Cardiococcus major (Maskell),

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 230-233

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Cardiococcus major (Maskell)


Cardiococcus major (Maskell)  ( Fig. 90View FIGURE 90)

Inglisia foraminifer major Maskell 1897, 309  . Type data: Australia, South Australia, Murray River, Swan Hill, on Muehlen-

beckia adpressa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: NZAC, USNM.

Cardiococcus major ( Maskell, 1897)  ; Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller 1997, 199. Change of combination and rank.

Material examined: Australia, Victoria, Wimmera, no date, on Muehlenbeckia  sp. ( Polygonaceae  ), C. French ( ASCU): 1/1ad ♂ (p)

Mounted material. Moderate in size and robust, total body length about 1.38 mm, width across mesothorax about 265 μm; antennae both broken; body with very few setae, all hair-like (hs); fleshy setae (fs) on appendages easily differentiated from hs, rather thick with a rounded apex, those on antennae shorter than antennal width. Pores absent. Wings rather long and narrow, about 3/4 total body length. Hamulohalteres absent.

Head. Oval in dorsal view but ventral eyes probably on a pronounced posteroventral cone when viewed from side; length about 215 μm; width across genae about 260 μm. Median crest broad, with distinct striations and a few reticulations; with a total of about 4 hs dorsal head setae. Dorsal mid-cranial ridge well developed, extending from anterior margin of head to a point level with ocelli, appearing to divide posteriorly, with sclerotisations extending laterally and fusing with postocular ridge, possibly representing a postoccipital ridge; mid-cranial ridge ventrally narrow and poorly defined, but with well-developed lateral arms anteriorly; with a narrow, reticulated margin and occasional striations laterally; without ventral mid-cranial ridge setae. Preocular ridge quite long, dorsal and ventral ridges subequal in length; dorsal ridge extending about 3/4 way to ventral mid-cranial ridge; without an interocular ridge. Genae large, not reticulated but with numerous small raised dots; genal setae absent. Simple eyes: four pairs present: dorsal eyes and ventral eyes subequal in size, each 43–45 μm widest, each with a closely associated smaller, round lateral simple eye, each about 33 μm wide; ocelli each about 18 μm widest, each surrounded by an extension from post-ocular ridge. Ocular sclerite with polygonal reticulations throughout, each reticulation without inner microridges. Postocular ridge reaching and completely encircling each ocellus dorsally, and also fusing with sclerotised extensions from dorsal mid-cranial ridge. Dorsal ocular setae absent. Ventral head setae extremely few, with perhaps 2 pairs immediately anterior to ventral simple eyes and a pair immediately posterior to ventral simple eyes. Tentorial bridge well developed. Cranial apophysis not very clear but appearing not to be bifurcated; length about 40 μm.

Antennae: both broken but one with 6 segments; all flagellar segments with numerous fs. Scape 50 μm long, 58 μm wide, with 3 hs. Pedicel 30 μm long, 50 μm wide; apparently without reticulations; with perhaps 2 hs on ventral surface. Segments III–VI all of rather uniform width, 25–29 μm wide; fs each 20–22 μm long: lengths (μm): III rather club-shaped, 78; IV 105; V 100; VI 103; approximate number of setae per segment: III 9 fs + 2 hs (no sensilla basiconica noted); IV–VI each with 18–26 fs.

Thorax. Prothorax: pronotal ridge not fused medially, with strong lateral pronotal sclerites, each striated; with 0 or 1 lateral pronotal seta on each side. Lateral prothoracic and median pronotal setae absent. Post-tergite probably absent. Sternum probably with a strong transverse ridge (but hidden under scutellum); median ridge absent, sternite with a few ridges and a central puckered area; prosternal, anteprosternal and antemesospiracular setae all absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum wider than long (115 μm long, 180 μm wide); without reticulations but slightly pitted; without prescutal setae. Scutum: median membranous area about four times as wide as long (about 170 μm wide; perhaps 41 μm long); scutal setae: with a total of 7 quite short hs; scutum laterad to scutellum slightly reticulated on one side only; scutum without setae laterally. Scutellum 185 μm wide, 75 μm long; tubular; with a large foramen. Mesepisternum not reticulated. Basisternum about 290 μm wide, 140 μm long; median ridge present and extending full length of basisternum but weak in places; bounded by strong marginal and precoxal ridges; without basisternal setae; furca well developed, each arm extending anteriorly to anterior marginal ridge; lateropleurites each with a strong extension from marginal ridge; without setae near base of lateropleurite. Postalare not apparently reticulated at anterior end, without postalare setae. Mesothoracic spiracles: width of peritreme about 26 μm. Postmesospiracu- lar setae absent. Tegula well developed, without tegular setae.

