Eigenmannia pavulagem, Peixoto & Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015, Peixoto & Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015

Peixoto, Luiz Antônio Wanderley, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira & Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin, 2015, The Electric Glass Knifefishes of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae): monophyly and description of seven new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175 (2), pp. 384-414: 403-410

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12274

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B08780-FFFE-3A10-FC07-A782FB0AFAB0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Eigenmannia pavulagem
status

SP. NOV.

EIGENMANNIA PAVULAGEM   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 17, 18; TABLE 3)

Eigenmannia   gr. trilineata, Vari et al., 2012: 697   (comparative material).

Diagnosis: Eigenmannia pavulagem   can be distinguished from other species in the E. trilineata   species group, except E. guairaca   and E. microstoma   , by the pattern of premaxillary dentition with 13–16 teeth distributed in three rows (outer row with three to five teeth; middle row with five to six; inner row with four to six) [versus eight to 12 teeth distributed in two rows [outer row with 3–6 teeth; inner row with 4–6 teeth] in E. antonioi   ; 24 or 25 teeth distributed in four rows [outermost row with 5 teeth; second row with 6–8 teeth; third row with 6 or 7 teeth; innermost row with 7 or 8 teeth] in E. desantanai   ; 22–24 teeth distributed in four rows (outermost row with three or four teeth; second row with five or six teeth; third row with seven teeth; innermost with six to eight teeth) in E. matintapereira   ; eight to ten teeth distributed in two rows (outer row with three to five teeth; inner row with four to six teeth) in E. muirapinima   ; 31–33 teeth distributed in four rows (outermost row with eight or nine teeth; second row with five or six; third row with ten; innermost row with seven to nine teeth) in E. trilineata   ; 25–26 teeth distributed in four rows (outermost with five or six teeth; second row with four to seven teeth; third row with seven or eight teeth; innermost row with five to nine teeth) in E. vicentespelaea   ; and 35–40 teeth distributed in five rows (outermost row with seven to eight teeth; second row with seven or eight teeth; third row with eight or nine teeth; fourth row with seven to nine teeth; innermost row with six teeth) in E. waiwai   ]. Eigenmannia pavulagem   can be distinguished from E. guairaca   by the ii,13–14 pectoral-fin rays (versus ii,11–12), and by the number of total analfin rays 176–201 (versus 151–170). Eigenmannia pavulagem   can be differentiated from E. microstoma   by the suborbital depth 19.4–27.4% HL (versus 29.9– 40.8%); the length of anterodorsal process of maxilla equal to 50% the width of the posterior nostril (versus equal to the width of the posterior nostril); and the coronomeckelian bone length equal to 20% the length of Meckel’s cartilage (versus 45% the length of Meckel’s cartilage).

Description: Morphometric data are presented in Table 3. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Dorsal profile of body nearly straight from rear of head to vertical through middle of anal fin, and then posteroventrally aligned with distal portion of caudal filament. Ventral profile of body slightly concave along anterior half of abdominal cavity, then posterodorsally aligned with last anal-fin ray. Ventral margin of caudal filament straight. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin.

