Chone paramollis, Tovar-Hernández, 2007

Tovar-Hernández, María Ana, 2007, Revision of Chone Krøyer, 1856 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) from North America and descriptions of four new species, Journal of Natural History 41 (9 - 12), pp. 511-566: 542-548

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222930701250912

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B1879F-3000-5C6F-FE31-E2B7C73CFBE5

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Chone paramollis
status

n. sp.

Chone paramollis   n. sp.

( Figure 11 View Figure 11 )

Material examined

Type material. California [ LACM-AHF 003251, 1958, Tomales Bay , holotype, 80 paratypes; ECOSUR 0073 View Materials , five paratypes]. Topotypes [ LACM-AHF], 003218 (5); 003238, # 2 8-58 (various dozens); 003240, # 6, coll. G. Jones, August 1958 (11)   ; 003246, 4938-57 (4); 003247, 5028-57 (10); 003248, 5745 (1); 003250 (6).

Non-type material. California [ LACM-AHF], Marina del Rey, MMS Phase I, Help Collections , MDR 2A, 21 September 1978 (12)   . MDR 4A, 21 September 1978 (3). [ LACM-AHF], Santa Monica Bay, Repl. Study, Sta. 83-60 # 1, 62 m, 11 May 1979 (1)   ; Sta. 83-60 # 3, 62 m, 11 May 1979 (1). [LACM-AHF], Newport, 003241, Sta. 9, January 1954 (1)   . [ CSD-MBL], Point Loma, Sta. A-12, 32 ° 40.479N, 117 ° 16.429W, 4 January 1981 GoogleMaps   , 47 m (1); Sta. I-8, 35 m, 13 February 2005 (2). [ LACSD-MBL], San Diego, Sta. Y 6D, 30 m (10). Sta. 0102-3D, 30 m (1). Sta. 0703-3D, 30 m (2). Sta. 0194-2D, 30 m (1). Sta. 0191-7D, 30 m (1). [ PC-RR], City of San Diego , ITP I-2, 32 m, 1 July 2002   , RCR DLZ 1089 (1); San Diego Bay , SB03, 10.4 m, 13 April 2004 (2)   . [ LACM-AHF BLM 24242 View Materials BFI] (1). [ LACM-AHF BFI], BLM 6846-60, 003219 (1). Western   Mexico [ ECOSUR], Bahía La Paz , Calerita, coll. SISV, 12 June 1987   (2).

Additional material. Chone mollis   ( Bush in Moore , 1904) [ YPM 2793 View Materials , holotype]   .

Description (based on holotype, in parentheses variation of paratypes)

Colour, body shape, and size. Body pink. Trunk depressed dorso-ventrally, posterior abdomen with a dorso-ventral depression ( Figure 11E View Figure 11 ). Body length 20 mm (13–24), width 1 mm (0.9–1). Tubes unknown.

Branchial lobes and branchial crown. Insertion of branchial lobes not exposed beyond collar ( Figure 11A, B View Figure 11 ). Branchial crown length 5 mm (4). Radioles: eight pairs (seven to eight). Radioles with median pinnules twice the length of proximal pinnules. Radiolar tips long ( Figure 11G View Figure 11 ). The palmate membrane extends to three-quarters the length of branchial crown. Lateral flanges narrow. Dorsal lips (dl) triangular, elongate, erect, without mid-rib ( Figure 11F View Figure 11 ). Dorsal pinnular appendages: two pairs. Ventral lips rounded, as long as wide, about one-quarter the length of dorsal lips. Ventral radiolar appendages: one pair, occupying one-half the length of branchial crown.

Peristomium   . Anterior peristomial ring lobe triangular at their base, then digitiform, not exposed beyond collar. Posterior peristomial ring collar: antero-dorsal margin forming well-developed dorsal pockets, entire length of mid-dorsal collar margins forms a narrow gap ( Figure 11C View Figure 11 ); lateral and ventral margins entire ( Figure 11A, B, D View Figure 11 ); ventral margin slightly higher than dorsal ( Figure 11B View Figure 11 ). Ventral shield of collar horseshoe-shaped, swollen, as wide as long ( Figure 11D View Figure 11 ). Ratio of posterior peristomial ring collar length versus chaetiger 2 length, in lateral view: 2:1.