Metathorax: metapostnotum apparently absent; metatergal setae represented by 0 or 1 hs on each side. Dorsospiracular setae absent. Antemetaspiracular setae absent. Ventral section of metapleural ridge well developed; metepisternum not sclerotised and without postmetaspiracular setae; metepimeron well developed but without setae. Metathoracic spiracles: width of peritreme 28 μm. Metasternum membranous; anterior metasternal and posterior metasternal setae absent.

Wings: hyaline, of moderate length, perhaps 1.05 mm long, 0.43 mm wide (ratio of length to width 1:0.4; ratio of total body length to wing length 1:0.8). Alar lobe, alar pores and alar setae all absent. Hamulohalteres absent.

Legs: only anterior legs present, all but coxae of other legs missing; coxae: lengths(μm): I 107, II & III 104 long; coxa III setae abundant, with about 18 fs + 4 hs. Trochanter + femur: length (μm): I 270; tr I with about 5 fs + 1 or 2 hs; long hs trochanter seta about 50 μm long; femur I with about 12–15 fs (mainly near ventral margin) + 13–18 hs. Tibia: length (μm): I 270, each tibia I with about 23 fs + 13–18 hs, some slightly spur-like along ventral margin but apical spur (tibs) not differentiated.Tarsi:length (μm):I 135 (ratio of length of tibia I to length of tarsus I 1:0.5); each tarsus I with about 8fs+ 14 hs, some slightly spur-like; distal spur-like seta each 20–21 μm long; tarsal digitules all missing. Claws: length subequal to width of tarsi, with a small denticle, length about23 μm; claw digitules a little longer than claw, with small apical knobs.

Abdomen. Segments I–VIII: tergites perhaps sclerotised on segments V–VII; sternites sclerotised on perhaps all segments. Caudal extension of segment VII absent, that on VIII rounded. Dorsal abdominal setae very few, perhaps 1 pair on segments II–VII; segment VIII with 6 or 7 setae. Pleural setae few: dorsopleural setae on each side: III–VI each with 1 or 2 hs; VII & VIII each with 3 or 4 hs; ventropleural setae on each side: 1 present on each side of segments II–V but uncertain more posteriorly. Ventral abdominal setae: totals across sternite: II–V each with 1 or 2 pairs, presence on VI and VII uncertain. Glandular pouches deep, each about 55 μm deep, with two setae but perhaps all broken, longest 70 μm long.

Genital segments: segment IX and style intimately fused; penial sheath probably quite long but broken. Anterior part of basal rod present, just about reaching basal membranous area anteriorly. Aedeagus missing.

Comment. The Australian Coccidae  are currently being revised (Gullan & Hodgson, in prep.). From this study of the adult females, it is clear that C. major  belongs to the family Cardiococcinae  as currently understood but is not congeneric with the type species, Cardiococcus umbonatus Cockerell, 1903  .

The subfamily Cardiococcinae  was introduced by Hodgson (1994) to take the glassy scales, the adult female of which are covered in a test made of clear glassy wax. The subfamily is fairly uniform although, as pointed out by Hodgson (1994), not all genera fit into it easily and T. Kondo and L.G. Cook (unpublished data based on a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the family Coccidae  using DNA sequences based on 18S, 28S and partial CO1 data) and Hodgson and Hardy (unpublished data based on adult male morphology) found the Cardiococcinae  to be non-monophyletic. Indeed, in the above key, species currently included in this family are split into two groups depending on the number of simple eyes. C. major  falls within the group with 4 pairs of simple eyes. Members of this subfamily are generally considered to be close to the Paralecaniini  and the Myzolecaniinae.


Agricultural Scientific Collections Unit














Cardiococcus major (Maskell)

Hodgson, Chris 2020

Inglisia foraminifer major

Inglisia foraminifer major Maskell 1897, 309

Cardiococcus major ( Maskell, 1897 )

Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller 1997, 199