Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885

Paul, Jimmy, Sankaran, Pradeep M., Sebastian, Pothalil A. & Joseph, Mathew M., 2018, A review of the wasp mimicking spider genus Coenoptychus Simon, 1885 (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae), Zootaxa 4413 (1), pp. 163-172: 165-170

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4413.1.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EED9AB62-B396-41F6-B294-AE965BA055B0

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B087C4-FF88-5513-96A4-4369FCAAFDDE

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scientific name

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885
status

 

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885  

Figs 1A ‒D View FIGURE 1 , 2A ‒H View FIGURE 2 , 3A ‒F View FIGURE 3 , 4A ‒C, F ‒K View FIGURE4

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885: 37   (Holotype ♀: INDIA: Ramnad/Ramanathapuram [09°22'14.12''N, 78°50'00.44''E], no date, MNHN—not examined); Gravely, 1931: 276, fig. 20G; Majumder & Tikader 1991: 145, figs 306‒310; Deeleman- Reinhold, 2001: 329, figs 486‒488.

Onychocryptus mutillaris Karsch, 1892: 295   , pl. 11, fig. 17.

Coenoptychus pulchellus Simon, 1897: 174   (lapsus); Green, 1912: 92, figs 5‒6; Petrunkevitch, 1928: 179; Berland, 1932: 149.

Diagnosis. Coenoptychus pulcher   seems closely related to C. tropicalis   comb. nov., but can be easily separated from it by the following combination of features: abdominal scutum of both sexes with four white spots ( Figs 1A ‒ D View FIGURE 1 , 2A, C View FIGURE 2 ) vs with a broad white anterior band and two small lateral triangular markings, fused to a median stripe in front of spinnerets in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: fig. 29); globose spermathecae II ( Figs 2H View FIGURE 2 , 3F View FIGURE 3 ) vs subtriangular in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: figs 30‒31); postero-laterally placed copulatory ducts ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ) vs laterally placed in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: fig. 31); spermathecae II with basoprolateral projection ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ) vs without projection in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: fig. 31); embolus with 1.5 coils ( Fig. 3A ‒D View FIGURE 3 ) vs. with 2 coils in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: figs 32‒33); and inverted comma-shaped epigynal ridges ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ) vs with semi-circular-shaped epigynal ridges in C. tropicalis   comb. nov. ( Haddad 2004: figs 30‒31).

Male ( ADSH 19131B). Measurements: Body length 4.93. Carapace 2.54 long, 1.55 wide. Abdomen length 2.39, width 1.82. Eye sizes and interdistances: ALE 0.06, AME 0.08, PLE 0.07, PME 0.07, ALE ‒PLE 0.37, AME ‒ ALE 0.05, AME ‒AME 0.10, AME ‒PME 0.15, PLE ‒PLE 0.67, PME ‒PLE 0.17, PME ‒PME 0.21. Clypeus height at AME 0.30, at ALE 0.22. Chelicerae 0.65 long. Measurements of palp and legs (right): palp 2.25 [0.69, 0.20, 0.28, 1.08], I 4.05 [1.10, 0.51, 0.87, 0.86, 0.71], II 3.92 [1.10, 0.51, 0.79, 0.83, 0.69], III 3.62 [1.01, 0.50, 0.70, 0.83, 0.58], IV 6.46 [1.41, 0.61, 1.07, 1.37, 2.00]. Spination: palp: femur do 2, cymbium pl 3; legs: femora I ‒II pl 1 do 3 III pl 1 do 3 rl 1, IV pl 2 do 3 rl 1; patellae I ‒IV do 2 fine setae; tibiae I plv 1 rlv 2, II rlv 2, III plv 2, IV pl 1 rl 1 plv 1 vt 1; metatarsus I plv 2 rlv 1, II plv 2 rlv 2, III plv 4 rlv 2 vt 1, IV pl 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 1 vt 2; tarsi I ‒IV spineless.