Thorax. Chaetiger 1: elongate narrowly hooded chaetae. Chaetigers 2–8: notopodia—two irregular rows of elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae; one anterior row with bayonet chaetae ( Figure 11O View Figure 11 ); two posterior rows with five symmetrical, paleate chaetae with minute or indiscernible mucro ( Figure 11H, I View Figure 11 ); neuropodia—one row of acicular uncini per torus, main fang surmounted by four rows of teeth equal in size, second tooth enlarged, located offset midline, dentition occupying three-quarters the length of main fang ( Figure 11J View Figure 11 ). Pre- and post-chaetal lobes well developed. Glandular ridge on chaetiger 2: narrow.

Abdomen. Abdominal segments: 46 (37–43). Anterior segments: two transverse rows of elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae, chaetae from upper row half as long as chaetae in lower row; uncini with the main fang surmounted by three regular rows of teeth in frontal view, second tooth enlarged, dentition occupying half the length of main fang, main fang not extending beyond breast, breast rectangular ( Figure 11K, L View Figure 11 ). Posterior segments: one or two very elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae, modified uncini with the main fang surmounted by six to seven regular vertical rows of teeth equal in size, occupying threequarters the length of main fang, main fang not extending beyond breast, breast rectangular ( Figure 11M, N View Figure 11 ). Pygidium with triangular posterior margin ( Figure 11E View Figure 11 ).

Gametes. Holotype female with oocytes in thorax and mid-abdominal region, different sizes.

Methyl green staining. The epidermis is completely glandular and stains uniformly in thorax and abdomen, dorsally and ventrally, except the anterior margin of collar ( Figure 11A–C View Figure 11 ). The anterior end of the first ventral glandular shield is not coloured, lateral sides of ventral shield of collar dark ( Figure 11A–C View Figure 11 ). Posterior end granular ( Figure 11E View Figure 11 ). After 24 h specimens lost colour; only two glandular rings per segment are visible.

Etymology

Specific name refers to the similarity between this species and Chone mollis   .

Remarks

The collar segment of Chone paramollis   n. sp. resembles Chone mollis   ; however, C. paramollis   n. sp. has modified posterior abdominal uncini (Group II), which are not modified in C. mollis   (Group I); the ventral shield of collar is as long as wide in C. paramollis   n. sp. (two times wider than long in C. mollis   ); the anterior peristomial ring lobe not exposed beyond collar (exposed in C. mollis   ); the posterior peristomial ring collar length is two times longer than first chaetiger length (1.5 in C. mollis   ). Chone paramollis   n. sp. and C. eiffelturris   n. sp. are unique among species of Chone   from Group II in having paleate chaetae with a minute or indiscernible mucro: C. paramollis   n. sp. has long radiolar tips (extremely long in C. eiffelturris   n. sp.); the palmate membrane extends three-quarters of the branchial crown length (more than three-quarters, almost reaching radiolar tips, in C. eiffelturris   n. sp.); ventral shield of collar horseshoe-shaped (‘‘A’’-shaped in C. eiffelturris   n. sp.) and lacking glandular ridges in thorax and anterior abdominal segments (present in C. eiffelturris   n. sp.).

Chone picta ( Verrill, 1885)   new combination

( Figure 12 View Figure 12 )

Sabella picta Verrill 1885, p 440   .

Material examined

Topotype material. Massachusetts [ YPM 30000 View Materials ], Martha’s Vineyard, off Gay Head , R / V A. E. Verrill, Naturalist Dredge, 126 ft, SEP 1789   , coll. V. A. Zullo, T. J. M. Schopf, J. M. Reinhart, and E. P. McReynolds, 6 June 1969 (1)   . [ YPM 30002 View Materials ], Off Gay Head , 2400 m from CC Buoy, 70 ° 519N, 41 ° 229W, 90–110 ft, SEP 1155, coll. J. L. Simon and P. E. Schwamb, 22 June 1966   (1).

