Medionops carolinae, Martínez & Sánchez-Ruiz & Bonaldo, 2021

Martínez, Leonel, Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander & Bonaldo, Alexandre B., 2021, The spider genus Medionops Sánchez-Ruiz & Brescovit (Araneae: Caponiidae) in Colombia, with the description of four new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 773, pp. 61-79 : 65-69

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

taxon LSID

treatment provided by


scientific name

Medionops carolinae

sp. nov.

Medionops carolinae sp. nov.

Figs 2 View Fig , 6 View Fig , 7B View Fig , 8C–F View Fig


Males resemble those of M. blades in having a similar copulatory bulb shape, but can be distinguished by the accentuate curvature on the embolus tip (straighter in M. blades ) and by the tegulum ½ as long as the cymbium ( Figs 2E–F View Fig , 7B View Fig ) (½ as long in M. blades , Figs 1E–F View Fig , 7A View Fig ). Females of M. carolinae sp. nov.

differ from those of M. blades by the narrow, triangular area below the genital opening ( Fig. 2G View Fig ) (wider and concave in M. blades , Fig. 1G View Fig ).


The specific name is a patronym in honor of Carolina Gomez , director of the collections of the Institute Alexander Von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia.

Type material

Holotype COLOMBIA • ♂; Boyacá department, Sutamarchán ; 5°45′1″ N, 73°40′2″ W; alt. 3220 m; 9–11 Apr. 2003; E. González and C. Reina leg.; IAvH-I 3782 . GoogleMaps

Paratypes COLOMBIA – Boyacá department • 1 ♂; same collection data as for holotype; IAvH-I 3781 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Sector Carrizal, Santuario de Flora y Fauna Iguaque ; 5°42′13″ N, 73°27′18″ W; alt. 2910 m; 4–11 Nov. 2006; J. Arias and P. Delgado leg.; IAvH-I 3771 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Arcabuco, Vereda Rupavita ; 5°44′26.5″ N, 73°23′2.3″ W; alt. 3340 m; 25–27 Fev. 2015; Y. Cifuentes and D. Espejo leg.; IAvH-I 3343 GoogleMaps .


Male (holotype, Figs 2A–B, E–F View Fig , 7B View Fig )

MEASUREMENTS. Total length 4.94. Carapace 2.01 long, 1.49 wide. Sternum 1.23 long, 1.02 wide. Legs: I: 4.61; II: 4.59; III: 3.91; IV: 5.82.

COLORATION. Carapace, chelicerae, sternum, labium and endites reddish ( Fig. 2A–B View Fig ). Palps and legs light orange. Abdomen dorsally dark gray with dorsal pattern formed by five wide light chevron stripes, medially joined by thin longitudinal band; ventrally whitish gray ( Fig. 2A–B View Fig ).

LEGS AND PALPS. Crista absent or unnoticeable; gladius with common nopine shape. Palp with small globose tegulum and embolus slightly curved anteriorly, tip with accentuated curvature with subdistal modification and beveled opening ( Figs 2E–F View Fig , 7B, G View Fig ).

Female (paratype, Fig. 2C–D, G–H View Fig )

MEASUREMENTS. Total length 5.91. Carapace 2.11 long, 1.74 wide. Sternum 1.33 long, 1.08 wide. Legs: I: 5.01; II: 4.36; III: 3.51; IV: 5.74.

COLORATION. As in the male ( Fig. 2C–D View Fig ).

GENITALIA. External genitalia with narrow, triangular area below genital opening ( Fig. 2G View Fig ); internal genitalia not studied (internal membranous structures completely destroyed during enzymatic digestion, Fig. 2H View Fig ).


Males (n = 3): total length: 4.72–4.94; carapace length: 2.01–2.05.

Natural history

All types were collected with pitfall traps baited with human excrement, used to collect dung beetles and ants, mainly in frailejón plants ( Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl. ) and grassland. Specimens belonging to ant-eating spiders such as Zodariidae Thorell, 1881 were collected together with Medionops in large numbers, probably due to the high availability of prey. Aspects on the natural history of Nopinae spiders are poorly known and only a few studies on the trophic specialization of Nops have been done (see García et al. 2018; Teruel & Sánchez-Ruiz 2000). These studies highlight the remarkable preference of some nopine species for feeding on arachnids (little scorpions and other spiders). Although no detailed studies have been conducted, the adhesive membranous structures (crista and gladius) on the first two pairs of nopine legs are pobably involved in the prey capture process.


Known only from Boyacá department, Colombia ( Fig. 6 View Fig ).


The holotype was found in a high Andean humid forest ( Fig. 8C–D View Fig ) and the female paratype was found in a protected area (Sanctuary of Flora and Fauna Iguaque) where human intervention is limited ( Fig. 8E–F View Fig ). The record of this female specimen is separated by only 24 km from the type locality and 8 km from the most distant examined specimen located outside the type locality. The height above sea level between type and female localities hardly differs by about 300 m and even the environments are very similar in both locations ( Fig 8C–F View Fig ). We tentatively matched this female with males from the type locality by similarities in the coloration pattern, but confirmation of this association will be possible only when more samples come to light. We believe that proposing this doubtful association is preferable to making available a possibly unnecessary specific name.