Carapace dark reddish with dark grey boarders, papillate, with serrated margins, slightly elevated towards rear, highest at two-thirds its length, ornamented with short golden and long white hairs ( Fig. 4I View FIGURE4 ), white feathery setae lying adjacent to the lateral margins ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE4 , vertical arrow). Eye field blackish, with long, curved setae, eyes subequal, PER strongly recurved ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE4 ). Fovea short and narrow. Clypeus black, with long, curved setae. Chelicerae dark greyish-orange, dorsum covered with greyish-black setae; promargin middle tooth largest. Maxillae, labium dark orange. Sternum reddish-orange, with black margins, papillate, covered with feathery setae intermingled with short and long white and pale setae, with precoxal triangles, intercoxal sclerites between all coxae except I and II, intercoxal sclerites discontinuous ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE4 , horizontal arrow), fused with plural bars, precoxal triangles separated at coxae II, III and IV. Abdomen oval; dorsal scutum blackish, entire, with two pairs of sigilla, covered with black feathery setae, rest with short, white feathery setae intermingled with long grey and white setae; dorsum with four major spots of short white feathery setae, two medially and two laterally, with very short patch of white feathery setae on each postero-lateral side, anterior half with scattered gold feathery setae up to median white spot, tuft of short, white feathery setae just above anal tubercle ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE4 ); venter with reddish-brown ventral sclerite, epigastric sclerite reddish-orange, post epigastric sclerites thin, with setal bases from granules; ventral sclerite heavily sclerotised, rectangular, situated between epigastric furrow and inframammillary sclerite, inframammillary sclerite small. Pedicel short, with collar. Spinnerets orange-brown. Legs I ‒III yellowish-brown, IV reddish-brown, spinose, covered with short, erect setae and scattered short feathery setae; all leg segments with black annulations, except femur I and all tarsi; all coxae lack retrocoxal window; all patellae with narrow patellar indentation; glabrous distal constriction on femora III and IV, prominent on IV ( Fig. 4J View FIGURE4 ); proximal and distal long setae on patellae dorsally, long spine-like dense hairs around metatarsi III ‒IV distally; all metatarsi distally with scopulae, scopulae on all tarsi entire ( Fig. 4K View FIGURE4 ), metatarsal and tarsal scopulae composed of longitudinal halves separated medially by irregular rows of spine-like setae ( Fig. 4K View FIGURE4 ); all tarsi with paired claws, with claw tufts of short, barbed setae, without feathery setae; leg formula 4123.

Palp ( Figs 2E ‒F View FIGURE 2 , 3A ‒D View FIGURE 3 ): segments pale orange to dark brown; patella with single prolateral spine; tibia prolaterally with single pair of spines ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ), with glabrous ventral saddle with small elevated ridge prolaterally, cymbium with weak prolateral bend in ventral view ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ), with one apico-prolateral and two baso-prolateral spines, with dense mat of tiny thorn-like setae on pallid apical half of dorsum ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ), apical end with indistinct claw-like setae. Bulb pear-shaped, with short, stump-like embolus base; subtegulum small, partly visible pro- and retrolaterally; embolus nearly extending to tip of cymbium, with 1.5 turns, distal 2/3 appears ‘ladle-like’ ventrally, with narrow, angular tip directed at 10 o’clock ventrally ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ).

Female ( ADSH 19131A). Measurements: Body length 5.88. Carapace 3.04 long, 1.79 wide. Abdomen length 2.84, width 2.55. Eye sizes and interdistances: ALE 0.10, AME 0.11, PLE 0.10, PME 0.09, ALE ‒PLE 0.40, AME ‒ ALE 0.07, AME ‒AME 0.12, AME ‒PME 0.18, PLE ‒PLE 0.80, PME ‒PLE 0.20, PME ‒PME 0.23. Clypeus height at AME 0.33, at ALE 0.22. Chelicerae length 0.76. Measurements of palp and legs (right): palp 2.33 [0.66, 0.33, 0.48, 0.86], I 4.47 [1.30, 0.51, 0.98, 0.93, 0.75], II 4.42 [1.30, 0.58, 0.93, 0.89, 0.72], III 4.24 [1.25, 0.59, 0.85, 0.91, 0.64], IV 5.98 [1.64, 0.72, 1.26, 1.60, 0.76]. Spination: palp: femur do 3, patella pl 1 do 3, tibia do 1 pl 2, tarsus pl 2 rl 1 vt 2; legs: femora I ‒II pl 1 do 3, III pl 1 do 3 rl 1, IV pl 2 do 3 rl 1; patellae I ‒IV do 2; tibiae I plv 2 rlv 2, II vt 2, III pl 1 plv 1, IV pl 1 plv 2 rl 2 rlv 1 vt 1; metatarsi I plv 2 rlv 2, II plv 1 rlv 2, III pl 2 plv 1 rl 2 rlv 1 vt 1, IV pl 3 plv 1 rl 4 vt 3; tarsi I ‒IV spineless.