Non-type material. Massachusetts [ YPM 34894 View Materials ]   , 6400 m S of Fishing Ledge , 41 ° 52.79N, 70 ° 18.59W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Epibenthic Dredge, 105 ft, SEP 1620 Ep, coll. Biotic Census, 19 December 1967 (1). [ YPM 30001 View Materials ], Cape Cod Bay   , 11,200 m ENE of Manomet Point , 41 ° 56.69N, 70 ° 29.19W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 140 ft, SEP 1224 E1, coll. Biotic Census, 3 March 1968 (2). [ YPM 34891 View Materials ], 2400 m off Race Point, Provincetown , 42 ° 03.59N, 70 ° 16.009W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 188 ft, SEP 0518 E2, coll. Biotic Census, 14 May 1968 (1). [ YPM 34895 View Materials ], Off Fishing Ledge , 41 ° 50.59N, 70 ° 18.59W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, scuba, 105 ft, SEP 1220, dive, coll. D. Grant, R   . Wilce, C. McKay, and J. Sears, 26 August 1968 (1). [ YPM 34896 View Materials ], Off Fishing Ledge , 41 ° 50.59N, 70 ° 18.59W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, scuba, 105 ft, SEP 1220, dive, coll. D. Grant, R   . Wilce, C. McKay, and J. Sears, 26 August 1968 (1). [ YPM 34906 View Materials ], Fishing Ledge , 41 ° 50.59N, 70 ° 18.59W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 94 ft, SEP. 1220 E1, coll. Biotic Census, 26 August 1968 (1). [ YPM 34902 View Materials ]   , 6400 m N of Barnstable Harbor , 41 ° 47.59N, 70 ° 18.679W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 66 ft, SEP 2118 ES, coll. Biotic Census, 14 October 1968 (1). [ YPM 34905 View Materials ]   , 4800 m NE of McIntyre, 120 ft, SEP 1028 E4 (1). [ YPM 34899 View Materials ], 4800 m NE of east end of Cape Cod Canal , 41 ° 49.29N, 70 ° 27.79W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Naturalist Dredge, 83–90 ft towed 2 min, 500 ft, SEP 1820 N, coll. Biotic Census, 19 November 1968 (1). [ YPM 34900 View Materials ], 4800 m NE off east end of Cape Cod Canal , 41 ° 49.29N, 70 ° 27.79W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Naturalist Dredge, 86 ft, SEP 1926 N, coll. Biotic Census, 19 November 1968 (1). [ YPM 34893 View Materials ]   , 11,200 m NE of Manomet Point , 41 ° 58.59N, 70 ° 24.09W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 154 ft, SEP 1024 E1, coll. Biotic Census, 19 December 1968 (3). [ YPM 34901 View Materials ]   , 11,200 m NE of Manomet Point , 41 ° 58.59N, 70 ° 24.09W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Naturalist Dredge, 152 ft, SEP 1024 N, coll. Biotic Census, 19 December 1968 (1). [ YPM 34909 View Materials ], Off Barnstable Harbor , 41 ° 46.59N, 70 ° 18.69W, R / V GoogleMaps   A. E. Verrill, Smith-McIntyre Grab, 68 ft, SEP 2220 E5, coll. Biotic Census, 7 January 1969 (1).

Redescription

Colour, body shape, and size. Body cream coloured. Verrill (1885): ‘‘color of the body greenish, specked with bright red, most so posterior and anteriorly, on the collar the red predominates. Branchiae transparent greenish white, with transverse spots of flake-white and bright red; bases light red’’. Trunk cylindrical. Body length 20.7–40.7 mm, width 2– 2.5 mm.

