Espeson titschacki BERNHAUER, 1941: 278,
Irmler, U., 2012, The Neotropical species of the genera Pseudespeson L, 1994 and Espeson S, 1882 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Osoriinae), Beiträge Zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology 62 (2), pp. 331-360: 348-351
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|Espeson titschacki BERNHAUER, 1941: 278|
Type material examined:
Peru: Ayacucho, Sivia (73°51.09'W, 12°30.45'S) (male holotype FMNH); 3 females with same data as holotype (paratypes, FMNH, NHMW)GoogleMaps ; from the same location, leaf litter; female 22.5.1936, leg. Titschack (paratypes, FMNH)GoogleMaps .
Further material examined:
Mexico: Nayarit (104°50.42'W, 21°45.07'S), junction San Blas and Tepec roads 300 m elevation, 64 specimens, 4.8.1960, without information of the collector ( AMNH, UIC)GoogleMaps ; Venezuela: Bolivar, Carabobo (61.24'W, 6.18'N), Via Palmichal , 750-850 m elevation, 3 males, 9 females, Nov. 2005, leg. Brachat ( UIC, VAC) , 900 m elevation; 2 females, 22.11.2005, leg. Brachat ( UIC, VAC) ; Ecuador: Pichincha, Santo Domingo de los Colorados (79°10'W, 0°14'S), 17 km SE, Tinalandia, 900 m elevation, 1 male, 1 female, 16.- 21.10.1988, 1 female 19.- 20.5.1998, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH)GoogleMaps ; Pastaza, 2.6 km S of Santa Clara , (01°17'20"S, 77°53'20"W), 790 m elevation, secondary lowland forest with sparse understory vegetation, shaded, sifting leaf litter between tabular roots, 2 females, 15.- 16.11.2006, leg. Fikacek & Skuhrovec ( NMPC)GoogleMaps ; Alluriquin, 43 km N, Las Palmeras, old Qto-Sto. Dgo. rd. km 59, litter, 23.10.1988, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH) ; Limoncocha , 40 km E Puerto Francisco Orellana, Rio Napo, 2 females, 21.- 27.9.1979, leg. Balogh ( HNMB) ; Napo, 35.5 km NE El Chaco, Cascadas San Rafael (00°06'00"S, 77°34'51"W), 1200 m elevation, low primary forest on summit of river gorge, sparse understory vegetation, lot of leaf litter, sifting leaf litter, 2 males, 1 female, 29.11.2006, leg. Fikacek & Skuhrovec ( NMPC)GoogleMaps ; Peru: Cuzco, Madre de Dios, Cuzco Amazonica , secondary forest (69°02'06W, 12°36'48S), 300 m elevation, 5 males, 16 females; 17.5.1995, leg. D. Agosti ( AMNH, UIC)GoogleMaps ; Junin, San Ramón de Pangoa (75°19'60W, 11°07'60S), 40 km SE Satipo, 750 m elevation, male, 25.3.1972, leg. R. T. Schuh ( UIC)GoogleMaps ; Huanuco, Panguana (74°56'W, 9°37'S), Chocha, female, 15.3.1976, leg. W. Hanagarth ( UIC)GoogleMaps ; Brazil: Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia , Aug. 1953, female, leg. F. Plaumann ( AMNH) ; Mato Grosso, Nossa Sinhora de Livramento (56°36.24'W, 16°15.24'S), Pirizal, Faz. Retiro Novo , from V. divergens tree collected by fogging, female, 22.02.2000, leg. M. Marques ( UFMT)GoogleMaps . Paraguay: Puerto Presidente Stroessner (Ciudad del Este: 54°61.67'W, 25°51.67S) Hungarian Soil-Zoology Exp. , 1 females, 5.1.1966, leg. Balogh et Mahunka ( HNMB) ; Puerto Presidente Stroessner (Ciudad del Este: 54°61.67'W, 25°51.67'S) Hungarian Soil-Zoology Exp. , Acaray waterfall, 1 female, 2.1.1966, leg. Loksa ( HNMB) ; Argentina: Salta, Aguas Blancas-Yaculica (64°22.25'W, 22°43.44'S), 460 m elevation, yungas forest, leaf litter, female, 25.10.1994, leg. J. Carpenter & D. Agosa ( AMNH)GoogleMaps .
The species is very similar to E. pecki , E. adisi and E. moratus in size and colouration. It differs from E. adisi in the presence of the two pronotal impressions. Females are very similar to E. pecki , because both species have similar pronotal impressions in the midline. It is distinguished from E. pecki by the longer antennae and in the male by the different shape of tergite VIII that is elongate and semicircular at apex in E. titschacki , but short and emarginate in E. pecki .
Length: 1.6 mm. Colour: yellow.
