Lupraea elongata ( Jacoby, 1891 )

Clark, Shawn M., Terry, Tyson J. & Furth, David G., 2017, The First Report of Lupraea elongata (Jacoby, 1891) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from the USA, The Coleopterists Bulletin 71 (2), pp. 351-356: 352-355

publication ID 10.1649/0010-065X-71.2.351

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Lupraea elongata ( Jacoby, 1891 )


Lupraea elongata ( Jacoby, 1891)   Fig. 1 View Fig A-G

Palaeothona elongata Jacoby 1891: 301  

Lupraea elongata: Wilcox 1975: 97   ; Furth 2006: 213

Diagnosis. In the USA, Lupraea   is most likely to be confused with the genera Luperaltica   and Palaeothona   . The frontal tubercles of Lupraea   are small and clearly limited laterally by a depression that is placed far from the eyes ( Fig. 1b View Fig ), unlike the frontal tubercles of Luperaltica   that are strongly transverse and extend to the inner margin of the eyes. Moreover, the aedeagus of Lupraea   , except during copulation, is normally kept totally within the abdomen, rather than extending partially outside, as is normal in Luperaltica   . With respect to Palaeothona   , Lupraea   differs in numerous characters ( Furth 2006), including the second antennomere, which is less than half as long as the third antennomere. In Palaeothona   , the second antennomere is nearly as long as the third. Using the key to USA genera provided by Riley et al. (2002), specimens of Lupraea   would likely be identified correctly, although some novice entomologists might misidentify them as Hemiphrynus Horn   , due to the narrowness of the prosternal process separating the front coxae. Hemiphrynus   is very different in appearance; among other things, the prothorax is nearly as wide as the base of the elytra (much narrower in Lupraea   ). Scherer’ s (1983) key to Neotropical flea beetle genera also enables proper identification of Lupraea   .

Lupraea elongata   has a largely orange head, although the vertex is darker in many specimens; the pronotum is also orange, without darker markings; the elytra are uniformly dark bluish; and the ventral areas are largely orange, although some specimens have dark areas laterally on the metathorax and abdomen. The vertex and pronotum are extremely finely punctate; indeed, the surfaces appear impunctate except upon close inspection. In all specimens we have examined, the elytral punctures are very confused, although Jacoby (1891) stated that in some specimens they are arranged in “semiregular rows.” This combination of characters separates L. elongata   from other species of the genus.

