Onespa brockorum Austin and A. Warren, 2009

Austin, George T. & Warren, Andrew D., 2009, New looks at and for Onespa, Buzyges, and Librita (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae), with new combinations and descriptions of a new genus and six new species, Insecta Mundi 2009 (89), pp. 1-55 : 10-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5167725

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5184755

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B68743-2D4F-8568-3DDD-FE73230B1290

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Onespa brockorum Austin and A. Warren
status

new species

Onespa brockorum Austin and A. Warren , new species

( Fig. 13-16 View Figure 1-18 , 64 View Figure 63-66 , 77 View Figure 75-86 , 89 View Figure 87-89 )

Description. Male ( Fig. 13-14 View Figure 1-18 ) – mean forewing length = 15.7 mm (15.3-16.2 mm, n=10; from Sonora, Mexico); forewing with pointed apex, termen slightly convex, no stigma or brand; hindwing convex, weakly lobate at tornus; dorsal forewing brown with golden-orange iridescence; proximal 1/2 costa orange; sparse orange overscaling in bases of discal cell and CuA 2 -2A; orange overscaling of flat and setiform scales in middle 1/2 or more of anal cell; opaque yellow-orange macules as follows: subapical in mid R3-R4 and near bases of R 4 -R 5 and R 5 -M 1, more or less quadrate, anterior macule smallest or all of about equal size, more or less aligned and perpendicular to costa, one specimen (of 13 examined) with additional small macule in R2-R3 offset proximad from other subapical macules; submarginal in M1-M2 and M2-M3, small, nearly 2/3 distance to termen from bases of cells, more or less triangular, that in M1-M2 usually smallest with anterioproximad corner at posteriodistad corner of subapical macule in R 5 -M 1; postmedial in M 3 -CuA 1, 1/ 3 distance from base of cell, quadrate (but with concave distal edge), overlapping distal edge of macule in M2-M3; CuA1-CuA2, more or less quadrate but with distal edge concave, largest, distad of origin of CuA1, more or less centered under proximal edge of macule in M3-CuA1, completely overlapping macule in CuA2- 2A that is chevron-shaped; macule in discal cell hourglass-shaped or with distal edge convex and proximal edge concave, about 1/4 distance from distal end (proximad of origin of vein CuA1); fringe brown proximad, whitish distad.

Dorsal hindwing brown with golden-orange iridescence; proximal 2/3 overscaled with long ochreous and brown setiform scales caudad of vein Sc+R1 extending nearly to termen along vein 2A; prominent opaque yellow-orange postmedial macules in Rs-M1, M1-M3, M3-CuA1, and CuA1-CuA2, these more or less quadrate, separated by brown veins, that in M1-M3 divided by thin line of brown, that in Rs-M1 slightly offset proximad with distal portion over proximal 1/4 of macule in M1-M3; prominent yellow-orange macule at distal end of discal cell; fringe brown proximad, white distad.

Ventral forewing dull dark brown (nearly black); costa, apex, and outer margin cephalad of vein CuA1 overscaled with orange giving orange-brown aspect, entirely filling costal, subcostal, radial, and medial cells, distad of macule in M 3 -CuA 1, narrowing to vein CuA 2; discal cell moderately overscaled with orange flat and setiform scales; macules as on dorsum, that in CuA

2

-2A pale yellow.

Ventral hindwing entirely overscaled with orange giving orange-brown aspect except sparser on both sides of vein 2A, and as paler postmedial macules and a small vague macule at distal end of discal cell.

Dorsal head black with mixture of ochreous and greenish setiform scales, white spots just behind antennae, white behind and beneath eye; dorsal palpi mixture of black, ochreous, and greenish setiform scales, pale ochreous on sides with interspersed black, white on venter, black on inner surface, 3rd segment black with a few pale yellow-orange scales, barely extending beyond scales of 2nd segment; antennae 49% of costal length, shaft black on dorsum, checkered narrowly with pale yellow on venter, club 33% of length of shaft, dorsal club black, ventral club ochreous and whitish, nudum red-brown becoming darker at tip, 11 (n=2), 12 (n=6), or 13 (n=5) segments; dorsal thorax ochreous-brown with green iridescence especially centrally; ventral thorax ochreous-orange with green iridescence; legs brown proximad, orange distad with long ochreous setiform scales especially proximad, protibia not spined, redbrown epiphysis extending distad to barely overlap proximal portion of tarsus, mesotibia not spined, pair of spurs distad, outer about 1/2 length of inner, metatibia not spined, two pairs of spurs, outer about 1/2 length of inner; dorsal abdomen dark brown, indistinctly gray at segments, long olive setiform scales cephalad; ventral abdomen pale yellow.

