Noideattella, Álvarez-Padilla & Ubick & Griswold, 2012

Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando, Ubick, Darrell & Griswold, Charles E., 2012, Noideattella and Tolegnaro, Two New Genera of Goblin Spiders from Madagascar, with Comments on the Gamasomorphoid and Silhouettelloid Oonopids (Araneae, Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2012 (3745), pp. 1-76 : 7-10

publication ID 10.1206/3745.2


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new genus

Noideattella , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Noideattella amboa , new species.

ETYMOLOGY: This name is an arbitrary combination of letters and is feminine in gender.

DIAGNOSIS: Noideattella species must have the following five characters: carapace pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view forming a posterior cone (figs. 3, 12 View Figs , 33, 41 View Figs , 203); abdomen covered completely by sclerotized scuta (figs. 1, 2, 31, 32, 113, 114); tibia I and metatarsus II lateral surfaces with stout spines, femora lateral sides smooth (figs. 102–109), tibia I dorsal row of ridges absent; female internal genitalia with T-shaped anterior sclerite (figs. 22, 53, 152 View Figs ); embolus curved approximately 90° at half its length, and divided into two lamellae armed with several apophyses (figs. 27–30, 57–60, 137–140).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males 1.3–2.1, of females 1.5–2.4. Cephalothorax: Six eyes, subequal in size and well developed (figs. 7, 67, 119, 207). Carapace without any pattern, broadly oval in dorsal view, anteriorly narrowed to between 0.5 to 0.75 times its maximum width, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge with pair of pits, thorax without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits (figs. 4, 11 View Figs , 34, 42 View Figs , 116, 132). Posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, posterolateral surface without spikes, lateral margin slightly rebordered, without denticles, marginal setae light colored, needlelike, forming a continuous line of very small setae with enlarged bases better observed with SEM (figs. 3, 12 View Figs , 33, 41 View Figs , 75 View Figs , 79, 131). Nonmarginal pars cephalica setae sparse, light colored, needlelike, present in U-shaped row, nonmarginal pars thoracica setae few, light colored, needlelike (figs. 4, 11 View Figs , 34, 42 View Figs , 76 View Figs , 187 View Figs ). Clypeus margin slightly rebordered, curved downward in front view, vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent; setae light colored, needlelike, clypeal setae larger than the setae covering nonmarginal areas of pars cephalica and thoracica (figs. 7, 18 View Figs , 37, 95, 119, 192). Chilum absent. All eyes oval; posterior eye row recurved from above and from front; ALE separated by their radius to their diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by less than PME radius. Setae around ocular area enlarged, similar in size to clypeal setae ( figs. 11 View Figs , 34, 92, 174, 234). Sternum cuticle either finely or coarsely reticulated ( figs. 16 View Figs , 43 View Figs , 117, 133, 145, 162). Sternum uniform, fused to carapace, median concavity absent, with radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin with infracoxal grooves and anterior and posterior openings, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles absent, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; setae sparse, light colored, needlelike, originating from surface, without hair tufts; setae evenly scattered (figs. 5, 16 View Figs , 35, 43 View Figs , 145, 160, 205, 220). Mouthparts: Male endites same as sternum in sclerotization (figs. 5, 35, 65, 93). Male palpal patella shorter than femur and not swollen, male bulb spherical (figs. 6, 8, 36, 38, 66, 68). Chelicerae straight, anterior surface unmodified ( figs. 17–19 View Figs ); promargin without teeth; fang without toothlike projections, directed medially, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae light colored, needlelike, evenly scattered ( figs. 47–49 View Figs , 191–193, 221–223, 247–249 View Figs ); paturon distal region unmodified, posterior surface unmodified, promargin unmodified, inner margin unmodified. Labium triangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae (figs. 80, 186 View Figs , 195). Endites anteromedian and posteromedian parts unmodified (figs. 5, 35, 65, 93), distally excavated, anteromedian tip unmodified, posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization ( figs. 14 View Figs , 45 View Figs , 129 View Figs , 216 View Figs ). Abdomen: Abdomen without color pattern, dorsal scutum present, strongly sclerotized and covering entire surface (figs. 1, 31, 113). Both epigastric scuta strongly sclerotized and covering venter of abdomen (figs. 2, 32, 114). Interscutal membrane rows of small sclerotized platelets absent posteriorly; dorsum soft portions white, without color pattern (figs. 3, 33, 63, 91). Book lung covers without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified (figs. 62, 100, 114, 287). Posterior spiracles connected by groove (figs. 9, 39, 122, 209). Carapace and abdomen area around the pedicel without plumose setae ( figs. 15 View Figs , 169). Pedicel tube short, ribbed, scutopedicel region unmodified, scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent (figs. 33, 98, 100, 173, 203). Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, without color pattern, covering full length of abdomen, no soft tissue visible from above, not fused to epigastric scutum, anterior half without projecting denticles (figs. 1, 61, 113, 171). Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, small lateral sclerites absent, not protruding, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly. Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, covering nearly full length of abdominal length, fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, without posteriorly directed lateral apodemes (figs. 2, 32, 114, 172, 232). Internal apodemes on epigastric scutum present in males ( figs. 270, 272 View Figs ). Spinneret scutum present as an incomplete ring (fig. 112). Dorsum setae light colored, needlelike (figs. 84, 170). Epigastric area setae uniform, light colored, needlelike (figs. 20, 21, 73, 74 View Figs , 155, 156 View Figs ). Postepigastric area setae light colored, needlelike. Spinneret scutum with fringe of needlelike setae. Without dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets (figs. 32, 62, 99, 142). Interscutal membrane with setae, colulus represented only by setae (fig. 112). Legs: Spines always present on tibia and metatarsi I and II. Metatarsi always with two pair of spines, tibia spination variable (figs. 102, 103). Tibia IV prolateral distal spine present in some species. Femur IV without spines, not thickened, same size as femora I to III. Femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I to III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace, tibia I unmodified (figs. 102, 103, 106, 107), tibia I Emerit’s glands absent, tibia IV specialized setae on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I and II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III and IV weak ventral scopula absent. Trichobothria on tibiae: I three, IV three, trichobothria base longitudinally narrowed, aperture internal texture gratelike, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges ( fig. 44 View Figs ). Tarsal organ with number of sensilla variable (figs. 83, 167, 226). Male genitalia: Epigastric region region with sperm pore small, oval, rebordered (figs. 2, 20, 62, 99, 128 View Figs , 155 View Figs ), furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without setae (figs. 20, 50, 128 View Figs , 183 View Figs ). Palp not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, embolus light colored, prolateral excavation absent; femur without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; cymbium not fused with bulb, without stout setae; bulb 1 to 1.5 times as long as cymbium, stout, spherical (figs. 25, 26, 86, 87, 135, 136). Most sperm stored in bulb as no sperm duct observed in cleared preparations, interior of bulb more like sperm sac than sperm duct. Embolus formed by two primary lamellae curved approximately 90° (figs. 6, 8, 36, 38, 146, 148); these function for removal of sperm sacs from previous males, behavior recently documented ( Burger and Carrera, 2011; Burger, 2010). Dorsal lamella (DL) of most species divided into two branches; ventral lamella (VL) divided into two or three branches (figs. 27–30, 57, 60, 137–140); dorsal lamella larger, firmly attached to tegulum, ventral lamella smaller, with membranous base (figs. 6, 68, 178, 264). Female: As in male except as noted. Cephalothorax: Mouthparts: Endites distally not excavated, cheliceral paturon inner margin lacks modified seta. Sternum anterior margin unmodified ( figs. 130 View Figs , 158 View Figs , 215 View Figs , 274 View Figs ). Palp spines absent; patella without prolateral row of ridges (figs. 82, 166), tarsus unmodified. Abdomen: Postepigastric scutum not fused to epigastric scutum, postepigastric scutum without lateral joints (figs. 20, 21, 50, 51, 127, 128 View Figs ). Female genitalia: Receptaculum (Re) wider than long, dorsal surface with several gland openings (figs. 24, 126 View Figs , 300 View Figs ), united to posterior scutum by flexible section (figs. 22, 52, 125 View Figs ). Receptaculum with two lateral apodemes bearing anterior and posterior extensions (A1). A1 anterior extension aligned with apodemes A2, A1 posterior extension aligned with apodemes A3 (figs. 23, 53, 71 View Figs , 181 View Figs ). Globular appendix (GAp) of variable shape, extends dorsally from receptaculum middle anterior surface, GAp aligned with T-shaped sclerite (ASc). ASc originates from posterior end of epigastric scutum (figs. 23, 54, 152 View Figs , 214 View Figs ).