Head: 0.20 mm long, 0.25 mm wide; eyes as long as temples, with more than 12 ocellae and distinctly visible in dorsal aspect; temples more or less parallel; fore-head straightly narrowed to more or less acute front edge of clypeus; setiferous punctation laterad denser than on disc; setae pointing to middle; with impunctate midline on vertex; surface laterad with remains of microsculpture; on disc without microsculpture; surface polished and shiny.
Antennae as long as head and pronotum combined; 1 st antennomere thick; 2 nd globular and as thick as conical 3 rd antennomere; following four antennomeres more or less quadrate; 8 th antennomere only slightly narrower and smaller than 7 th and 9 th antennomere; 9 th and 10 th antennomere slightly wider than long.
Pronotum: 0.25 mm long, 0.30 mm wide; with fine lateral margin visible in its total length in dorsal aspect; deeply emarginate in posterior half; anterior edge approximately 1.5 times as wide as posterior edge; densely and deeply punctate; distance between setiferous punctures on average half as wide as diameter of punctures; in midline with impressions in both anterior and posterior half; surface with remains of microsculpture, but mostly polished and shiny.
Elytra: 0.30 mm long, 0.35 mm wide; with similar deep and dense setiferous punctation as pronotum; surface with remains of microsculpture, but moderately polished and shiny.
Abdomen on tergites III to VI more weakly, but as densely punctate as elytra; density of punctation decreasing posteriad; microsculpture more distinct than on fore-body; surface less shiny; tergite VIII of male straightly narrowed to rounded apex; sparsely punctate.
Aedeagus slender with apical part nearly as long as basal part; paramera slightly longer than central lobe and with small apical transparent plate.
No differences could be found between the Mexican specimens and the South American specimens, which let suppose that the species might also occur in other Central American countries.
The remarkable structure of the aedeagus, in particular, the structure of the paramera with the suction-cup-like apical appendix, at least in the genus Espeson , is unique in the family Staphylinidae . Moreover, it seems that the paramera are divided into two parts, similar to the subfamily Aleocharinae . Although the overall habit of the fore-body resembles that in the genus Glyptoma Erichson, 1839 , the structure of the aedeagus suggests that both genera are not closely related to Glyptoma as already emphasised by Irmler (2010). Lecoq (1994) mentioned the smaller 8 th antennomere as characteristic to differentiate Pseudespeson from Espeson , but as the comparison of all Espeson species showed the size of the 8 th antennomere varies in this genus. In several species, e.g. E. moratus , the 8 th antennomere equals 7 th and 9 th antennomere in size, but in other species, e.g. E. microphthalmus and E. nevermanni , it is distinctly smaller. In some species, e.g. E. simplex and E. pecki , 8 th antennomere is only slightly smaller than 7 th or 9 th antennomeres. Thus, this character is not appropriate to differentiate the two genera. Furthermore, Lecoq (1994) also noted the shape of the last abdominal tergite as differentiating character between the two genera. Indeed, in the two Neotropical Pseudespeson species the last abdominal tergite is of triangular shape with short apical spine. In Espeson , a triangular shape of the last tergite without spine is found in E. titschacki , a central spine at an emarginate posterior edge is found in E. hermani . The distinct sexual dimorphism in Espeson with simple triangular shape of last abdominal tergites, i.e. E. titschacki , and various shapes in males indicates that the variance in the shape of the last abdominal tergite might be high and provide no valuable differentiating character, too.
The geographic distributions of the species are still vague due to the rare records of the species. The genus Pseudespeson was recorded from extreme distant locations, i.e. Guadeloupe and southern Brazil, which indicates that species might occur also in other Neotropical countries. In particular, P. nitens that was recorded from The Caribbean, Brazil and Peru shows a wide distribution, but seem to be rare. In contrast, the species of the genus Espeson are widely distributed from Mexico to Argentina. Some, e.g. E. moratus and E. titschacki , seem to be distributed over the whole Neotropical region or at least in a wide area of South America and the Caribbean. Others, i.e. E. dybasi , were found from several localities of southern Central America and the northern Andean region of South America. Thus, similar geographical distributions can be assumed as in other osorine genera ( Irmler 2007, 2010).
Concerning the ecology of the species, our knowledge is similarly poor as for the geographical distribution. Referring to the information given on the labels by the collectors, many specimens were found in litter of rain forests. Nevertheless, also other habitats are recorded, e.g. E. adisi was also found by tree eclectors, E. nevermanni was found under bark, and E. moratus even in nests of ants. These records indicate that a variety of habitats may be inhabited by the species.
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Lecoq, J. C. 1994: Un nouveau genre et une nouvelle espèce d’Osoriinae de Sierra Leone: Pseudespeson rossi (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). – Ricerche biologiche in Sierra Leone; 1 Academia Nazionale die Lincei, Rom, 267: 299-306.
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Author´s address: Subject editor:
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Irmler Dr. L. Zerche
Institut für Ökosystemforschung
Abt. Angewandte Ökologie, Universität
24098 Kiel, Germany
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