Genitalia ( Fig. 64 View Figure 63-66 , 77 View Figure 75-86 ) - uncus short, hooked caudad in lateral view, entire and narrowing to weakly lobed caudal end in dorsal view; gnathos robust, well-separated from and barely shorter than uncus in lateral view, divided with arms slender, widely apart cephalad and approaching caudad in ventral view, slightly broader than uncus in middle; tegumen thin in lateral view, broad in dorsal view and flaring cephalad, ventral arm combining with dorsal arm of saccus, this combined structure broadest and bent in its middle; anterior arm of saccus long and thin, straight, about 1.6 times length of uncus and dorsal portion of tegumen, narrow in ventral view and tapering gradually to blunt cephalic end; valva simple, no differentiation between costa and ampulla, latter produced dorsally to small pointed triangular process near juncture with harpe, harpe triangular caudad with short pointed process oriented caudad, interior surface with curved row of small and sharply pointed teeth, sacculus relatively narrow, ventral edge of valva prominently concave in middle; aedeagus straight, tubular, long, about 1.7 times length of valva, caudal end slightly expanded, blunt, small triangular titillator on right side just cephalad of caudal end; vesica with cornuti including a flexible spinulose pad, a large heavily sclerotized and sharply pointed spike, and a minute sclerotized spike.

Female ( Fig. 15-16 View Figure 1-18 ) - forewing length = 16.7, 17.8 mm (n=2, from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico) ; forewing with pointed apex, termen convex (more so than on male); hindwing convex (more so than on male), lobate at tornus; dorsal forewing brown, duller than on male with little iridescence; proximal 1/2 costa orange; sparse orange overscaling in base of discal cell and CuA 2 -2A; orange overscaling of flat and setiform scales in middle 1/2 of anal cell; opaque yellow-orange macules as follows: subapical in mid R3 - R4 and near bases of R 4 - R 5 and R 5 -M 1, more or less quadrate, increasing in size caudad, more or less aligned and perpendicular to costa ; submarginal in M1-M2 and M2-M3, small, nearly 2/3 distance to termen from bases of cells and offset distad from subapical macules, quadrate to triangular, that in M1-M2 absent on one specimen (of 2 examined); postmedial in M3-CuA1, quadrate, 1/3 distance from base; CuA1-CuA2, quadrate or curved (distal edge concave, proximal edge convex), largest, distad of origin of CuA1, centered under proximal edge of macule in M3-CuA1, completely overlapping macule in CuA2-2A that is chevron shaped (anterior portion may be poorly developed); macule in discal cell hourglass-shaped, about 1/4 distance from distal end; fringe brown proximad, gray distad.

Dorsal hindwing brown without iridescence seen on male; proximal 2/3 overscaled with long ochreous and brown setiform scales caudad of vein Sc+R1 extending nearly to termen along vein 2A; prominent opaque yellow-orange postmedial macules in Rs-M1, M1-M3, M3-CuA1, and CuA1-CuA2, these more or less quadrate, separated by brown veins, that in M1-M3 divided by thin line of brown, that in Rs-M1 offset proximad with distal edge over center of macule in M1-M3; yellow-orange macule at distal end of discal cell; fringe brown proximad, gray distad becoming white distad caudad of mid-cell CuA 2 -2A.

Ventral forewing dull very dark brown (nearly black); costa, apex, and outer margin cephalad of vein CuA 1 overscaled with orange giving orange-brown aspect, entirely filling costal, subcostal, radial, and medial cells, distad of macule in M3-CuA1, narrowing to vein CuA2; discal cell sparsely overscaled with orange flat and setiform scales; macules as on dorsum except macule in CuA 2 -2A broader and pale yellow.

Ventral hindwing entirely overscaled with orange giving orange-brown aspect except sparser on both sides of vein 2A, and as pale yellow-orange postmedial macules and a vague macule at distal end of discal cell.

Dorsal head black with mixture of black, white, and ochreous setiform scales, some with greenish iridescence, white spots just behind antennae, white behind eye becoming ochreous ventrad; dorsal palpi mixture of black and ochreous setiform scales, pale ochreous on sides and venter, black on inner surface, 3rd segment black, barely extending beyond scales of 2nd segment; antennae 47% of costal length, shaft black on dorsum, checkered broadly with whitish on venter, club 40% of length of shaft, dorsal club black, ventral club white and pale ochreous, nudum red-brown becoming darker at tip, 14 (n=1) or 15 (n=1) segments; dorsal thorax ochreous with green iridescence especially centrally; ventral thorax ochreous and pale blue; legs brown proximad, ochreous-brown distad with long ochreous and pale blue setiform scales especially proximad, protibia not spined, red-brown epiphysis long, extending distad to overlap proximal portion of tarsus, mesotibia not spined, pair of spurs distad, outer about 1/2 length of inner, metatibia not spined, two pairs of spurs, outer about 1/2 length of inner; abdominal color not noted.