Head laterally compressed, with greatest width at opercular region and greatest depth at posterior margin of supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex from upper lip to vertical through branchial opening. Ventral profile of head slightly concave from anterior margin of lower lip to branchial opening. Snout rounded in profile. Mouth terminal. Upper lip slightly overlapping lower lip. Premaxillary teeth, 13(1), 14(1), 15(2), or 16(1), distributed in three rows [outermost row with 3(2), 4(2), or 5(1) teeth; median row with 5(1) or 6(4) teeth; innermost row with 4(2), 5(1), or 6(2) teeth]. Maxilla with sickle-shaped anterodorsal process equal to 50% of width of posterior nostril. Dentary teeth 15(1), 17(1), 20(2), or 21(1), distributed in two rows [outer row 11(1), 12(3), or 16(1) teeth; inner row with 4(1), 5(2), or 8(2) teeth]. Dentary teeth increasing abruptly in size from seventh, ninth, or tenth teeth of outer row towards rictus. Coronomeckelian bone equal to 20% of length Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid with 8(1), 9(1), 10(2), or 11(1) teeth in one or two rows. Mouth rictus at vertical through anterior nostril or in region between nares. Anterior naris tube-like, with posteri- or margin located at vertical through posterior margin of, or in median portion of, rictus. Posterior naris elliptical, without tube, located closer to anterior margin of eye than snout tip. Eye approximately circular, covered by skin, laterally located on anterior half of head. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1–4 in form of enlarged, partial cylinders with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 equals total length of infraorbitals 1 + 2. Branchial opening moderately elongate. Branchial membrane joined to isthmus. Anus and urogenital papilla shifting anteriorly ontogenetically and at vertical through posterior margin of orbit in mature specimens.

Cycloid scales present from immediately posterior to head to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral line complete with 120(1), 121(2), 125(1), 126(1), 127(1), 128(1), 129(4), 130(1), 131(1), 132(3), 133(2), 134 (1), 135(2), 136(1), 137*(3), 138(1), 139(2), 140(2), 144(1), or 146(1) perforated scales to vertical through end of anal fin. Longitudinal series of scales above lateral line, 8(11), 9*(12), 10(6), 11(3), or 12(2). Scales over analfin pterygiophores approximately one-half the size of others.

Pectoral-fin rays, ii,13*(16) or ii,14(22). Distal margin of fin slightly rounded. Tip of pectoral fin reaching vertical through base of anal-fin rays 14–18. Anal-fin origin immediately posterior to vertical through pectoral-fin base; total anal-fin rays, 176–201 (192*, N = 38; Table 2). Distal margin of anal fin approximately concave. Caudal filament cylindrical, tapering gradually distally, relatively long and approximately 50% of LEA in mature specimens.

Precaudal vertebrae, 13(1), 14(3), or 15(1). Anteri- or vertebrae, 10(1), 11(3), or 13(1); transitional vertebrae, 1(1), 3(3) or 4(1). Displaced haemal spines, 3(5).

Coloration in alcohol: Background colour dark yellow. Dorsal region of head darkened; gradually becoming lighter ventrally. Lips and suborbital region clear yellow. Dorsal region of body yellowish, gradually lighter in region overlying anal-fin ray pterygiophores. Four longitudinal dark stripes along body. Lateral-line stripe thin, one scale deep, extending from first perforated lateral-line scale to distal portion of caudal filament.

EIGENMANNIA TRILINEATA   SPECIES-GROUP 405

Superior medial stripe thick, two scales deep, tapering from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 25–30 to posterior one-third of body. Inferior medial stripe moderately thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 14–30 to posterior one-third of body. Anal-fin base stripe thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of analfin rays 10–20 to last anal-fin ray. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline, with scattered tiny chromatophores on interradial membranes.

Distribution: Eigenmannia pavulagem   sp. nov. is known from small tributaries of the Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, north-eastern Pará, Brazil ( Fig. 6).

Etymology: The epithet ‘ pavulagem   ’ is a tribute to the cultural movement created in the state of Pará, ‘Arraial do Pavulagem’, characterized by music of a unique traditional style that originated in Amazon region.

