunka ( HNMB)  ; Puerto Presidente Stroessner (Ciudad del Este: 54°61.67'W, 25°51.67'S) Hungarian Soil-Zoology Exp. , Acaray waterfall, 1 female, 2.1.1966, leg. Loksa ( HNMB)  ; Argentina: Salta, Aguas Blancas-Yaculica (64°22.25'W, 22°43.44'S), 460 m elevation, yungas forest, leaf litter, female, 25.10.1994, leg. J. Carpenter & D. Agosa ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis:

The species is very similar to E. pecki  , E. adisi  and E. moratus  in size and colouration. It differs from E. adisi  in the presence of the two pronotal impressions. Females are very similar to E. pecki  , because both species have similar pronotal impressions in the midline. It is distinguished from E. pecki  by the longer antennae and in the male by the different shape of tergite VIII that is elongate and semicircular at apex in E. titschacki  , but short and emarginate in E. pecki  .

Description:

Length: 1.6 mm. Colour: yellow.

Head: 0.20 mm long, 0.25 mm wide; eyes as long as temples, with more than 12 ocellae and distinctly visible in dorsal aspect; temples more or less parallel; fore-head straightly narrowed to more or less acute front edge of clypeus; setiferous punctation laterad denser than on disc; setae pointing to middle; with impunctate midline on vertex; surface laterad with remains of microsculpture; on disc without microsculpture; surface polished and shiny.

Antennae as long as head and pronotum combined; 1 st antennomere thick; 2 nd globular and as thick as conical 3 rd antennomere; following four antennomeres more or less quadrate; 8 th antennomere only slightly narrower and smaller than 7 th and 9 th antennomere; 9 th and 10 th antennomere slightly wider than long.

Pronotum: 0.25 mm long, 0.30 mm wide; with fine lateral margin visible in its total length in dorsal aspect; deeply emarginate in posterior half; anterior edge approximately 1.5 times as wide as posterior edge; densely and deeply punctate; distance between setiferous punctures on average half as wide as diameter of punctures; in midline with impressions in both anterior and posterior half; surface with remains of microsculpture, but mostly polished and shiny.

Elytra: 0.30 mm long, 0.35 mm wide; with similar deep and dense setiferous punctation as pronotum; surface with remains of microsculpture, but moderately polished and shiny.

Abdomen on tergites III to VI more weakly, but as densely punctate as elytra; density of punctation decreasing posteriad; microsculpture more distinct than on fore-body; surface less shiny; tergite VIII of male straightly narrowed to rounded apex; sparsely punctate.

Aedeagus slender with apical part nearly as long as basal part; paramera slightly longer than central lobe and with small apical transparent plate.

Remarks:

No differences could be found between the Mexican specimens and the South American specimens, which let suppose that the species might also occur in other Central American countries.

4 Discussion

The remarkable structure of the aedeagus, in particular, the structure of the paramera with the suction-cup-like apical appendix, at least in the genus Espeson  , is unique in the family Staphylinidae  . Moreover, it seems that the paramera are divided into two parts, similar to the subfamily Aleocharinae  . Although the overall habit of the fore-body resembles that in the genus Glyptoma Erichson, 1839  , the structure of the aedeagus suggests that both genera are not closely related to Glyptoma  as already emphasised by Irmler (2010). Lecoq (1994) mentioned the smaller 8 th antennomere as characteristic to differentiate Pseudespeson  from Espeson  , but as the comparison of all Espeson species  showed the size of the 8 th antennomere varies in this genus. In several species, e.g. E. moratus  , the 8 th antennomere equals 7 th and 9 th antennomere in size, but in other species, e.g. E. microphthalmus  and E. nevermanni  , it is distinctly smaller. In some species, e.g. E. simplex  and E. pecki  , 8 th antennomere is only slightly smaller than 7 th or 9 th antennomeres. Thus, this character is not appropriate to differentiate the two genera. Furthermore, Lecoq (1994) also noted the shape of the last abdominal tergite as differentiating character between the two genera. Indeed, in the two Neotropical Pseudespeson species  the last abdominal tergite is of triangular shape with short apical spine. In Espeson  , a triangular shape of the last tergite without spine is found in E. titschacki  , a central spine at an emarginate posterior edge is found in E. hermani  . The distinct sexual dimorphism in Espeson  with simple triangular shape of last abdominal tergites, i.e. E. titschacki  , and various shapes in males indicates that the variance in the shape of the last abdominal tergite might be high and provide no valuable differentiating character, too.

The geographic distributions of the species are still vague due to the rare records of the species. The genus Pseudespeson  was recorded from extreme distant locations, i.e. Guadeloupe and southern Brazil, which indicates that species might occur also in other Neotropical countries. In particular, P. nitens  that was recorded from The Caribbean, Brazil and Peru shows a wide distribution, but seem to be rare. In contrast, the species of the genus Espeson  are widely distributed from Mexico to Argentina. Some, e.g. E. moratus  and E. titschacki  , seem to be distributed over the whole Neotropical region or at least in a wide area of South America and the Caribbean. Others, i.e. E. dybasi  , were found from several localities of southern Central America and the northern Andean region of South America. Thus, similar geographical distributions can be assumed as in other osorine genera ( Irmler 2007, 2010).

Concerning the ecology of the species, our knowledge is similarly poor as for the geographical distribution. Referring to the information given on the labels by the collectors, many specimens were found in litter of rain forests. Nevertheless, also other habitats are recorded, e.g. E. adisi  was also found by tree eclectors, E. nevermanni  was found under bark, and E. moratus  even in nests of ants. These records indicate that a variety of habitats may be inhabited by the species.

5 References

Bernhauer, M. 1910: Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). – Beiträge zur Fauna Perus 1: 277-293.

Bernhauer, M. 1942: Neue Staphyliniden aus Kostarika. – Zoologischer Anzeiger 138: 1-27.

Fauvel, A. 1902: Staphylinides exotiques nouveaux – Revue d‘Entomologie 21: 8-37.

Hadley, A. 2006: CombineZ5.3. http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/CZ5/combinez5.htm

Herman, L. 2001: Catalogue of the Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera). 1758 to the end of the second millennium. II. Oxyteline group. – Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 265: 1067-1806.

Irmler, U. 2007: The Tannea (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Osoriinae) species of Costa Rica – new species and records, a key, ecological, and geographical remarks. – Brenesia 68: 69-85.

Irmler, U. 2009: New species and records of the genus Lispinus with a key to the species from Peru (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Osoriinae). – Zootaxa 2263: 42-58.

Irmler, U. 2010: A new genus of Osoriinae in the Neotropical region with a cladistic analysis of the tribe Thoracophorini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). – Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68: 229-237.

Lecoq, J. C. 1994: Un nouveau genre et une nouvelle espèce d’Osoriinae de Sierra Leone: Pseudespeson rossi (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). – Ricerche biologiche in Sierra Leone; 1 Academia Nazionale die Lincei, Rom, 267: 299-306.

Schaufuss, L. W. 1882: Descriptions de coléptères nouveaux. – Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 3. Série 62: 43-48.

Scheerpeltz, O. 1970: Studien über die Arten der Gattungen Espeson Schaufuss und Parespeson Bernhauer (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Subfamilie Piestinae, Tribus Thoracophorini). – Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 59: 115-129.

Author´s address: Subject editor:

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Irmler Dr. L. Zerche

Institut für Ökosystemforschung

Abt. Angewandte Ökologie, Universität

Olshausenstrasse 40,

24098 Kiel, Germany

e-mail: uirmler@ecology.uni-kiel.de

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

NMPC

National Museum Prague