Visma bingara, Smith & Mitchell & Molero-Baltanás, 2021

Smith, Graeme B., Mitchell, Andrew & Molero-Baltanás, Rafael, 2021, Molecular and morphological studies identify a new genus within the Heterolepismatinae (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), Zootaxa 5030 (1), pp. 1-118: 72-78

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Visma bingara

new species

Visma bingara   new species

Table 8; Figs. 7 View FIGURES 5–9 , 243–266 View FIGURES 243–252 View FIGURES 253–258 View FIGURES 259–266

Type material. Holotype, NSW: South of Bingara , 30.11043S 150.59718E 614 m asl, 15 August 2013, Graeme Smith, bark spray to large eucalypt, ♂ ( HW 1.43) on two slides (K.541528). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other species of the genus that have two insertion points on the posterior combs of the nota by the smaller number of styli (five vs six), the smaller number of lateral combs on the metanotum (1–3 vs 4–6 or rarely 3–6) and possibly by the slightly shorter mesothoracic sternum (L/ W 0.88 versus 0.91–1.05).

Description. Medium sized silverfish, appearance when live mottled grey with evenly light brown antennae and distinctly annulated terminal filaments ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–9 ), the darker regions much longer than the lighter regions, pigment patches visible on distal ends of femora, tibia and first tarsal article.

Details of pigmentation and macrochaetae were not made of this specimen before dissection. Details provided here are taken from the field photograph ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 5–9 ) and from the slide mounted specimen in which much of the pigment had probably faded. Pigment brownish. Flagellum of antennae light brown with weak annulated rings, the lighter region probably only the most distal annulus of each interval, so that the darker regions become longer than the lighter regions distally; pedicel and scape without pigment. Terminal filaments annulated darker brown with one or one and a half of the most distal annulus of each division lacking pigment. Head with a little pigment around eyes and probably along lateral margins between the eyes and the peri-antennal group of macrochaetae. Clypeus, labrum and mandibles probably without pigment. Maxillary palp with dark pigment along most of the penultimate and third articles being most dense at the distal end of each article. Labial palp almost free of pigment with just a faint patch along the outer margin of the penultimate article. Femur and tibia with pigment along the dorsal anterior margins, being most dense at the distal end, first tarsal article pigmented above. Coxites IX with darker pigmentation along inner margin of inner process. Parameres with light pigment. Urotergite X and coxites IX not pigmented. Styli IX evenly with dark pigment, other styli only very slightly pigmented. Terminal segments of abdomen well pigmented ventrally including epiproct and paraprocts. Outer margin of inner process of coxites IX and around stylus insertion with moderately strong pigment. Parameres and penis with moderate pigment.

Macrochaetae smooth, straw coloured to hyaline, apically bifurcate, some with truncated tips to each bifurcation, others with minute bifurcations. Some macrochaetae on tibia, stout carrot-shaped.

Round scales variable in size ( Fig. 243 View FIGURES 243–252 ), mostly hyaline ventrally, dorsal scales with closely spaced light brown ribs. Hyaline triangular scales present on femora and tibia ( Fig. 244 View FIGURES 243–252 ), pedicel (possibly some lanceolate) and scape as well as styli IX. Clypeus with triangular and narrow triangular scales, some of which have straight ends and others more serrated. Narrow triangular and lanceolate scales present on the basal divisions of the terminal filaments.

Head a little wider than long ( Fig. 245 View FIGURES 243–252 ), without distinct bushes. Frons with glabrous anterior margin, the scales overhanging the margin, lateral margin with about 10–14 single macrochaetae in a line along the antero-lateral margin before the macrochaetae become two three or four wide. No gap in the chaetotaxy near the antennae. Periantennal groups weakly connected with lateral chaetotaxy each containing 6–7 macrochaetae, one of which is long, thin and trichobothrium–like. No obvious gap in the chaetotaxy just before the eyes. Clypeus quite reduced and folded back somewhat under the anterior margin of the frons, with some strong macrochaetae, numerous cilia and setulae as well as numerous narrow triangular scales across the face. Labrum with many strong macrochaetae distributed across the proximal half and some smaller setae in the anterior half. Scape and pedicel of antenna ( Fig. 246 View FIGURES 243–252 ) with scales on lateral faces, both with a subapical ring of strong setae and some cilia on the pedicel. First annulus of flagellum with a few setae and at least two trichobothria, following seven annuli or intervals with single ring of setae, cilia and trichobothria, ninth and tenth intervals with two rings although the basal ring has only a few setae and cilia, eleventh interval distinctly divided into two annuli and into four annuli by the fourteenth interval. Distal part of antennae lost, at least two rod-like basiconic sensilla (type B) seen on most distal surviving annuli (probably about half antenna length).

