Bolbapium Boucomont, 1910

Carvalho, Edrielly Carolinne & Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z., 2022, A taxonomic revision of Bolbapium Boucomont, 1910 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae), Journal of Natural History 56 (13 - 16), pp. 769-828 : 771-780

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2022.2092429

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7012102

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B2C019-B129-FFDC-F3B4-F9F1FB472F5B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bolbapium Boucomont, 1910
status

 

Bolbapium Boucomont, 1910

Bolboceras (Bolbapium) Boucomont 1910: 340–342 (review); 1912: 7 (catalogue); 1932: 266–268 (key). Blackwelder 1944: 220 (checklist)

Bolbapium: Howden, 1954: 142–143 (note); 1973: 1569; Martínez 1976: 532, 546, 547 (checklist); Howden and Cooper 1977: 2, 4–7, 18, 34, 36 (classification)

Genus diagnosis

Subtrapezoidal clypeus; suture clypeo-frontal trituberculated; elytra with five striae as dotted lines, between suture and humeral callus; scutellum slightly longer than wide and middle legs well separated, space between them almost as wide as long; globose species ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 ).

Type species Bolboceras striatopunctatus Castelnau, 1840 .

Total length. 4.7–9.4 mm. Colour: uniformly dark brown or reddish brown, with elytral suture and posterior scutellar region darker. Head: Subtrapezoidal clypeus, with rugouse sculpture in the upper region; clypeal carina trituberculated, variable width. Canthus partially divides the eyes, usually has an evident score. The frons may have a transverse carina and interocular tubercles, or not. Transverse labrum, with rounded edges and with thinner sides than the central region; surface rough and setae of ventral origin. Visible mandibles in the dorsal view; rounded, have setae at both dorsal and ventral regions; visible teeth. Maxillary palps three-segmented. Labial palps three-segmented. Antennae, in general, with the last three antennomeres flat and long ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (b)), in some species (placed separately) they are globular in shape ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (c)). Pronotum: Convex, twice as wide as long. Rounded posterior margin. Lateral margins with a row of ventral setae. Anterior, lateral and posterior margins outlined by equidistant points. Some species have ornamentation on the anterior part of the disc; in this case, median groove of the pronotum with a line of points from the rear of the elevation to the slope of the disc close to the posterior margin, a region immediately lateral to the longitudinal central groove without evident points. Scutellum: Surface with fine and irregularly arranged points on the surface. Usually subpentagonal, with parallel edges anteriorly and widely arched posteriorly. Hypomeron: Surface covered by setae, greater concentration on the outer edge. Prostenum: Extremely short compared with the mesoventrite. Mesoventrite: Wider than long; smooth central disc, other parts rough and with some setae arranged transversely. Mesepimeron: Rugged, whole surface covered by setae. Metepisternum: Elongated, gradually tapering, surface entirely covered by setae. Metaventrite: central discrimen anterior area aligned with the mesocoxae and posterior area adjacent to the metacoxae; surface covered with setae, except for a small region close to the lower margin. Elytra: Elytral suture marked by points smaller and more distant than the points of the striae. Striae indicated with points in longitudinal rows, with five striae up to the humeral callus, ranging from the base of the elytra to the apex. The first three striae connect with the last three at the apex of the elytra, the first elytral stria connecting with the tenth striae; second connecting with the ninth and third connecting with the eighth. Fourth and fifth striae end before the elytra apex. Sixth stria begins below the humeral callus. Interstria have subtle punctation. Epipleura: Gradually narrowing towards the apex, surface with fine points and covered by setae. Hind wings: Apex of the third branch of the radial vein directed towards the outer edge of the wing ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (a)); between the cubital and the first anal vein articulated with the base of the wing there are two free veins ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (a)); jugular wing area not reduced ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (a)). Legs: Dorsal region of the profemur with partially smooth surface; in ventral view covered by setae and points unevenly distributed. Protibiae with smooth inner edge; serrated outer edge, first large tooth, compared to the following teeth and the remaining teeth gradually smaller to the base of the tibiae; presence of a spinous spur. Meso and metafemur without evident punctuation, ventral region with some setae unevenly distributed; two carinae at the base with long bristles, equal in size of the first tarsomere. Mesotibia with expanded apex; short and slightly curved compared with pro and metatibiae. External face with two rows of teeth, the first tooth being larger than the others and the other teeth gradually smaller to the base of the tibiae; tibiae surface surrounded by bristles. Metatibiae larger than mesotibiae, characteristics of the external face are the same as the mesotibiae. Tarsomeres are coniform and have setae, the base being narrower than the apex. First and fifth tarsomeres larger than the others, with length equal to third and fourth together. Claws curved and symmetrical, the same size as the second tarsal segment. Second and third pair of legs with adjacent spurs. Both spiniform, the first being smaller than the first tarsomere and the second larger. Abdomen: Ventrite sides with setae; in dorsal view the first three ventrites are wider than the following ones, which gradually decrease; in ventral view, the last two ventrites have more setae than the others. Pygidium: Short and bristly. Sexual dimorphism: Males of some species present in the posterior region of the clypeus with fine and distinct punctuation, setae and carinae absent, while females have up to four setae in the same region and a rugose surface.