Material examined

Holotype: Brazil. Pará: MPEG 6887, 176.6 mm LEA, Igarapé Paraquequara, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, Município de Paragominas , 3°14′50″ S, 47°45′50″ W, collected by A. Souza, 16 April 2003. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: Brazil. Pará: MPEG 7307 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 120.8 View Materials – 133.1 mm   LEA, Igarapé Paraquequara, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, 3°16′05″ S, 47°46′05″ W, collected by A. Souza, 13 December 2002 GoogleMaps   . MPEG 7308 View Materials , 6 View Materials , 63.1– 94.9 mm   LEA, Igarapé Paraquequara, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, 3°16′05″ S, 47°46′05″ W, collected by V. Sena, 13 December 2002 GoogleMaps   . MPEG 9524 View Materials , 3 View Materials CS, 90.7–108.5 mm   LEA, Igarapé Anuera-Grande, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, 2°30′2.9″ S, 48°16′52.6″ W, collected by A. Souza, 30 June 2005 GoogleMaps   . MPEG 9535 View Materials , 10 View Materials , 42.6–102.7 mm   LEA, Igarapé Arrainha, tributary of Rio Capim, Rio Guamá basin, 02°25′11.1″ S, 48°12′13.1″ W, collected by L. Montag, 1 July 2005 GoogleMaps   . MPEG 29490 View Materials , 17 View Materials , 26.2–176.6 mm   LEA; MZUSP 116797 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 118.4 View Materials – 152.8 mm   LEA, collected with the holotype   ; INPA 46984 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 90.2–113.4 mm   LEA, collected with holotype. NUP 17104 View Materials , 2, 82.7–114.7 mm GoogleMaps   LEA, collect- ed with holotype   .

EIGENMANNIA TRILINEATA LÓPEZ & CASTELLO, 1966  

( FIGS 19, 20; TABLE 4)

Eigenmannia trilineata López & Castello, 1966: 8   (original description; type locality, Nuñez, Río de La Plata, Argentina). Mago-Leccia, 1978: 16 (synonym of E. virescens   ). Mago-Leccia, 1994: 20 (catalogue). Braga and Piacentino, 1994: 106 (catalogue). Albert, 2003: 488 (catalogue). López et al., 2003: 65 (in listing of species from Argentina).

Diagnosis: Eigenmannia trilineata   can be distinguished from other species in the E. trilineata   species group, except E. microstoma   , by the suborbital depth 32.5–46.6% HL (versus 18.4–27.8% in E. antonioi   ; 20.8– 28.9% in E. desantanai   ; 22.2–27.5% in E. guairaca   ; 18.2– 26.1% in E. matintapereira   ; 18.7–28.4% in E. muirapinima   ; 19.4–27.4% in E. pavulagem   ; 21.7– 27.4% in E. vicentespelaea   ; and 19.0–28.3% in E. waiwai   ). Eigenmannia trilineata   differs from E. microstoma   by dentition pattern of the premaxilla with 31–33 teeth distributed in four rows (outermost row with eight or nine teeth; second row with five or six teeth; third row with ten teeth; innermost with seven to nine teeth) [versus 16 teeth distributed in three rows (outermost row with five teeth; middle row with six teeth; innermost row with five teeth)]; the the dentition pattern of the dentary, 23 teeth distributed in two rows (outer row with eight teeth; inner row with 15 teeth) [versus 16 teeth distributed in two rows (outer row with 10 teeth; inner row with six teeth)]; and the length of the coronomeckelian bone equal to 20% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage (versus 45% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage).

Description: Morphometric data are presented in Table 4. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Dorsal profile of body nearly straight from rear of head to vertical through middle of anal fin, and then posteroventrally aligned with distal portion of caudal filament. Ventral profile of body slightly concave along anterior half of abdominal cavity, and then posterodorsally aligned with last anal-fin ray. Ventral margin of caudal filament straight. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin.

