Tolegnaro, Álvarez-Padilla & Ubick & Griswold, 2012

Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando, Ubick, Darrell & Griswold, Charles E., 2012, Noideattella and Tolegnaro, Two New Genera of Goblin Spiders from Madagascar, with Comments on the Gamasomorphoid and Silhouettelloid Oonopids (Araneae, Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2012 (3745), pp. 1-76 : 61-63

publication ID 10.1206/3745.2


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new genus

Tolegnaro , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Tolegnaro sagani , new species.

ETYMOLOGY: This name is an arbitrary combination of letters and masculine in gender.

DIAGNOSIS: Tolegnaro species must have the following five characters: carapace pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view posteriorly forming a wide cone (figs. 315, 326 View Figs , 344, 361); plumose setae present around the carapace and abdomen area ( figs. 328, 329 View Figs , 357 View Figs ); abdomen globular covered with scuta (figs. 313–315, 342–344); epigynum dorsal view with a T-shaped anterior sclerite (figs. 332–334); embolus curved approximately 90° at its half length, and divided in two lamellae with several apophyses (figs. 318–320, 347–349).

DESCRIPTION: Total length males 1.4–1.8, females 1.56–1.9. Habitus orange-brown (figs. 313, 342). Cephalothorax: Carapace orange-brown, without any pattern, broadly oval in dorsal view, pars cephalica strongly elevated in lateral view, anteriorly narrowed to between 0.5 and 0.75 times its maximum width, with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, posterolateral surface without spikes (figs. 315–317, 344–346), surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica smooth, sides finely reticulate, thorax without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, rebordered, without denticles; nonmarginal pars cephalica setae light colored, needlelike, present in U-shaped row; nonmarginal pars thoracica setae absent; marginal setae present, light colored, needlelike (figs. 316, 325, 326 View Figs , 345, 360, 361). Clypeus margin slightly rebordered, straight in front view, vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent (figs. 319, 348); setae present, light colored, needlelike. Clypeal setae are larger than the setae over the nonmarginal pars cephalica and thoracica ( figs. 325 View Figs , 360). Six eyes, subequal in size and well developed (figs. 319, 348). Posterior eye row recurved from above and from front; ALE separated by their radius to diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by less than PME radius (figs. 316, 345). Sternum as long as wide, orange-brown, uniform markings and sculpture, fused to carapace, median concavity absent, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, without pits, sickle-shaped structures absent, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin with infracoxal grooves and anterior and posterior openings, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles absent, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; setae sparse, light colored, needlelike, evenly scattered, originating from surface, without hair tufts (figs. 317, 327 View Figs , 346, 364). Mouthparts: Chelicerae, endites, and labium orange-brown. Chelicerae straight, anterior face unmodified; promargin without teeth; without toothlike projections, directed medially, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae light colored, needlelike, evenly scattered, posterior surface unmodified, promargin unmodified (figs. 319, 348). Labium triangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Male endites same as sternum in sclerotization, anteromedian and posteromedian parts unmodified (figs. 317, 346), distally excavated, anteromedian tip and posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization ( figs. 323 View Figs , 359 View Figs ). Abdomen: Globular, without color pattern, dorsal scutum present, strongly sclerotized and covering all abdomen, both epigastric scuta strongly sclerotized and covering all abdomen, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, interscutal membrane rows of small sclerotized platelets absent posteriorly; dorsum soft portions white, without color pattern. Book lung covers small, round without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified (figs. 313–315, 342–344). Posterior spiracles connected by groove. Pedicel tube short, ribbed, scutopedicel region unmodified, scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel, with plumose hairs dorsal and lateral of pedicel, without matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel (figs. 313, 315, 342, 344). Dorsal scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, without color pattern, covering full length of abdomen, no soft tissue visible from above, not fused to epigastric scutum, middle surface smooth, sides smooth, anterior half without projecting denticles. Epigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites absent. Postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, orange-brown, almost semicircular, covering nearly full length of abdomen, fused to epigastric scutum. Spinneret scutum present, incomplete ring. Supra anal scutum present. Dorsum setae present, light colored, needlelike. Epigastric area setae uniform, light colored, needlelike. Postepigastric area setae present, light colored. Spinneret scutum with fringe of needlelike setae. Dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Interscutal membrane with setae. Colulus represented only by setae. Legs: Spination variable, present on tibia and metatarsi I and II of T. sagani , absent from all legs of T. kepleri . Metatarsi spines one pair, tibia IV prolateral distal surface without spines. Legs without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi III and IV weak ventral scopula absent. Trichobothria base longitudinally narrowed, aperture internal texture gratelike, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges. Male genitalia: Epigastric region with sperm pore small, oval, situated at level of anterior spiracles, rebordered ( figs. 330 View Figs , 358 View Figs ); furrow without Ω-shaped insertions (figs. 314, 330 View Figs , 343, 352 View Figs ). Male palpal patella shorter than femur and not swollen, male bulb spherical, not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, proximal segments pale orange; embolus light colored; femur without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia with three trichobothria; cymbium pale orange, ovoid in dorsal view, not fused with bulb, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae absent, without stout setae; bulb pale orange, 1 to 1.5 times as long as cymbium, stout, spherical. Internal structures and embolus details similar to those in Noideattella species (figs. 318, 320, 336, 337). Female: As in male except as noted. Cephalothorax: Sternum anterior margin unmodified. Mouthparts: Endites distally not excavated ( figs. 324 View Figs , 359 View Figs ). Female palp spines absent; tarsus unmodified, patella without prolateral row of ridges. Abdomen: Epigastric scutum without lateral joints. Postepigastric scutum not fused to epigastric scutum. Legs: Tibia I unmodified, metatarsi I and II mesoapical comb absent. Trichobothria: tibia I and IV, three; metatarsus I and IV, one. Female genitalia: Internal structures of Tolegnaro species are similar to Noideattella species (figs. 321, 322, 350, 351).

TAXONOMIC NOTE: The plumose setae present around the carapace and abdomen area ( figs. 328, 329 View Figs , 357 View Figs ) are not unique to Tolegnaro within the Oonopidae , but are a homoplastic synapomorphy for this genus (see Phylogenetic Relationships). On our cladogram this character is a synapomorphy at the Tolegnaro node but homoplastic elsewhere (length = 4, CI = 25, RI = 62).

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS: Tolegnaro is supported by the following 10 synapomorphies common to all minimal-length cladograms: posterior edge of carapace with plumose setae in both sexes (253-1) and distributed dorsally and laterally of pedicel (335-3: fig. 357 View Figs ); carapace seta on pars thoracica absent in males (247-0: fig. 325 View Figs ) and females (24-0); abdomen shape globular in males (322-2: figs. 313, 342) and females (94-2) [ancestral state either cylindrical or ovoid]; book lung cover size small in males (326-0: figs. 315, 344) and females (98-0); abdomen postepigastric scutum almost semicircular in males (352-0: figs. 314, 343) and females (125-0) [ancestral state long, semicircular].

SPECIES INCLUDED: Tolegnaro kepleri and T. sagani .