Genitalia ( Fig. 89 View Figure 87-89 ) - lamellae quadrate, caudal edge of lamella postvaginalis excavate centrally into broad and shallow U-shape, lamella antevaginalis narrower than lamella postvaginalis, shallowly excavate centrally, ostium bursae about twice as broad as deep; ductus bursae long (3.6 mm), relatively straight (ventral and lateral views) antrum that is complexly sclerotized as a number of apparent longitudinal plates, ductus bursae expanded prominently and asymmetrically to the left cephalad, convoluted and transversely and horizontally wrinkled, largely membranous, but with some sclerotization especially as a conspicuous left lateral pouch-like structure; corpus bursae elongate, about 3 times as long as broad, prominently wrinkled longitudinally.

Types. Holotype male with the following labels: white, printed - / MEXICO: SONORA: / Mpio. Yecora / Hwy. 16, km 261 / barranca at W end Mesa / Campañero , 48 km E Tepoca / 24 July 1997 / Andrew D. Warren /; red, printed - / HOLOTYPE / Onespa brockorum / Austin & A. Warren /, deposited at MZFC . Paratypes: MEXICO: Sinaloa; Durango-Villa Union Hwy. 40, 6500’, 29 April 1966, leg. P. Hubbell (1 male; AMNH) ; Loberas Summit , 5 mi. NE Potrerillos, 1820 m, parkland forest, 20 August 1973, leg. L. D. and J. Y. Miller (1 female, SRS #4453; MGCL) ; MEXICO: Sonora; 6 mi E San Jose de Piñas , August 1967, leg. P. Hubbell (1 male; AMNH) ; Trinidad-Yecora Road, [Mesa Grande], 10 [actually about 5-6] mi. E [NW] of Yecora , leg. J. P. Brock, 21 July 1985 (2 males, SRS #1852, #2686; JPBC), 22 July 1985 (1 female, SRS #1853; JPBC), 28 July 1987 (1 male; JPBC), 29 July 1987 (1 male; JPBC) ; Mpio. Yecora, Hwy. 16, km 261, barranca at W end Mesa Campañero [48 km E Tepoca], 23 July 1997, leg. A. D. Warren (1 male; ADWC), 24 July 1997, leg. A. D. Warren (7 males; ADWC), 24 July 1997, leg. J. P. Brock (3 males; JPBC), 25 July 1997, leg. J. P. Brock (1 female; JPBC), 22 August 1998, leg. J. P. Brock (1 male; JPBC) . Paratypes are in the collections of MZFC, MGCL, ADWC, and JPBC.

Additional record. MEXICO: Sonora; barranca, Ruta 16, km 261-262, 7 August 2005, photographs by Kim Davis and Mike Stangeland (Warren et al. 2009) .

Type locality. MEXICO: Sonora ; Mpio. Yecora, Hwy. 16, km. 261, barranca at W end of Mesa Campanero [48 km east of Tepoca] at an elevation of 1600m .

Etymology. We take great pleasure in naming this species in honor of Jim and Joan Brock of Tucson, Arizona. Jim brought the existence of this species to the attention of the late Stephen R. Steinhauser, who had planned to name it after him, and Jim has been present during essentially all known encounters with this taxon in Sonora. Joan, a professional author in her own right, has unselfishly supported numerous lepidopterists with generous hospitality during their visits to Tucson.

Distribution and phenology. To date, Onespa brockorum is known only from Sonora and Sinaloa in northwestern Mexico. Adults have been found from late April through August in canyons at about 1600m elevation in Sonora, and the specimens from Sinaloa were taken between 1820 and 1970m. As noted above under O. gala , records of Onespa gala from Sinaloa ( Stanford and Opler 1993) refer to this species; while the details of the record of O. gala plotted from the state of Durango by Stanford and Opler (1993) are unknown; Onespa from Durango are most likely to represent O. brockorum .

Biological notes. Various grasses ( Poaceae ) occur at the type locality of O. brockorum , one of which likely represents the larval foodplant; no Chusquea was observed (ADW, pers. obs.). Males guard perches on tips of vegetation 0.5 to 3 m above the ground, at least from 10:30 to 15:40 h., in riparian corridors and other sunny areas within pine-oak forest.

Diagnosis and discussion. Onespa brockorum is very similar to O. gala and has historically been identified as such. The former is more brightly colored than O. gala and the macules are broader and more orange. The ventral hindwing of O. brockorum has an orange-brown aspect unlike the olive-brown venter of O. gala . Male genitalia of O. brockorum have a less robust uncus than O. gala , a shorter tegumen and saccus, a more pointed caudal end of the valva, and a heavily sclerotized small spike in the vesica in addition to the robust one. Females have narrower and less rounded lamellae, a lamella antevaginalis that is less excavate caudad, and a ductus bursae that is more convoluted cephalad.

MZFC

Museo de Zoologia "Alfonso L. Herrera"

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Hesperiidae

Genus

Onespa