Phrynopus nicoleae, Chaparro, Juan C., Padial, José M. & Riva, Ignacio De La, 2008

Chaparro, Juan C., Padial, José M. & Riva, Ignacio De La, 2008, Two sympatric new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Strabomantidae) from Yanachaga Chemillén National Park (central Peruvian Andes), Zootaxa 1761, pp. 49-58 : 53-55

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.181938


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Phrynopus nicoleae

sp. nov.

Phrynopus nicoleae sp. nov.

( Figs. 5–6 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 )

Holotype. MHNC 6441 (field code JCC 4001), an adult female ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ) from Santa Bárbara, Distrito de Huancabamba, Provincia de Oxapampa, 3589 m a.s.l. (10 ° 20 ' 36.3 "S, 75 ° 38 ' 17.9 "W), Departmento Pasco, Peru, collected by J. C. Chaparro, A. Quiroz and D. Salcedo on 26 August 2007.

Diagnosis. (1) A small species (SVL 21.2 mm), body slim, legs moderately long (TL+FL 90 % SVL); (2) tympanic membrane and annulus absent; (3) first finger the same length as second; (4) tips of digits round, slightly swollen, not expanded laterally; (5) toes lacking webbing and fringes; (6) two metatarsal tubercles, tarsal fold absent; (7) dorsal skin finely granular, elongate dorsolateral warts forming a long discontinuous row that does not fuse to form a fold; a conspicuous X-shaped middorsal fold; ventral skin areolate; (8) snout rounded in dorsal view and in profile; (9) dorsum tan with black irregular stripes and bluish-gray tubercles; (10) venter gray, marmorated with small, brown, tan and metallic blue blotches; (11) dentigerous processes of vomers and teeth present.

Phrynopus nicoleae is unique among other Phrynopus by having the combination of granular dorsum, a middorsal X-shaped fold, a discontinuous row of elongate dorsolateral warts, tympanic membrane and annulus absent, venter areolate, gray venter with small brown and metallic blue to metallic white spots, yellow fingers and toes, metallic bronze iris, and black tarsus.

Twenty other species of Phrynopus ( auriculatus , ayacucho , barthlenae , bracki , bufoides , dagmarae , heimorum , horstpauli , juninensis , kauneorum , kotosh, miroslawae sp. nov., montium , oblivius , paucari , peruanus , pesantesi , tautzorum , thompsoni , and tribulosus ) are currently known from the Andes in central Peru. The species most similar to P. nicoleae is P. dagmarae , whose type locality lies approximately 54 km airline from that of P. n i c o l e a e; the new species differs from P. dagmarae by having a X-shaped middorsal fold, yellow digits, and first finger equal to second (middorsal fold absent, red digits, and first finger much shorter than second in P. dagmarae ). Another geographically close and morphologically similar species is P. kauneorum (ca. 57 km airline distance between type localities); however, P. n i c o l e a e has granular dorsum and areolate venter (dorsum and venter smooth); furthermore, P. nicoleae inhabits grassland or puna, while P. kauneorum inhabits the elfin forest or “ceja de montaña”. Phrynopus nicoleae differs from P. ayacucho by lacking a tympanum (present) and having venter gray with tan, brown, and metallic blue blotches (uniformly tan). Phrynopus nicoleae differs from P. barthlenae , P. bufoides , P. heimorum , P. hortspauli , P. miroslawae sp. nov., P. montium , P. oblivius , P. paucari , P. pesantesi , P. tautzorum and P. thompsoni in having vomerine teeth and dentigerous processes (absent). Phrynopus nicoleae differs fom P. k o t o s h by having dorsal skin finely granular (tuberculate) and a X-shaped middorsal fold (absent). Phrynopus nicoleae differs from P. peruanus by lacking tympanic membrane (present), and having vomerine teeth (absent). Phrynopus nicoleae differs from P. juninensis by having areolate venter, granular dorsum and weak supratympanic fold (smooth venter and dorsum, and prominent supratympanic fold). Three species (two of them described recently; Duellman & Hedges, 2008) occur in sympatry not far from the type locality of P. nicoleae : P. auriculatus , P. bracki , and P. tribulosus (type locality, 5,5 km E Oxapampa, 2600 m; this locality lies 38 km airline SE Santa Bárbara, on mountains at the opposite side of the Oxapampa valley). From P. auriculatus , P. nicoleae differs by having dorsal skin granular and venter areolate, and by lacking a tympanum (dorsal and ventral skin smooth, tympanum present). From P. bracki , P. nicoleae is distinguished by having dorsal skin granular and venter areolate (dorsum strongly tuberculate, venter smooth). Phrynopus nicoleae differs from P. tribulosus by having dorsal skin granular, venter areolate, and vomerine teeth (dorsal and ventral skin smooth, vomerine teeth absent). In addition to morphological and color pattern differences, because of the high degree of species endemism in Phrynopus (and in similar high Andean genera) it is extremely unlikely that allopatric populations are conspecific ( De la Riva, 2007).