NOTE ON GENITALIC FUNCTION: The function of these sclerites has not been deduced in any of the species described here, because we did not observe the muscles in semithin sections; however, we can predict the function of these features given their similarities with S. loricatula ( Burger et al., 2006) . In the latter species the sac secretory glands (Pa) open through the sclerotized part of the receptaculum ( figs. 124, 126 View Figs ). Lateral apodemes (A1), the epigastric scutum apodemes A2 and posterior scutum apodemes A3 open and close the epigastric furrow for sperm and secretory sac dumping and presumably during oviposition. The receptaculum median apodeme (GAp) and the epigastric scutum apodeme (ASc) lock the uterus externus during copulation, by contracting two muscles attached to the internal walls of apodemes A1 and the ASc (figs. 54, 153 View Figs ). The stalklike extension from the globular appendix to the receptaculum anterior end is absent, in contrast with Silhouettella loricatula ( Burger, 2010: fig. 5B). The embolar ventral lamella expands slightly when boiled in lactic acid; probably the same movements occur during ejaculation (however, direct evidence has not been observed).

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS: Noideattella is supported by the following eight synapomorphies (but not necessarily autapomorphies) common to all cladograms ( fig. 371 View Fig ): clypeus shape curved downward [ancestral state straight] (figs. 7, 37, 67, 119) in females (15-0) and males (238-0); sternum cuticle furrows with rows of small pits in females (49-2) and males (273-0) [ancestral state ambiguous] ( figs. 16 View Figs , 78 View Figs , 189); change from rows of small pits to rows of large pits occurs inside Noideattella in a clade formed by N. saka , N. lakana , and N. tsiba (figs. 117, 133, 145, 162, 261, 277); tibia leg IV distal spine on prolateral surface present (fig. 168) in females (152-1) and males (379-1); male carapace posterior lateral edge with a pair of pits (227-1: figs. 132, 169); cymbium narrow in dorsal view (441-1: figs. 200, 278, 306).

SPECIES INCLUDED: Noideattella assumptia , new combination, and the following new species: N. amboa , N. famafa , N. fantara , N. farihy , N. gamela , N. lakana , N. mamba , N. saka , N. tany , and N. tsiba . All species epithets derive from common Malagasy nouns.