Amazunculus besti Rafael,

Marques, Dayse W. A., Skevington, Jeffrey H. & Rafael, José A., 2019, Revision of the genus Amazunculus Rafael (Diptera: Pipunculidae), with description of six new species, Zootaxa 4577 (3), pp. 439-472: 444-445

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Amazunculus besti Rafael


Amazunculus besti Rafael 

Figs 16–30View FIGURES 16–19View FIGURES 20–30

Amazunculus besti Rafael, 1986: 17  , fig. 6; Rafael & Rosa, 1991: 343; De Meyer, 1996: 44 (cat.); Galinkin & Rafael, 2008: 521, figs 10, 11; Rodriguez & Rafael, 2012: 14; Marques & Rafael, 2018.

Redescription. Mesopleuron black, brown pruinose, except anepisternum grey pruinose anterodorsally; katatergite grey pruinose and anatergite grey brown pruinose. Mediotergite mostly brown pruinose. Legs ( Figs 16–17View FIGURES 16–19) dark brown to black, except apices of the coxae, trochanters, femora and bases of tibiae yellow; femora with grey pruinescence on the posterior face below. Wing ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 16–19). Length 7.8 mm. LW/MWW = 3.3. LTC/LFC = 1.3. Membrane mostly hyaline except basal third darkened. Abdomen ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 16–19). Dark brown to black with brown pruinescence, all tergites with interrupted bands of grey pruinescence posteriorly. Tergite 6 and sternites 6 and 7 as in Fig. 20View FIGURES 20–30. Terminalia. Syntergosternite 8 with a moderately large membranous area ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 20–30). Epandrium yellowish brown, very inflated. Surstyli ( Figs 22–23View FIGURES 20–30) yellowish brown, symmetric and fused with epandrium, distinctly projected ventrally ( Figs 24–25View FIGURES 20–30), surpassing margins of epandrium and almost reaching base of abdomen. Phallic guide ( Figs 26–28View FIGURES 20–30) very elongated, expanded laterally medially ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 20–30), longer than surstyli and strongly curved, about 2.4× the hypandrium length. Basal processes of phallus large and pointed, surpassing posterior margin of hypandrium but narrower than hypandrium ( Figs 26, 29View FIGURES 20–30). Apex of phallus elongated, ending well beyond the two long desclerotized projections and with small spiniform projections on medial surface ( Figs 28–29View FIGURES 20–30). Ejaculatory apodeme as in Fig. 30View FIGURES 20–30.

Female known and described by Rafael (1986). Front and face with grey pubescence. Postpronotal lobe, mesopleuron and anterior part of scutum with grey pruinescence. Wing base darkened. Abdominal tergites with interrupted bands of grey pruinescence posterolaterally. Ovipositor. OL: 1.5 mm; PL: 0.9 mm; B: 0.6 mm. Base dark brown to black, grey pruinose. Piercer yellowish brown, distal part shining and straight.

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE ♂: “ BRASIL, AM [ Amazonas ], Rio Japurá, L.[ago] Amanã, [2°35'0.53"S, 64°40'0.09"W], ix.1982, R. Best ” “Holótipo ♂, Amazunculus besti Rafael  ”, “ DIPT. 364 HOLÓTIPO” “ J. Skevington Specimen #7941” ( INPA) ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 16–19)GoogleMaps  . Paratype: “ idem, viii.1982, R. Best ” “ Parátipo ♀ Amazunculus besti Rafael  ”, “ DIPT. 364 PARÁTIPO” “ J. Skevington Specimen #7942” (1 ♀, INPA). Additional material: “ BRASIL: Roraima, Rio Uraricoera, Ilha de Maracá , [03°25'N, 61°40'W], 02–13.v.1987 ” “ J.A. Rafael, J.E.B. Brasil e L.S. Aquino ” “ Armadilha de Malaise ” “ Amazunculus besti Rafael  det. J.A. Rafael ” “ J. Skevington Specimen #7917” (1 ♂, INPA); “ idem, 21–30.xi.1987, J.A. Rafael e equipe” “ Armadilha de Malaise ” “DW0412- DW0413” (2 ♀, INPA)GoogleMaps  .

Holotype condition. Head lost; right wing detached, mounted on microslide; left wing with apex damaged; front legs glued in a paper triangle; terminalia placed in a microvial with glycerin.

Geographical distribution. Brazil: Roraima, Amazonas ( Fig. 182View FIGURES 182).

Habitat. This species is found in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, with some specimens collected in Malaise traps at ground level.


Australian Museum


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia














Amazunculus besti Rafael

Marques, Dayse W. A., Skevington, Jeffrey H. & Rafael, José A. 2019

Amazunculus besti

Rodriguez, H. C. & Rafael, J. A. 2012: 14
Galinkin, J. & Rafael, J. A. 2008: 521
De Meyer, M. 1996: 44
Rafael, J. A. & Rosa, M. S. S. 1991: 343
Rafael, J. A. 1986: 17