Head laterally compressed, with greatest width at opercular region and greatest depth at posterior margin of supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex from upper lip to vertical through branchial opening. Ventral profile of head slightly concave from anterior margin of lower lip to branchial opening. Snout rounded in profile. Mouth terminal. Upper lip slightly overlapping lower lip. Premaxillary teeth, 31(2) or 33(1), distributed in four rows [outermost row with 8(1) or 9(1) teeth; second row with 5(1) or 6(1) teeth; third row with 10(2) teeth; innermost row with 7(1) or 9(1) teeth]. Maxilla with sickle-shaped anterodorsal process equal to width of posterior nostril. Dentary teeth 23(1) distributed in two rows [outer row with 8(1) teeth; inner row with 15(1) teeth]. Dentary teeth similar in size. Coronomeckelian bone equal to 20% of length of Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid with 16(1) or 17(1) teeth in two rows. Mouth rictus at vertical through anterior nostril, or in region between nares. Anterior naris tubelike, with posterior margin located at vertical through posterior margin of, or in median portion of, rictus. Posterior naris elliptical, without tube, located closer to anterior margin of eye than snout tip. Eye approximately circular, covered by skin, laterally located on anterior half of head. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1–4 in form of enlarged, partial cylinders with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 equals 50% the length of infraorbitals 1 + 2. Branchial opening moderately elongate. Branchial membrane joined to isthmus. Anus and urogenital papilla shifting anteriorly ontogenetically; at vertical through posterior margin of orbit in mature specimens.

Cycloid scales present from immediately posterior to head to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral line complete, with 107(1), 112(2), 114(1), 115(1), 116(3), 117(1), 118(5), 119(2), 121(3), 123(2), 125*(2), 131(2), or 135(1) perforated scales to vertical through end of anal fin. Longitudinal series of scales above lateral line 9*(15), 10(6), 11(3), or 12(2). Scales over anal-fin pterygiophores approximately one-half size of others.

Pectoral-fin rays, ii,14*(20) or ii,15(6). Distal margin of fin approximately straight. Tip of pectoral-fin reaching vertical through base of anal-fin rays 16–20. Analfin origin immediately posterior to vertical through pectoral-fin base; total anal-fin rays, 176–217 (195*, N = 26; Table 2). Distal margin of anal fin approximately concave. Caudal filament cylindrical, tapering gradually distally, relatively long, and approximately 50% of LEA in mature specimens.

Precaudal vertebrae 14(3). Anterior vertebrae 11(3); transitional vertebrae 3(3). Displaced haemal spines 3(3).

Coloration in alcohol: Background colour yellowish to dark brown. Head dark dorsally, and gradually becoming lighter ventrally. Lips and suborbital region light yellow. Body dark brown dorsally and gradually becoming lighter to region overlying anal-fin pterygiophores. Four longitudinal dark stripes along body. Lateral line stripe, one scale deep, extending from first perforated lateral-line scale to distal portion of caudal filament. Superior medial stripe thick, two scales deep, tapering from vertical through base of anal-fin rays 19–35 to posterior one-third of body. Inferior medial stripe moderately thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical through base of anal-fin rays 20–31 to posterior one-third of body. Anal-fin base stripe thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 20–35 to last anal-fin ray. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline, with scattered tiny chromatophores on interradial membranes.

Distribution: Eigenmannia trilineata   is known from Río de La Plata basin and lower Río Paraná basin, Argentina ( Fig. 6).

Remarks: Examination of the type specimens revealed some divergences from data in the original description. The authors gave the number pectoral-fin rays as ‘i,14’ or ‘i,15’ ( López & Castello, 1966: 10; table 1); however, all the types have ii,14 or ii,15 pectoralfin rays. This difference could be a function of the small size of the first unbranched pectoral-fin ray. Furthermore, López & Castello (1966: table 1) cited 193 analfin rays for the holotype; however, we detected 195 anal-fin rays. This difference may also be related to the small size of the first unbranched anal-fin rays.

408 L. A. W. PEIXOTO ET AL.

Additionally, the original description of the colour pattern was described as ‘three conspicuous dark horizontal stripes...’ ( López & Castello, 1966: 11; fig. 1). All types have lost their colour pattern, but specimens recently collected in the type locality (e.g. MACN 7390) have an additional stripe that we refer to in the description as the superior medial stripe.