Redescription. Form elongate oval ( Fig. 1A View Fig ); body 3.5–4.2 mm long, 1.5–2.0 mm wide. Head and prothorax orange-brown; scutellum dark brown, narrowly margined with orange-brown; elytra black with faint metallic blue luster; lateral areas of metasternum dark brown; abdomen yellow-brown, although laterally darker in some specimens; distal 9 antennomeres dark brown to black, basal 2 antennomeres frequently orange-brown. Head: Vertex slightly darker than frontal area ( Fig. 1B View Fig ); vertex extremely finely punctate; interocular space more than half width of head measured across eyes; occiput and vertex smooth, shiny, impunctate; frontal tubercles subcircular, broadly contiguous, although separated from each other by deep groove, laterally delimited by deep groove, posteriorly delimited by shallow groove, separated from eyes by a distance subequal to diameter of tubercle; mesal frontal ridge broad, well-elevated, convex, not carinate. Eyes very finely faceted, very narrowly separated from antennal fossae and from base of mandible. Labrum trapezoidal, at base twice as wide as long, much narrower distally, with basal width subequal to distance between eyes, yellow-brown, densely setose; palpi slender, yellow-brown; mandibles piceous. Antennae variable in length, extending to about half length to nearly full length of body; antennomeres 1 and 2 sparsely setose; basal antennomere wider and more than twice as long as antennomere 2; antennomere 2 shortest; antennomeres 3–11 densely pubescent, broader than 2, subequal in length with each other, each as long as or slightly longer than 1 and 2 combined; antennomere 3 subequal in width to 2; antennomeres 3 and 9–11 essentially filiform; antennomeres 4–8 slightly broadened apically, thereby causing antenna to be very slightly serrate. Thorax: Pronotum slightly wider than head, widest near apical third, with setose tubercle at each anterolateral and posterolateral angle, otherwise glabrous, extremely finely punctate, shiny; shape evenly, transversely arched, with shallow, mesal, subbasal, transverse depression visible upon close examination; lateral margins strongly carinate; anterior and posterior margins without bead. Scutellum equilaterally triangular, glabrous, impunctate. Elytra: Length 2.5–2.7 mm; together about 1.5–2.0 times as wide as head, 1.7 times as wide as pronotum, 4.0 times as long as pronotum, 0.7 times as long as entire body. Punctures minute, confused; interpunctural areas shining; pubescence absent. Humeri well-developed; basal calli weakly developed; discal and sublateral costae absent. Epipleuron narrow, dark brown, slightly paler than elytral disc. Venter: Body beneath mostly orangebrown or yellow-brown. Ventral areas of prothorax shiny, glabrous; prosternum from anterior margin to coxae very short, with length subequal to length of antennomere 2; posterior prosternal process short, not separating contiguous coxae; procoxal cavities broadly open behind. Mesothorax shiny, glabrous, pale orange-brown. Metepimeron pale yellow, glabrous; metepisternum dark brown, pubescent; metasternum orange-brown, piceous laterally, densely pubescent. Abdomen shiny, distinctly, sparsely pubescent; terminal abdominal ventrite marginally darkened, with mesal area of male truncate and depressed at apex; pygidium piceous, densely pubescent. Legs: Pubescent. Coxae and trochanters pale orange-brown. Femora pale orange-brown, varying to nearly entirely dark brown; hind femora swollen. Front and middle tibiae varying from pale yellow-brown to dark brown, with fine carina extending much of length, lacking terminal spurs; hind tibiae of most specimens yellow-brown, slightly darker toward apex, in all specimens with fine carina extending much of length, with terminal spur. Tarsi brown, in most specimens distinctly darker than at least basal portions of tibiae; male front and middle legs with basal tarsomere distinctly wider than tarsomere 2, about as wide as tibial apex and tarsomere 3; metathoracic legs with basal tarsomere nearly as long as 2–5 combined, about as wide as tarsomere 2, much narrower than tarsomere 3 or tibial apex. Genitalia: Aedeagus as in Fig. 1C, D View Fig . Spermatheca C-shaped, as in Fig. 1E View Fig ; vaginal palpi as in Fig. 1F View Fig ; tignum as in Fig. 1G View Fig .

Variation. The antennal length varies greatly, extending only about half the length of the body in some specimens, and nearly the entire length in others. This is partly due to gender and partly to individual variation. In the original description, Jacoby (1891) reported that the legs are quite variable in color. In most specimens we examined, the legs are mostly orange-brown, but often with the apical half of the external face of the hind femora largely piceous. However, legs are nearly entirely dark in some specimens from the more southern areas of the distribution. As previously noted in the diagnosis above, Jacoby’ s (1891) treatment also mentioned specimens with semi-striate elytral punctation, but the punctures are confused on all specimens we examined.

Type Material Examined. “ Tupataro, Mex., Salle Coll.” (2 female syntypes, F. C. Bowditch Collection, MCZ)   .