Description of the holotype. Body slim; dorsal skin granular; dorsolateral fold-like rows of elongated dorsolateral warts; ventral skin areolate; pectoral fold present; head narrower than body, head as wide as long; HW 32 % of SVL, HL 28 % of SVL; snout rounded in dorsal view and in profile; nostrils not protuberant, closer to snout than to eyes; canthus rostralis concave in dorsal view and sharp in frontal profile; eye-nostril distance 78 % of eye length; loreal region slightly concave; cranial crests absent; tympanic membrane and annulus absent; supratympanic fold weak; tongue large, oval; choanae triangular, small, widely spaced; dentigerous processes of vomers and vomerine teeth present; limbs moderately short; tips of digits slightly swollen, not expanded laterally; ulnar tubercle and fold absent; inner palmar tubercle single, oval, flattened, smaller than outer; fingers moderately short, not fringed; subarticular tubercles round, those at the basis of proximal phalanges swollen; first finger of the same length as second; relative length of fingers 1 = 2 <4 <3; tibia length 42 % of SVL; tarsus with small tubercles, lacking fold; two metatarsal tubercles, oval inner slightly larger than rounded outer; supernumerary tubercles small, poorly defined; subarticular tubercles of toes round, mediumsized; toes not webbed, lateral fringes absent; relative length of toes 1 <2 <5 <3 <4; foot length 47 % of SVL.

In life, the holotype had the following colour pattern: dorsum tan with poorly defined black blotches associated to dorsal ridges and elongated warts; diffuse black blotches on interocular region; dorsal granules bluish-white; a bold black mask from tip of snout through the supratympanic area to the level of the postrictal area; upper lip with two bold black triangular marks intercalated with bluish-white blotches; subocular region bold black; flanks and extremities tan with abundant bluish-white spots; groin tan with abundant bluish-white spots and an orange spot; anterior surfaces of limbs dark brown with bluish-white spots; belly and throat gray with small, marmorated, brown and metallic blue blotches; ventral surface of arms and legs grayish-black with bluish metallic-white spots, some of them anastomosed; fingers, toes and distal regions of plantar surfaces yellow, proximal regions grayish-brown; upper iris light bronze and lower iris dark bronze, both parts with black reticulations.

In preservative, the holotype has dorsal surfaces, head and scapular region grayish-tan, extremities brown, and supratympanic stripe black with a white stripe; most parts of the belly and throat are marmorated with grayish-white and dark brown spots; there are brown triangular marks on the upper lip; the palmar surfaces are grayish-white with some dark brown tonalities, and the plantar surfaces are brown with grayish-white toes; the groin is brown with small grayish-white blotches.

Measurements and proportions (in mm): SVL, 21.2; HL, 6.1; HW, 6.9; IND, 2.1; END, 1.8; ED, 2.3; TL, 9.0; FL, 10.1; IOD, 3.0; EW, 1.2; HL/SVL, 0.28; HW/SVL, 0.32; END /ED, 0.78; TL/SVL, 0.42; FL/ SVL, 0.47.

Etymology. The name is a patronym for Nicole Morciniec ( Poland) in recognition of her friendship and support of taxonomic research and nature conservation in Peru.

Distribution and natural history. Phrynopus nicoleae is known only from the locality of Santa Bárbara, Distrito de Huancabamba, Provincia de Oxapampa, Departmento Pasco, at 3589 m.a.s.l. ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). This species inhabits grasslands or “puna” areas ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B). The holotype was collected during the dry season under a big stone. The only additional amphibian species found in sympatry was Gastrotheca griswoldi .


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