During an examination of material from the lower Río Paraná and the Río de La Plata, we observed two species of Eigenmannia   occurring in these localities: E. trilineata   and a species with uniform colour pattern, without longitudinal stripes, designated in this study as E. virescens   (see comparative material examined). This proposal is justified by the fact that the original illustration of that species provided by d’Orbigny (in Valenciennes, 1847; plate xiii) indicates that longitudinal dark stripes are absent, and the detailed historical record presented by Papavero (1971) indicates that the localities from which this material originat- ed are the probable type localities. Additionally, other species collected by Alcide d’Orbigny and described by Valenciennes have been shown to have type localities in the Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, as Astyanax orbigyanus (Valenciennes, 1850)   , Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes, 1836)   , Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes, 1836)   , and Synbranchus pardalis Valenciennes, 1842   (currently S. marmoratus   ). Thus, we assign the name E. virescens   to the population without dark stripes from the hydrographic system of the lower Río Paraná basin and the Río de La Plata.

Material examined

Type specimens: Argentina. Nuñez : MACN 5470 View Materials , holotype   , 130.0 mm LEA, Río de La Plata , approximately 34°25′40.27″ S, 58°28′21.2″ W, 24 August 1966. MACN 5471 View Materials , 9 paratypes GoogleMaps   , 79.9–161.3 mm LEA.

Non-type specimens: Argentina: MACN 6003 View Materials , 98 View Materials + 2 dissected, 89.5–153.6 mm   LEA, Río de La Plata , approximately 34°25′57″ S, 58°26′35″ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 6927 View Materials , 60 View Materials , 98.5– 155.6 mm   LEA, Río Paraná , 31°02′55″ S, 59°47′10″ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 7023 View Materials , 10 View Materials , 95.5–143.5 mm   LEA, Río San Javier , Río de Paraná basin, 31°29′50″ S, 60°20′32″ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 7024 View Materials , 1, 115.7 mm   LEA, Río Paraná basin, 34°31′ S, 59°41′ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 7390 View Materials , 8 View Materials , 94.4–118.1 mm   LEA, Río de La Plata , 34°25′57″ S, 58°26′35″ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 7947 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 119.5 View Materials – 145.6 mm   LEA, Río Yabebury , Río de Paraná basin, 27°18′11.84″ S, 55°34′11.20″ W GoogleMaps   . MACN 9306 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 82.8–87.1 mm   LEA, Río Paraná , 27°31′ S, 58°34′ W GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 111151 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 95.9 mm   LEA, Río de La Plata , 34°25′40.27″ S, 58°28′21.20″ W GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 22616 View Materials , 1 View Materials CS, 142.9 mm   LEA, Río de La Plata , 34°25′40.27″ S, 58°28′21.20″ W GoogleMaps   .

EIGENMANNIA VICENTESPELAEA TRIQUES, 1996  

( FIGS 5A, 21, 22; TABLE 4)

Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, 1996: 3   (original description; type locality, State of Goiás, Rio Tocantins basin, Rio São Vicente, Cave São Vicente II, Brazil). Romero & Paulson, 2001: 29 (cheklist). – Albert, 2003: 488 (catalogue). Bichuette & Trajano, 2006: 101 (comments on morphology, distribution, and expand- ed diagnosis).

Diagnosis: Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   can be distinguished from others species in the E. trilineata   species group, except E. waiwai   , by the subterminal mouth (versus terminal mouth). Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   also differs from species in the E. trilineata   species group, except E. microstoma   , by the length of the coronomeckelian bone equal to 45% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage ( Fig. 5; versus 20% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage). Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   can be distinguished from E. microstoma   and E. waiwai   by the body depth at the vertical through the longest pectoralfin ray, 10.5–14.5% LEA (versus 16.9–20.8% and 14.9– 18.7%, respectively); seven or eight longitudinal series of scales above the lateral line (versus 11–15 and nine or ten, respectively); and length of anterodorsal process of the maxilla equal to 50% of the width of the posterior nostril (versus equal to the width of the posterior nostril in E. microstoma   and 1.5 times the width of the posterior nostril in E. waiwai   ). Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   also differs from E. microstoma   by the body depth at the vertical through the first anal-fin ray, 11.5–13.3% LEA (versus 14.0–18.1%); head depth at the posterior limit of the supraoccipital, 68.6– 74.7% HL (versus 76.1–101.1%); suborbital depth, 21.7– 27.4% HL (versus 29.9–40.8%); and head depth at the orbit, 49.3–55.8% HL (versus 56.7–78.1%). Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   can be further distinguished from E. waiwai   by the depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 approximately equal to the total length of infraorbitals 1 + 2 (versus less than 50% of the length of infraorbitals 1 + 2).