Additional Material Examined. MEXICO: CHIHUAHUA: Municipio Temósachic: Mex Hwy 16, km 342, 28°26.219’N, 108°28.704’W, 2-VIII-2007, D. G. Furth (59 specimens, USNM) GoogleMaps   . JALISCO: Municipio Guadalajara: Guadalajara , 15-VIII-1976, Hanson, Schwartz (2 specimens, BYU)   . Municipio Zapopan: 10 mi. N Guadalajara , 21-VIII-1976, Hanson, Schwartz (1 specimen, BYU)   . SONORA: Municipio Fronteras: Sierra Buenos Aires, Ajos-Bavispe Reserva Forestal Nacional y Refugio de Fauna Silvestre, 24.0 km WSW Fronteras , El Aserradero , 30.7269°N, 109.8136°W, 1,707 m, 14-VIII-2016, T. R GoogleMaps   . Van Devender (11 specimens, BYU)   . Municipio Nacozari de Garc´ıa: 17.2 km (by air) N Nacozari de Garc´ıa, Rancho Viejo (on Rancho El Salto ), Arroyo El Schick , Sierra la Púrica, 30.53056°N, 109.72194°W, 1,657 m, rocky canyon and slope, oak woodland-desert grassland, 8-IX-2013, T. R GoogleMaps   . Van Devender and A. L. Reina G. (1 specimen, BYU); just N of Presa Angostura, 30.6 km ENE of Nacozari de Garc´ıa, 30.44056°N, 109.3786°W, 809 m, 9-VIII-2015, T. R GoogleMaps   . Van Devender & A. L. Reina-G. (1 specimen, BYU); Sierra Nacozari , 8.2 km SE Nacozari de Garc´ıa, Pilares de Nacozari cemetery, 30.33306°N, 109.61778°W, 1,475 m, 15-VIII-2015, T. R GoogleMaps   . Van Devender and A. L.Reina-G. (6 specimens, BYU); Sierra Nacozari, Pilares de Nacozari , 6.5 km SE Nacozari de Garc´ıa, 30.32833°N, 109.62972°W, 1,413 m, 9-VIII-2015, T. R GoogleMaps   . Van Devender and A. L. Reina-G. (20 specimens, BYU)   . Municipio Yécora: 3 km E Yécora, Puente La Ventana , 28°22.640’N, 108°53.842’W, 2-VIII-2007, D. G. Furth (13 specimens, USNM); 5 km W Yécora; 28°21.613’N, 108°56.995’W, 2-VIII-2007, D. G. Furth (6 specimens, USNM); 10 km E Yécora, 28°23.654’N, 108°52.063’W, 26-VIII-2005, D. G. Furth (38 specimens, USNM) GoogleMaps   . USA: ARIZONA: Santa Cruz Co.: Harshaw , 31.4649°N, 110.7197°W, 1,510 m, 12-IX-2014, S. M. Clark and R GoogleMaps   . C. Mower (2 specimens, BYU; 2 specimens, USNM); Harshaw , 31.4677°N, 110.7089°W, 1,470 m, 11-IX-2014, S. M. Clark and R GoogleMaps   . C. Mower (2 specimens, BYU); Harshaw , 31.4739°N, 110.7032°W, 1,450 m, 12-IX-2014, S. M. Clark (2 specimens, BYU); 5 mi. E Nogales, 1-IX-1970, G. E. and R GoogleMaps   . M. Bohart (1 specimen, BYU); 6 mi. E Nogales , 1-IX-1970, G. E. and R   . M. Bohart (1 specimen, BYU); Pena Blanca, 1-IX- 1970, W. J. Hanson, at ultraviolet light (2 specimens, BYU); W slope Patagonia Mtns., Duquesne Rd. at Sycamore Wash , 2-IX-2007, W. B. Warner, day collect (4 specimens, BYU)   .

Distribution. Guerrero ( Mexico) to Arizona ( USA). This species was originally described based on material from Tupataro, Mexico ( Jacoby 1891). Selander and Vaurie (1962) interpreted this as Tupátaro, a village 30 km southwest of Irapuato in the Mexican state of Guanajuato. Beyond Guanajuato, subsequent authors have reported the distribution to include the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Guerrero, Michoacán, and Sonora ( Furth 2004, 2006, 2009). Herein, we extend the distribution to include Arizona in the USA.

Habits. We are unaware of any reports dealing with the host plants of this species. Much of our sampling at the collection sites in Arizona was done by sweeping vegetation at night, but we are uncertain whether or not the Lupraea   specimens were collected by this method. Other specimens examined were collected at ultraviolet light. However, others were labeled as being collected during the daytime.


Museum of Comparative Zoology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Lupraea elongata ( Jacoby, 1891 )

Clark, Shawn M., Terry, Tyson J. & Furth, David G. 2017

Lupraea elongata: Wilcox 1975: 97

Furth, D. G. 2006: 213
Wilcox, J. A. 1975: 97

Palaeothona elongata

Jacoby, M. 1891: 301