Remarks It is easily differentiated from the other South American genera of Bolboceratini, due to the separation of the middle coxae, the shape of the clypeus and scutellum, and the number of elytral striae between the suture and the humeral callus. See the introduction to this article for more information.

Distribution Bolbapium is reported from the Neotropical region, with occurence in South America and Central America.

Notes about the natural history

Little is known about the natural history of Bolboceratinae , especially about those species in the Neotropical region. Some species of Bolboceras have been found associated with nests of Acromyrmex ( Hymenoptera : Formicidae ) ( Luederwaldt 1931), or with underground fungi ( Paulian 1941; Boilly 2011). Most Bolboceratinae species are readily attracted by light ( Luederwaldt 1931; Howden and Cooper 1977; Krikken 2013). Personal observations and analyses of the information written on individual collection labels show that the majority of Bolbapium species are collected not only in light traps, but also with flight interception (FIT), malaise and even pitfall baited with human and bovine faeces.

Identification key to Bolbapium species

1 Frons with transverse carina between eyes .............................................................................. 2

1’ Frons without transverse carina between eyes; sulcus or a line of almost anastomosed punctures in occipital position and originating each side posterior to eyes is not considered this carina ...................................................................................................................... 10

2 No trace of medial tubercle adjacent to each eye; clypeal longitudinal lateral carina always lower posteriorly then anteriorly if there adjacent to eye; frontal transverse carina not elevated adjacent at each side of the eye ........................................................... 3

2’ Frons with a single tubercle or horn adjacent to each eye; sometimes tubercle is only an angled elevation of the posterior tip of longitudinal lateral clypeal carina or of the frontal transverse carina ................................................................................................................... 4

3 Frontal carina as wide as clypeo-frontal carina ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (a)), 6.86 to 8.95 mm. Midwest, South and Southeast Brazil; Argentina ( Figure 12 View Figure 12 (a)) ................................................................. ............................................................................ Bolbapium striatopunctatum ( Castelnau, 1840)

3’ Clypeo-frontal carina clearly much wider than frontal carina ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (b)), 5.97 to 6.17 mm. Midwest Brazil ( Figure 14 View Figure 14 (a)) ............................................................................................. ................................................... Bolbapium dutraorum Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

4 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with a central double structure and a distinct lateral tubercle at each side of central struture .................................................................................... 5

4’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with a single pair of central tubercles, or a double central structure, and at most a lateral indistinct rounded elevation at each side ................. 6

5 Lower parts of clypeo-frontal carina much higher than anterior clypeal carina; mesoanterior pronotal structure bituberculated, well emarginated ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (c)). Argentina; Bolivia and Paraguay ( Figure 16 View Figure 16 (b)) ............................................................................. ...................................................... Bolbapium sergioidei Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

5’ Lower parts of clypeo-frontal carina about same level as frontal carina; mesoanterior pronotal structure concave, slightly emarginated ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (d)). North, Midwest, Northeast, South and Southeast Brazil; Argentina ( Figure 13 View Figure 13 (b)) ........................................... ................................................ Bolbapium luederwaldti Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

6 Clypeo-frontal carina with central tubercle very high and detached, usually at least as high, above carina, as lower parts of the carina itself ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (e)). Midwest, Northeast, South and Southeast Brazil; Argentina; Bolivia; Paraguay and Uruguay ( Figure 16 View Figure 16 (a)). ....................................................................................... Bolbapium minutum ( Luederwaldt, 1931)

6’ Clypeo-frontal carina not elevated at each side, or central tubercle not detached and as high as carina ................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with pair of longitudinal structures, not connected at base ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (f)). Peru (12A) ................................................ Bolbapium baeri ( Boucomont, 1902)

7’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with pared of structures connected at base, or single central structure ................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with simple bituberculated stucture ...................................... 9

8’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with robust pair of tubercles, connected at base and separate middle and apex region ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a)). Midwest, Northeast and Southeast Brazil; Bolivia ( Figure 12 View Figure 12 (b)) ................ Bolbapium quadrispinosum ( Luederwaldt, 1931)

9 Frons with angled elevation of the posterior tip of the frontal transverse carina ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (b)). Midwest and Northeast Brazil ( Figure 15 View Figure 15 (a)) ....................................................................... .......................................................... Bolbapium limeirai Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