Description: Morphometric data are presented in Table 4. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Dorsal profile of body nearly straight from rear of head to vertical through middle of anal fin, and then posteroventrally aligned with distal portion of caudal filament. Ventral profile of body slightly concave along anterior half of abdominal cavity, then posterodorsally aligned with the last anal-fin ray. Ventral margin of caudal filament straight. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin.

Head laterally compressed with greatest width at opercular region and greatest depth at posterior margin of supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex from upper lip to vertical through branchial opening. Ventral profile of head slightly concave from anterior margin of lower lip to branchial opening. Snout rounded in profile. Mouth subterminal. Upper lip overlapping lower lip. Premaxillary teeth 25(1) or 26(2), distributed in four rows [outermost row with 5(1) or 6(2) teeth; second row with 4(1) or 7(2) teeth; third row with 7(2) or 8(1) teeth; innermost row with 5(1), 6(1), or 9(1) teeth]. Maxilla with sickle-shaped anterodorsal process equal to 50% width of posterior nostril. Dentary teeth 38(1), 41(1), or 45(1) distributed in three or four rows [outermost row with 12(1), 15(1), or 21(1) teeth; second row with 14(2) or 16(1) teeth; third row with 10(1) teeth; innermost row with 2(1) or 10(2) teeth]. Dentary teeth all similar in size. Coronomeckelian bone equal to 45% of length of Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid with 10(1), 12(1), or 15(1) teeth in two rows. Mouth rictus at vertical through anterior nostril or in region between nares. Anterior naris tube-like, posterior margin located at vertical through posterior margin of, or in median portion of, rictus. Posterior naris elliptical, without tube, located closer to anterior margin of eye than snout tip. Eye approximately circular; of different stages of development ranging from completely absent to fully developed, with no apparent link to ontogenetic development. When present, covered by skin, laterally located on anterior half of head. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1–4 in form of enlarged, partial cylinders with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 approximately equal to total length of infraorbitals 1 + 2. Branchial opening moderately elongate. Branchial membrane joined to isthmus. Anus and urogenital papilla shifting anteriorly ontogenetically; at vertical through posterior margin of orbit in mature specimens.

Cycloid scales present from immediately posterior to head to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral line complete, with 110(1), 117(1), 119(1), 121*(1) 122(2), 123(2), or 125(2) perforated scales to vertical through end of anal fin. Longitudinal series of scales above lateral line 7*(3) or 8(7). Scales over anal-fin pterygiophores approximately one-half the size of others.

Pectoral-fin rays, ii,15*(4), ii,16 (5), or ii,17(1). Distal margin of fin approximately straight. Tip of pectoral fin reaching vertical throught base of anal-fin rays 15– 19. Anal fin origin immediately posterior to vertical through pectoral-fin base. Total anal-fin rays, 169– 191* (most specimens with anal fin damage, including holotype, N = 10; Table 2). Distal margin of anal fin approximately concave. Caudal filament cylindrical, tapering gradually distally, relatively short and approximately 30% of LEA in sexually mature specimens.

Precaudal vertebrae, 13(1) or 14(2). Anterior vertebrae, 11(2) or 12(1). Transitional vertebrae, 2(2) or 3(1). Displaced haemal spine 4(2).