Mandibles ( Fig. 247 View FIGURES 243–252 ) robust with a well-developed incisor and smaller molar areas; a group of about eleven short robust macrochaetae and about two setae adjacent to molar area and a bush of more than 70 macrochaetae externally. Maxilla ( Fig. 248 View FIGURES 243–252 ) with three thick apically bifurcate macrochaeta externally proximal to the palp; lacinia short and wide, with three strong teeth, one set further back than the other two, followed by seven lamellate processes and a row of eight setae, galea with stronger setae proximally but otherwise with only short fine cilia; apical article of maxillary palp somewhat shrunken, but about the same length as the third article, both of which are a little longer than the penultimate article, the ultimate article with at least two slender branched papillae with very short arms, no other sensilla seen, penultimate article of palp with a few slightly stronger setae; first, second and third articles with a well-developed subapical ring of stronger setae. Labium ( Fig. 249 View FIGURES 243–252 ) wider than long, postmentum with setae arranged in an irregular row across the anterior third, prementum with transverse and oblique groups of strong setae and with short curved setulae distally; apical article of labial palp, wider than long (L/ W 0.9), with five papillae of the compact type arranged alternately in a line which is slightly staggered with the second and fourth papillae slightly more proximal than the others, no other sensilla seen; distally with numerous fine short setae, those proximal and medial longer than those distal with many curled setae; penultimate article triangular with two slightly stronger setae internally near the apex, second article with subapical ring of slightly stronger seta, basal article with line of setae as illustrated, some fairly strong.

Pronotum ( Fig. 250 View FIGURES 243–252 ) with well-developed setal collar of short apically bifurcate macrochaetae and some small setulae and long cilia; lateral margins with many strong macrochaetae, some setae as well as occasional long cilia and about six submarginal macrochaetae. Anterior trichobothrium 0.42 distance along the margin not associated with a submarginal macrochaeta, with a setula and a cilium but otherwise without any special chaetotaxy. The posterior trichobothrium mediad of a deeply bifurcate submarginal macrochaeta with a setula and two cilia. Posterior margin with 1+1 pairs of insertions (lost on all nota), each pair associated with two cilia and a setula. Mesonotum ( Fig. 251 View FIGURES 243–252 ) with similar lateral chaetotaxy to pronotum, with except four combs anterior to the anterior trichobothrial area consist of two macrochaetae, most combs associated with a setula posterior to the comb as well as two cilia; the anterior trichobothrial area with a macrochaeta mediad of the trichobothrium and the posterior area as in the pronotum; the 1+1 posterior combs consist of two insertion points, the more antero-lateral consisting of a very thin trichobothrium-like seta. Metanotum ( Fig. 252 View FIGURES 243–252 ) similar to mesonotum except chaetotaxy less dense and only three combs of two macrochaetae anterior to the anterior trichobothrium which lacks a macrochaeta mediad to it; supernumerary trichobothrium on the left side of the metanotum of the holotype about half way along the side; the 1+1 posterior combs consisting of two insertion points.

Presternum slightly longer than usual for genus, with moderately dense transverse row of strong macrochaetae and cilia ( Fig. 253 View FIGURES 253–258 ). All thoracic sterna free with hyaline round scales. Prothoracic sternum large, trapezoidal (L/ W 0.96) with small setae along the whole length of the lateral and posterior margins, posterior corners each with two macrochaetae slightly back from the margins as well as 1+1 stronger setae on the posterior margin. Mesosternum ( Fig. 254 View FIGURES 253–258 ) also trapezoidal, wider than long (L/ W 0.88), with 1+1 combs of two macrochaetae submarginally in the posterolateral corners as well as a larger margin seta on each side mediad of the comb; with a largely glabrous region between, small setae and some cilia along the posterior two thirds of the outer margins. Metasternum ( Fig. 255 View FIGURES 253–258 ) trapezoidal (L/ W 0.69) with glabrous concave margin between the 1+1 small posterolateral combs each of two small macrochaetae and a long, thick marginal seta, posterior half of lateral margins with numerous fine setae and some cilia.