In all details like male except the following: carapace reddish-orange. Fangs baso-promarginally with modified long black setae (4G ‒H). Sternum orange. Abdomen oval, anterior half with short gold feathery setae, denser than male, forming distinct pattern, sigilla more distinct than male; dorsal scutum larger than male; lateral white spots extending ventrally, posterior white spot slightly extending downward; venter covered with short black feathery setae, short white feathery setae forming white median broad band and lateral paired triangular-shaped thin white bands, two pairs of white spots lateral to spinnerets ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ), single white spot just dorsal of spinnerets ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE4 ); ventral sclerite absent, inframamillary sclerite small ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE4 ). Spinnerets larger than male; PMS and PLS provided with three and two large cylindrical gland spigots, respectively, ALS largest, without enlarged spigots ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE4 ). Scopulae on metatarsi I ‒II and all tarsi complete, metatarsi III ‒IV bearing scopulae distally ( Fig 4K View FIGURE4 ). Palpal tarsus distally with pair of ventral spines.

Epigyne ( Figs 2G ‒H View FIGURE 2 , 3E ‒F View FIGURE 3 ): domed plate-like, reddish brown. Copulatory openings small, circular, with inverted comma-shaped ridges, lying postero-laterally ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ). Vulvae large, spermathecae I kidney-shaped, spermathecae II round, with short baso-prolateral lobe, both spermathecae bridged together by vertical dumbbellshaped lobe. Copulatory ducts short, less sclerotized, moderately wide, without convolutions, opening basally to spermathecae II ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ).

Variation. Body length: Female 5.88‒6.06 mm (n=2).

Material examined. INDIA, Kerala: Palakkad, Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, Vengoli, 10°25'22.8''S, 76°48'36''E, 1057 m, 27.V.2016, leg. J. Paul, from ground, by hand, 1 penultimate ♂, 1♀ ( ADSH 19131A); Same locality, 13.VIII.2016, leg. K.S. Nafin, from ground, by hand, 1♂, 1♀ ( ADSH 19131B).

Natural History. Coenoptychus pulcher   is a diurnally active, fast-running ground spider. The species has been collected from both coastal regions ( Simon, 1885) and montane grasslands (present data). Coenoptychus pulcher   are accurate Batesian mimics of the velvet ants ( Hymenoptera   : Mutillidae   ). Green (1912) observed a close resemblance of C. pulcher   to members of the genera Mutilla Linnaeus, 1758   and Spilomutilla Ashmead, 1903   . The spiders also had resemblance to other mutillid genera such as Biscoffitilla Lelej, 2002 and Trogospidia Ashmead, 1899, which were found in the region (Paul, pers. obs.) ( Fig. 1E ‒F View FIGURE 1 ). The behaviour of the spider, such as leg movements, speed, intermittent resting and bobbing of the abdomen, accurately mimics the wingless female mutillid wasps, which makes them difficult to distinguish in their habitat.

Distribution. India: Kerala: Palakkad (present record), Tamil Nadu: Ramanad (Ramanathapuram) and Madras; Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura and Taprobane ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ).

ADSH

Arachnology Division, Sacred Heart College

PER

City Museum

PMS

Prirodonamen Muzej Skopje

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Corinnidae

Genus

Coenoptychus

Loc

Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885

Paul, Jimmy, Sankaran, Pradeep M., Sebastian, Pothalil A. & Joseph, Mathew M. 2018
2018
Loc

Coenoptychus pulcher

Simon, 1885 : 37
Gravely, 1931 : 276
Majumder & Tikader 1991 : 145
Reinhold, 2001 : 329
Loc

Onychocryptus mutillaris

Karsch, 1892 : 295
Loc

Coenoptychus pulchellus

Simon, 1897 : 174
Green, 1912 : 92
Petrunkevitch, 1928 : 179
Berland, 1932 : 149