Coloration in alcohol: Background colour yellowish. Head dark dorsally and gradually becoming lighter ventrally. Lips and suborbital region light yellow. Body yellowish dorsally, gradually becoming lighter to region overlying anal-fin pterygiophores. Four longitudinal dark stripes along body. Lateral-line stripe thin, one scale deep, extending from first perforated lateral-line scale to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral-line stripe hardly discernible in specimens over 100 mm LEA. Superior medial stripe thick, two scales deep, tapering from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 12–22 to posterior one-third of body. Inferior medial stripe moderately thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 10–13 to posterior one-third of body. Anal-fin base stripe thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of analfin rays 12–15 to last anal-fin ray. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline, with scattered tiny chromatophores on interradial membranes.

Distribution: Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   is known from the Caves of São Vicente I and II, Rio São Vicente, tributary of Rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil ( Fig. 6).

Remarks: Eigenmannia vicentespelaea   was diagnosed by the extreme reduction of eyes ( Triques, 1996: 3). Subsequently, Bichuette & Trajano (2006) proposed an expanded diagnosis for E. vicentespelaea   based on a larger sample of specimens, and using statistical data and colour-pattern characters to distinguish the species from an undescribed epigean congener (‘ Eigenmannia sp.   ’ in Bichuette & Trajano, 2006). In view of intraspecific variability in the development of the eyes in E. vicentespelaea   , which ranges from eyes completely absent ( Triques, 1993; Bichuette & Trajano, 2006) to eyes fully developed (e.g. MZUSP 83470), the diagnosis for E. vicentespelaea   herein uses a combination of morphometric, meristic, and osteological features.

Material examined

Type specimens: Brazil. Goiás: MZUSP 42605 View Materials , holotype   , 114.9 mm LEA, Cave of   São Vicente II, São Domingos karst area, Rio   São Vicente, Rio Tocantins basin, 13°35′ S, 46°22′ W. MZUSP 47984 View Materials , 1 paratype GoogleMaps   , 157.4 mm LEA.

Non-type specimens: Brazil. Goiás: MZUSP 83461 View Materials , 3 View Materials   + 1CS, 108–164.5 mm LEA, Cave of   São Vicente I, Rio   São Vicente, Rio Tocantins basin, approximately 13°35′30″ S, 46°21′ W. All from Cave of GoogleMaps   São Vicente II, Rio   São Vicente, Rio Tocantins basin, 13°35′ S, 46°22′ W, MZUSP 55989 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 109.2 View Materials GoogleMaps   110.9 mm LEA, MZUSP 83462 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 117.2 View Materials   121.9 mm LEA, MZUSP 83463 View Materials , 1 View Materials   CS, 118.9 mm LEA, MZUSP 83464 View Materials   , 1, 161.6 mm LEA. MZUSP 83465 View Materials   ,

2, 106.2– 109.2 mm LEA. MZUSP 83466, 1, 119.0 mm LEA. MZUSP 83467, 3, 109.7– 123.3 mm LEA. MZUSP 83468, 3, 81.6–116.2 mm LEA. MZUSP 83469, 1, 112.1 mm LEA. MZUSP 83470, 3, 83.6–95.6 mm LEA. MZUSP 83471, 1CS, 106.7 mm LEA.

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

LEA

University of Lethbridge

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Gymnotiformes

Family

Sternopygidae

Genus

Eigenmannia

Loc

Eigenmannia pavulagem

Peixoto, Luiz Antônio Wanderley, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira & Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin 2015
2015
Loc

Eigenmannia

Vari RP & de Santana CD & Wosiacki WB 2012: 697
2012
Loc

Eigenmannia vicentespelaea

Bichuette ME & Trajano E 2006: 101
Albert JS 2003: 488
Romero A & Paulson K 2001: 29
Triques ML 1996: 3
1996
Loc

Eigenmannia trilineata López & Castello, 1966: 8

Albert JS 2003: 488
Lopez HL & Miquelarena AM & Menni RC 2003: 65
Mago-Leccia F 1994: 20
Braga L & Piacentino GL 1994: 106
Mago-Leccia F 1978: 16
Lopez RB & Castello HP 1966: 8
1966