Hypothenemus subsulcatus Atkinson and Flechtmann, 2021

Atkinson, Thomas H. & Flechtmann, Carlos A. H., 2021, New species, new records and synonymy of Brazilian species of Hypothenemus Westwood, 1834 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Insecta Mundi 2021 (846), pp. 1-33 : 5-7

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Hypothenemus subsulcatus Atkinson and Flechtmann

new species

Hypothenemus subsulcatus Atkinson and Flechtmann , new species

Fig. 3 View Figure 3

Diagnosis. This species is larger than most New World species. It belongs in a group with robust body form, strongly marked pronotal summit and with a small number of large, chisel-shaped asperities on the anterior margin of the pronotum. Distinguishing characters of this species include the slightly sulcate declivity (most species of the genus are evenly convex) with elevated interstriae and the confused erect interstrial setae (generally uniseriate in related species). This species will key to couplet 10 in Wood’s 2007 key.

Specimens of this species have been commonly misidentified in Brazil as Hypothenemus elephas (Eichhoff, 1872) based on revision of material by the second author (e.g., Flechtmann and Gaspareto 1997). Likewise, the record of H. elephas from Argentina (Iturre and Darchuk 1996) probably refers to this species as well. The type of elephas , an African species (IRSNB), was examined by the first author. While there are some similarities the species described here is clearly distinct and it is very likely that any references to elephas in South America are probably this species. It is widely distributed in Brazil.

Female. total length: 2.13 mm (2.05–2.25), maximum width: 1.03 mm (1.0–1.1), length of elytra: 1.38 mm (1.3– 1.5), total length / width: 2.06, elytra length / total length: 0.65, pronotal length / width: 0.73 (n = 6).

Frons convex, slightly flattened in area between eyes, surface finely reticulate, vestiture of sparse hair-like setae. Frons shallowly impressed above epistomal margin with a central, longitudinal shining area from midpoint of eyes almost to epistomal margin. Antenna with four segments in flagellum (plus pedicel); club oval with clearly marked sutures, narrower than width of compound eye.

Anterior margin of pronotum with two large contiguous teeth; anterior slope with 10–12 large, chisel-like asperities, vestiture of hair-like setae amongst asperities; summit prominent, posterior to the middle of the pronotum, with a prominent, longitudinal ridge running from summit to posterior margin of pronotum. Pronotal disc with mixture of semi-erect blunt scale-like and hair-like setae, surface granulate, reticulate, but shining.

Striae moderately impressed on disc, punctures nearly confluent, confused on some striae, with short recumbent setae. Striae subequal in width to interstriae on disc, becoming nearly as wide as interstriae on declivity. Surface of interstriae strongly reticulate. Ground vestiture on elytral interstriae hair-like on disc and on declivity, confused, similar in size to setae associated with strial punctures. Erect interstrial setae scale-like, length = 4× width, blunt terminally; mostly uniseriate but clearly confused on some interstriae especially in postero-lateral areas.

All striae on declivity strongly impressed with interstriae elevated and almost costate. Declivital interstriae 2 impressed with respect to interstriae 1 and 3, very broad, 1.5× the width of interstria 1, widened slightly in the middle, causing striae 2 and 3 to be displaced laterad in mid declivity but converging posteriorly. Surface of all interstriae reticulate, dull; strial punctures shallow, partly confused. All interstriae with small granules at base of erect scales, similar in size on 1–3. Setae blunt, slightly longer than those on disc, spaced within row by ½ length,

eral view. C) Frontal view. D) Posterolateral view. Photos by T.H. Atkinson.

mostly uniseriate on interstriae 1, clearly confused on other interstriae, especially 3, often with nearly a double row of setae. Interstrial ground vestiture absent. Interstriae 9 strongly elevated in postero-lateral area, converging with interstriae 3.

Male. Unknown.