9’ Frons with a marked tubercle adjacent to each eye ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (c)). Midwest and Southeast Brazil; Bolivia and Paraguay ( Figure 14 View Figure 14 (b)) ................................................................. ......................................................... Bolbapium furtadoi Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

10 Subpentagonal scutellum, with parallel edges anteriorly and widely arched posteriorly ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (a)) ................................................................................................................................ 11

10’ Elongated scutellum, with parallel edges anteriorly and subtly rounded posteriorly ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (b)). Northeast and Southeast Brazil ( Figure 13 View Figure 13 (a)) ..................................................... ................................................................................. Bolbapium sulcifrons Ide and Martínez 1993

11 Pronotum with smooth lateral margins ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (c)) .......................................................... 12

11’ Pronotum with serrated lateral margins ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (d)). Paraguay ( Figure 14 View Figure 14 (a)) ............... ......................................................................... Bolbapium quinquestriatum (Boubomont, 1932)

12 Pronotum mesoanteriorly without stucture ........................................................................... 13

12’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with some type of stucture ...................................................... 15

13 Frons without tubercle .................................................................................................................... 14

13’ Frons with tubercle adjacent to each eye, with base wider than apex ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (d)). Northern Brazil and French Guiana ( Figure 12 View Figure 12 (b)) ........................................................................ ............................................................. Bolbapium boillyi Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

14 Clypeal carina extending to the mid-frontal region and meeting in the central region ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (e)). Southeast Brazil; Argentina and Paraguay... Bolbapium paralucidulum

14’ Clypeal carina short, not reaching the midline region of the frons ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (f)). Midwest, South and Southeast Brazil ( Figure 16 View Figure 16 (b)) .................................................................... ................................................................................ Bolbapium lucidulum Ide and Martínez 1993

15 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with stucture with width less than or equal to half the interocular width ............................................................................................................................... 16

15’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with stucture wider than half the interocular width... 20

16 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with somewhat bituberculated stucture ............................ 17

16’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with almost rectangular stucture in dorsal view ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (a)). Colombia ( Figure 15 View Figure 15 (b)) ............... ............... Bolbapium modestum ( Castelnau, 1840)

17 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with bituberculated stucture with width equal to half the interocular width ............................................................................................................................... 18

17’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with bituberculated stucture with width less than half the interocular width ............................................................................................................................... 19

18 Parameres, in dorsal view, elongated and greatly separated ( Figure 10 View Figure 10 (d)); in lateral view the parameres are concave and extend beyond the posterior margin ( Figure 10 View Figure 10 (f)). Northeast Brazil ( Figure 17 View Figure 17 ) .......... .......... Bolbapium parcepunctatum ( Arrow, 1913)

18’ Parameres in dorsal view short and flat, posterior margin going beyond the apex of the parameres ( Figure 10 View Figure 10 (g)); in lateral view posterior margin with curved projection forming an approximate angle of 45° towards the parameres ( Figure 10 View Figure 10 (i)). Midwest, Northeast, South and Southeast Brazil ( Figure 17 View Figure 17 ) ....................................................................... .............................................. Bolbapium santanaorum Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

19 Frons with tubercle adjacent to each eye ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (b)); less than 5 mm. Midwest and Northeast Brazil ( Figure 13 View Figure 13 (a)) ................ ................ Bolbapium borgmeieri Martínez 1976

19’ Frons without tubercles, just clypeal carina extending to the mid-frontal forming slight angulation ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (c)); larger than 5 mm. Northeast Brazil ( Figure 14 View Figure 14 (b)) .......... ...................................................... Bolbapium matheusi Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

20 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with the sides of structure well delimited ......................... 21

20’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with curved structure towards the head, without angulations on each side of structure ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (d)). Midwest Brazil; Bolivia ( Figure 15 View Figure 15 (a)) ....... .................................................................................................. Bolbapium howdeni Martínez, 1976

21 Pronotum mesoanteriorly with rectangular structure in dorsal view; frons with tubercle wider than long adjacent to each eye ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (e)). Midwest Brazil ( Figure 15 View Figure 15 (b)). ............................................. Bolbapium sampaioorum Carvalho and Vaz-de-Mello, sp. nov.

21’ Pronotum mesoanteriorly with curved structure, with non-continuous lines and with small angulation on each side of structure; frons with tubercle narrow adjacent to each eye ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (f)). Northern Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana and Venezuela ( Figure 13 View Figure 13 (b)) ...................................... ...................................... Bolbapium caesum ( Klug, 1843)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Bolboceratidae

Loc

Bolbapium Boucomont, 1910

Carvalho, Edrielly Carolinne & Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z. 2022
2022
Loc

Bolbapium

Howden HF & Cooper JB 1977: 2
Martinez A 1976: 532
1976
Loc

Bolboceras (Bolbapium)

Blackwelder RE 1944: 220
Boucomont A 1910: 342
1910