Legs ( Figs. 253–255 View FIGURES 253–258 ) progressively longer anterior to posterior with the tibia of PII being 1.1 times longer than that of PI and the tibia of PIII 1.7 times longer than that of PI. Precoxa of PI ( Fig. 253 View FIGURES 253–258 ) with comb of about four macrochaetae on the laterad corner. Coxa of PI without comb in anterior “shoulder” position. Outer margin with numerous long macrochaetae in row two to three macrochaetae wide, becoming shorter distally; inner margin with about five strong macrochaetae as well as several fine setae distally; distal articulation covered with four stout macrochaetae. Trochanter with setae as well as a thin macrochaetae and a strong seta on the posterior margin. Femur ventrally with several macrochaetae along the posterior margin and another midway along the anterior margin, distal anterior corner with two stout macrochaetae subdistally as well as some smaller setae more distad over the articulation and a line of several setae subdistally on the ventral face, ventral surface with fine setae in the posterior half while the rest is covered with a dense layer of triangular scales. Tibia with a strong carrot-shaped macrochaeta distally which is about two thirds to equal to the length of the apical spur as well as several smaller strong setae along the ventral margin, dorsal or outer margin of PI with three macrochaetae, two about half way along the margin and a single one about three quarters along the margin; apical spur on all legs distinctly hooked and bearing several small setae; face of tibia also with setae, some quite long as well as numerous narrow triangular scales interspersed among the setae. Tarsi of four articles bearing some stronger setae below and numerous smaller setae, the basal tarsal article of PI distinctly shorter than the remaining articles together; second and third articles particularly short with two long setae as well as several smaller setae, the second article of all legs with a long trichobothrium-like seta dorsally. Pretarsus with two long curved lateral claws and a much shorter straight medial claw. PII ( Fig. 254 View FIGURES 253–258 ) and PIII ( Fig. 255 View FIGURES 253–258 ) similar to PI except fewer macrochaetae along lateral margins of coxa, more robust and numerous macrochaetae in two groups distally on the femora of PII, first tarsal article on PIII about equal to the other three together, tibia of PIII with long thin trichobothrium-like seta more than twice as long as the tibia is wide, located near proximal macrochaeta on the dorsal surface.

Urotergite I with 2+2 combs (lacking submedial), each comb of 2–3 macrochaetae associated with one larger marginal seta, 2–3 setulae and four cilia. Urotergites II–VII with 3+3 small combs as shown in Table 8, each lateral comb associated with a marginal setae, 2–3 setulae on the margin and 2–4 cilia usually anterior to and between the insertions, each sublateral comb with 1–2 marginal setae and 1–3 setulae also usually located on the margin and 2–3 cilia, each submedial comb with one marginal setae, two cilia and 0–1 setulae ( Figs. 256, 257 View FIGURES 253–258 ); urotergite VIII with 2+2 combs, lacking the sublateral comb, each lateral comb associated with two marginal setae, 2–4 cilia and 1–3 setulae; urotergite IX without combs but with four setulae and two cilia in each infralateral corner ( Fig. 258 View FIGURES 253–258 ). Urotergite X ( Fig. 259 View FIGURES 259–266 ) round, short (L/ W 0.35) with numerous macrochaetae, setae and cilia along the lateral margins, posterior margin glabrous in the middle; indistinct 1+1 posterolateral macrochaetae (i.e. not obviously separated from marginal macrochaetae).

Urosternite I glabrous, urosternites II–IV with 1+1 lateral macrochaetae (not present on right side of urosternite II in holotype) each macrochaeta associated with a cilium and 1–3 marginal setae or setulae, urosternites IV– VIII with 1+1 lateral combs of a single macrochaeta mediad to each stylus, ( Figs. 260–262 View FIGURES 259–266 ), each macrochaeta associated with 1–2 long marginal setae, 0–1 cilia and 2–7 setulae, the corner laterad to each stylus with 1–2 long marginal setae, a cilium and 2–4 setulae; the posterior margins of urosternites IV– VIII slightly concave, the posterior margin of urosternite VIII distinctly convex ( Fig. 263 View FIGURES 259–266 ). Five pairs of styli present (on urosternites V – IX), those on segments V – VIII about half the length of the styli on coxites IX, but still armed with several strong setae apically   .

Each coxite IX ( Fig. 264 View FIGURES 259–266 ) of male with numerous strong macrochaetae with small bifurcated tips along the inner and outer margins of the inner process and apically plus laterally on the outer process; the internal process acute, about 1.5 times longer than wide at its base and 3.9 times as long as the outer process (range 3.6–4.2) which is shorter than wide at its base (L/ W 0.65). Styli IX long with several stronger setae distally and along the shaft, these setae longer than the stylus width, the stylus (excluding the apical macrochaetae) about twice the length of the internal process. Penis typical with numerous glandular setae apically, each set on a protuberance. Parameres short, conical with about 20–30 long thin setae; only very faint hint of subdivision into two segments ( Fig. 265 View FIGURES 259–266 ).

Cerci ( Fig. 266 View FIGURES 259–266 ) with seven basal divisions shorter than wide then progressively longer, first five divisions with one ring of setae, macrochaetae, cilia and trichobothria, sixth and seventh divisions with two rings, the more basal with trichobothria and scales (probably narrow triangular but some appear to be lanceolate), then four from the ninth; distal divisions lost. Median dorsal appendage ( Fig. 267 View FIGURES 267–274 ) with first two divisions covered by the epiproct, the next two divisions shorter with only a single ring of long setae, next three divisions increasingly longer with two rings, with scales (probably narrow triangular) in the basal ring; ninth and tenth divisions with four rings, the scales apparently restricted to the basal and penultimate rings; more distal divisions lost.

Female unknown.

Habitat. Collected from the bark of a large eucalypt tree using a pyrethrum spray.

Etymology. Named after the town of Bingara, which is nearest to the collection site.


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium