Kermes, Boitard, 1828

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264 : 160-163

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

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Kermes sp. ( Fig. 64 View FIGURE 64 )

Material examined. USA, California, Catalina, Mid-Valley Res., on Quercus dumosa ( Fagaceae ),, R.J. Gill ( USNM, B/81): 1/ young ad ♀ + 2ad ♂♂ (in excellent condition).

Mounted material: of moderate size, total body length 1.4–1.45 mm; antennae slightly less than half body length; body with few setae, fleshy setae (fs) few and hard to separate from hs; length of fs on antennae nearly twice as long as width of antennal segments. Wings about 0.8x total body length and about 0.3x as wide as long.

Head: appearing approximately triangular in dorsal view; width across genae 230–235 µm. Median crest (mc) poorly demarcated and only faintly reticulated; with (on each side) perhaps 2 fs + 6–9 hs dorsal head setae (dhs); pores absent. Postoccipital ridge (por) distinct and sclerotised, bifurcated laterally, posterior ridges slightly longer than anterior ridges. Mid-cranial ridge: dorsal ridge (dmcr) short but distinct; ventral ridge (vmcr) also distinct and short, extending only about half-way to preocular ridge; lateral arms (lmcr) well developed; area ventral/posterior to vmcr reticulated and triangular in shape, broadest posteriorly, with about 5 or 6 fs + 5 or 6 hs ventral mid-cranial ridge setae (vmcrs) on each side. Genae (g) not reticulated and without genal setae (gs). Eyes: with 5 pairs of round simple eyes: a large dorsal pair (dse) placed rather laterally, each 38–42 µm wide; 3 pairs of small lateral eyes, each 21–25 µm wide, in a line extending ventrally to larger ventral eyes (vse), each 40–44 µm wide. Ocelli (o) obvious and perhaps on a small protuberance; just about touching postocular ridge (pocr) posteriorly. Ocular sclerite (ocs) sclerotised and polygonally reticulated, each reticulation quite large, without inner ridges. Preocular ridge (procr) very short dorsally, but extending ventrally to just mesad of each ventral eye. Postocular ridge (pocr) strongly developed, extending dorsally past posterior margin of each dorsal eye but not nearly reaching postoccipital ridge (por) medially. Dorsal ocular setae (docs) absent. Ventral head setae (vhs): none anterior to ventral eyes but with 3 setae between ventral eyes. Preoral ridge (pror) quite well developed. Cranial apophysis (ca) quite short and bifid; length 28–32 µm.

Antennae: 10-segmented and filiform; 690–780 µm long (ratio of total body length to antennal length 1:0.5). Scape (scp): 53 µm long, 50 μm wide, with 3 hs. Pedicel (pdc): length 57–62 µm, width 37 μm; with a few concen- tric ridges; with 8 fs + 7 hs. Segments III–X all 23–27 µm wide: fs 40–50 µm long; lengths of segments (µm): III 140–145; IV 99–104; V 95–104; VI 95–108; VII 66–70; VIII 58–62 and IX 60–63; approximate number of setae per segment (note: fs and hs hard to differentiate): III 26 fs + 4 hs (sensilla basiconica not detected); IV 17 fs + 1 hs; V 15 fs + 2 hs; VI 27 fs + 0–1 hs; VII 20–25 fs + 0–1 hs; VIII 15–24 fs, 0–1 hs + 1 bristle; IX 18 fs + 1 bristles. Segment X elongate oval, length 53–62 µm; not constricted apically; with 4 or 5 capitate setae (caps), 9 fs, 9 hs, 3 large + 2 small bristle + 1 sensilla basiconica (sb) on apex.

Thorax. Prothorax: pronotal ridge (prnr) well-developed but probably not fused dorsally; with a well-developed, striated, lateral pronotal sclerite (prn); without lateral pronotal (lpns) setae. Medial pronotal setae absent. Post- tergites small, without setae. Sternum (stn 1) sclerotised, with radial striations; median ridge rather thin or absent, but with a distinctly sclerotised triangular area; with a quite strong transverse ridge; with 1–5 fs + 1–4 hs prosternal setae (stn 1 s) on each side. Anteprosternal (astn 1 s) and antemesospiracular setae (am 2 s) absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum (prsc) wider than long, 78–83 µm long; 157 µm wide; sclerotised and with some reticulation; prescutal ridges (pscr) and prescutal suture (pscs) well developed. Scutum (sct): median membranous area quite large and quadrate, 74 µm long, 158–160 µm wide, with sclerotised ridges along lateral margins; without setae but with 1 pair of scutal setae (scts) laterally; lateral margins of scutum sclerotised and lightly reticulated anteriorly; prealare ridge (prar) quite well developed. Scutellum (scl) 157–166 µm wide and 74–80 µm long; with an inverted U-shaped scutellar ridge (sclr); probably not tubular but with a large foramen; with 1 pair of scutellar setae (scls) + 0 or 1 pair small pores. Basisternum (stn 2) 231–236 µm wide, 153–166 µm long; without any signs of a median ridge (mdr), but bounded anteriorly by a strong marginal ridge (mr) and posteriorly by strong precoxal ridges (pcr 2); basisternal setae (stn 2 s) absent; lateropleurite (lpl) quite broad, with a strong extension from marginal ridge along anterior margin; furca (f) well developed, narrow-waisted, arms very divergent and extending just anterior to point where marginal and precoxal ridges meet. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) well developed; postnotal apophysis (pna) well developed and orifice more or less round. Area bounded anteriorly by scutellum and laterally and posteriorly by mesopostnotum membranous. Mesepisternum (eps 2) not reticulated; subepisternal ridge (ser) long and well developed. Postalare (pa) with radial ridges dorsally near posterior notal wing process; without postalare setae (pas). Mesothoracic spiracle (sp 2): width of peritreme 26–30 µm. Postmesospiracular setae (pm 2 s) absent. Tegula (teg) present, with 1–3 hs tegular setae (tegs) on each side.