Branchial lobes and branchial crown. Insertion of the branchial lobes not exposed beyond collar dorsally ( Figure 12A View Figure 12 ). Branchial crown length 6–11 mm. Radioles: 12–15 pairs. Radioles with median pinnules two times longer than more proximal pinnules. Radiolar tips short. The palmate membrane extends up half the length of branchial crown. Lateral flanges broad. Dorsal lips (dl) two times longer than wide, rounded, erect, without mid-rib ( Figure 12E View Figure 12 ). Dorsal pinnular appendages: one to three short pairs. Ventral lips rounded, as long as wide, about one-quarter the length of dorsal lips. Ventral radiolar appendages: one to three pairs, the inner one about three-quarters the length of branchial crown, the remainder about one-quarter the length of branchial crown.

Peristomium   . Anterior peristomial ring lobe not exposed beyond collar, distally entire, triangular ( Figure 12A View Figure 12 ). Posterior peristomial ring collar: antero-dorsal ( Figure 12A View Figure 12 ), lateral ( Figure 12C View Figure 12 ) and ventral margins entire ( Figure 12B View Figure 12 ); ventral margin slightly higher than dorsal ( Figure 12C View Figure 12 ); entire length of mid-dorsal collar margins forms a broad gap and a deep faecal groove ( Figure 12A View Figure 12 ); dorsal pockets well developed. Ventral shield of collar swollen, horseshoe-shaped, as long as wide ( Figure 12B View Figure 12 ). Ratio of posterior peristomial ring collar length versus chaetiger 2 length, in lateral view: 3:1.

Thorax. Chaetiger 1: two groups of four to six elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae. Chaetigers 2–8: notopodia—two rows of four to five elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae ( Figure 12F View Figure 12 ); inferior group with one row with four to five bayonet chaetae ( Figure 12G View Figure 12 ), two posterior rows with five symmetrical, paleate chaetae without mucro ( Figure 12I, J View Figure 12 ); neuropodia—one row of 8–13 acicular uncini per torus, main fang surmounted by four rows of teeth, second tooth enlarged, located in the midline, dentition occupying a quarter the length of main fang ( Figure 12H View Figure 12 ). Pre- and post-chaetal lobes well developed. Glandular ridge on chaetiger 2: narrow.

Abdomen. Abdominal segments: 54–56. Anterior segments: two transverse rows of elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae ( Figure 12K View Figure 12 ), uncini with the main fang surmounted by three rows of teeth equal in size, occupying half the length of main fang, main fang not extending beyond breast, breast rectangular ( Figure 12L View Figure 12 ). Posterior segments: very elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae, uncini similar to those in anterior abdomen ( Figure 12M View Figure 12 ). Pygidium with posterior margin rounded ( Figure 12D View Figure 12 ).

Gametes. Females with oocytes in thorax and middle abdominal region.

Methyl green staining. Basal half of collar dark, distal half not coloured; ventral shield of collar dark on basal half, distal half not coloured. Body coloured uniformly.

Remarks

Bush in Moore (1904, p 216) mentioned that Sabella picta Verrill (1885)   is a Metachone   , but provided no details. Hartman (1942a, p 136) synonymized Sabella picta Verrill, 1885   with C. infundibuliformis   ; however, C. picta   is distinguished by a broad faecal groove (narrow in C. infundibuliformis   ), paleate chaetae without mucro (short mucro in C. infundibuliformis   ), dorsal pockets well developed (poorly developed in C. infundibuliformis   ), and posterior peristomial ring collar three times as long as chaetiger 2 (two times in C. infundibuliformis   ) (Table III).

MMS

Montshire Museum of Science

ECOSUR

El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (Mexico)

YPM

Peabody Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

CC

CSIRO Canberra Rhizobium Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Sabellida

Family

Sabellidae

Genus

Chone

Loc

Chone paramollis

Tovar-Hernández, María Ana 2007
2007
Loc

Sabella picta

Verrill AE 1885: 440
1885