Type material. Holotype female: Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul: Selvíria, UNESP Farm , cerradão fragment, 20°20′12.95″S 51°24′45.06″W, unbaited window trap, 16-IX-2011, J.C.C. Silva ( MEFEIS). GoogleMaps

Paratypes: Bahia: Cruz das Almas, Mata de Cazuzinha, 12°39′59″S 39°6′26″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 3-X-2012, R.C. Pereira ( UTIC, 1); Mato Grosso: Itiquira, Fazenda Pedregulho, 17°19′15.78″S 54°44′23.34″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 17-VII-1992, O.T. Dall’Oglio ( MEFEIS, 1, UTIC, 1); Mato Grosso do Sul: Selvíria, UNESP Farm, same data as holotype except 7-X-2011 ( UTIC, 1) Três Lagoas, Champion Papel e Celulose, Horto Rio Verde, cerrado fragment, 20°55′47.00″S 52°8′38.00″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 8-III-1994 C.A.H. Flechtmann, ( MEFEIS, 4); Pará: Cumaru do Norte, Mongaguá Farm, Tectona grandis stand planted November 1995, 09°27′52.27″S 51°14′20.99″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 18-VIII-2011, A.M. Lunz ( MEFEIS, 1); Rio Maria, Fazenda Rongi-Porã, Tectona grandis stand planted November 2004, 07º38′02.8″S 50°01′13.9″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 10-X-2011, A.M. Lunz ( MEFEIS, 1); Rio de Janeiro: Seropédica; UFRRJ Campus, Mimosa caesalpineafolia stand, 22°45′21″S 43°41′32″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, various dates in 2001, A.C. Jorge ( UTIC, 4, MEFEIS, 43); São Paulo: Botucatu, Duratex, Paula Souza sawmill, Pinus and Eucalyptus logs, 22°57′40.39″S 48°31′58.62″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 1-III-1989, C.A.H. Flechtmann ( MEFEIS, 40); Ibaté, RIPASA, Fazenda Fortaleza, Eucalyptus grandis stand, 21°50′00″S 48°01′00″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, XI-1984, C.A.H. Flechtmann ( MEFEIS, 1); Santana da Ponte Pensa, Sítio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, Hevea brasiliensis clone PB 235, 20°13′20.04″S 50°48′41.18″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 26-V-2012, J.C.P. Silva ( MEFEIS, 1); Três Fronteiras, Sítio Boa Sorte, Hevea brasiliensis clone RRIM 600 planted Feb/ Apr2006, 20°12′36.35″S 50°51′50.00″W, ethanol-baited flight intercept trap, 20-I-2013, J.C.P. Silva ( MEFEIS, 1).

Additional localities. Ceará: Crato, Floresta Nacional do Araripe , cerrado fragment, 7°20′46.5″S 39°28′15.4″W, several dates between 2012-2013, F.R. Azevedo ( MEFEIS, 16) GoogleMaps ; Minas Gerais: Capinópolis, Grama Farm , 18°46′6.18″S 49°28′51.59″W, several dates between 2017-2019, C.F. Faria ( MEFEIS, 12) GoogleMaps ; Nova Porteirinha, Khaya Woods Group , 15°41′1.99″S 43°17′44.48″W, 12-II-2018, 17-VIII-2018, F.R.P. Alves ( MEFEIS, 2) GoogleMaps ; São Roque de Minas, Taquaril Farm , 20°7′7.45″S 46°27′29.03″W, several dates between 2016-2018, L.S. Covre ( MEFEIS, 14) GoogleMaps ; Pará: Redenção, Marcenaria Artica , 08°02′34.2″S 50°03′25.5″W, 23-I-2012, A.D. Antonio ( MEFEIS, 1) GoogleMaps ; São Domingos do Araguaia, Fazenda Guzerá , 05°31′54.4″S 48°42′35.0″W, 28-XII-2012, D.B. Guinhazi ( MEFEIS, 1) GoogleMaps ; Paraíba: Patos, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - campus of Patos , 07°01′37.3″S 7°16′27.1″W 16-V- 2012, R.S. Guedes ( MEFEIS, 1) GoogleMaps ; Piauí: Bom Jesus, Fazenda Alto da Cruz , 9°06′41.30″S 44°22′32.75″W, 14-V-2011, J.M. Araújo ( MEFEIS, 1) GoogleMaps ; Roraima: Cantá , EMBRAPA Roraima, 02°14′45.8″N 60°39′47.9″W, 27-V-2015, E.G.F. Morais ( MEFEIS, 1) GoogleMaps ; São Paulo: Castilho, Assentamento Celso Furtado , 20°49′4.47″S 51°33′47.81″W, several dates in 2015, G.C. Pinheiro ( MEFEIS, 5) GoogleMaps .

Etymology. The species name reflects the subsulcate form of the declivity, unusual in this genus.