Metathorax: with a single pair of metatergal setae (mts). Dorsospiracular setae (dss) absent. Metapostnotal sclerite distinct and sclerotised. Dorsal part of metapleural ridge (plr 3) well developed, with a distinct suspensorial sclerite (ss). Ventral part of metapleural ridge well developed; precoxal ridge (pcr 3) broad and sclerotised but not apparently fused with metapleural ridge; metepisternum (eps 3) membranous, with perhaps 0–4 hs postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3 s) on each side near precoxal ridge. Metepimeron (epm 3) sclerotised, but without setae. Antemetaspiracular setae (am 3 s) absent. Metathoracic spiracle (sp 3): width of peritreme 28–30 µm. Metasternum (stn 3) lightly sclerotised, with distinct metasternal apophyses (st 3 a); with 2–16 hs anterior metasternal setae (amss) and 2–5 hs posterior metasternal setae (pmss).

Wings: hyaline, rather narrow, 1175 µm long and 375 µm wide (ratio of length to width 1:0.32; ratio of total body length to wing length 1:0.82); alar lobe (al) distinct; with 1 alar seta (als) on each side. Hamulohalteres 96–102 µm long, 28–34 µm wide; each with a single hooked seta, 61–63 µm long.

Legs: subequal in length. Coxae (cx): I 86–96; II 88–96; III 88–92 µm long; coxa III with about 6 or 7 fs + 6–10 hs; long apical setae on each coxa 46–50 µm long. Trochanter (tr) + femur (fm): I 240; II 202–240; III 202–240 µm long; trochanter III with 2 or 3 fs + 4 or 5 hs; long trochanter seta 50–70 µm; femur III with 6–16 fs + 23–24 hs. Tibia (ti): I 260–282; II 235–266; III 235–278 µm; tibia III with a total of 50–65 setae, mainly hs, becoming spurlike on distal third of leg; with 2 apical spurs (tibs), length 14–20 µm. Tarsi (ta): I 97–116; II 91–104; III 91–108 µm long (ratio of length of tibia III to tarsus III 1:0.38); tarsus III with 20–24 setae, mainly spur-like; tarsal spurs not differentiated; tarsal campaniform pore present; tarsal digitules (tdt) slightly shorter than claw. Claws (c) robust, distinctly longer than width of tarsi (18–20 µm), slightly curved, with a distinct small denticle; length: III 24–26 µm; claw digitules (cdt) slightly longer than claw.

Abdomen: segments I–VII: tergites (at) and sternites (as) all slightly to distinctly sclerotised. Caudal extensions (ce) of segment VII absent. Dorsal setae (ads) (totals): segments I & II each with 2–4 hs; III–VII each with 1–2 hs. Pleural setae: dorsopleural setae (dps): I–VII each with 4–6 moderately long hs on each side; ventropleural setae (vps): II 0 or 1 hs and III–VII each with 1–3 hs on each side. Ventral setae (avs) (totals): II 4–8 hs; III–VI each with 6–12 hs; VII 4 hs.

Segment VIII: tergite (at) and sternite (as) both sclerotised; tergite with 2 long + 1 short hs dorsal abdominal setae (ads); sternite with about 2 hs ventral abdominal setae (avs); caudal extension (ce) rounded but with 2 long setae, each 75–90 µm long + 2 short hs pleural setae. Glandular pouches (gp) present, deep; glandular pouch setae each about 133 µm long.

Genital segments: segment IX sclerotised, broad (86–89 µm wide, 75 µm long); anal opening probably on anterior border on dorsal surface; with 2 or 3 longish setae on postero-dorsal surface and 5–9 setae ventrally. Style quite broad anteriorly (60–62 µm wide), tapering to a point; sclerotised; length from base of segment IX 96–108 µm long; total length of style plus segment IX 173–185 µm (ratio of total body length to length of penial sheath 1:0.12). Aedeagus elongate, narrowing to a sclerotised point, length 83–91 µm; with a darker structure within broad base, possibly a basal rod (bra), length 38–42 µm. Style without setae but with a few small sensilla near apex.

Comment. Rather few male Kermesidae are known with only 1-segmented tarsi. The presence of an alar seta on each wing is so far unique within this family.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History