Eigenmannia matintapereira, Peixoto & Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015, Peixoto & Dutra & Wosiacki, 2015

Peixoto, Luiz Antônio Wanderley, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira & Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin, 2015, The Electric Glass Knifefishes of the Eigenmannia trilineata species-group (Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae): monophyly and description of seven new species, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175 (2), pp. 384-414: 396-401

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12274

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B08780-FFE1-3A1B-FF62-A033FAF3FB1B

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Eigenmannia matintapereira
status

SP. NOV.

EIGENMANNIA MATINTAPEREIRA   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 1A, 4A, 11, 12; TABLE 1)

Diagnosis: Eigenmannia matintapereira   differs from other species in the E. trilineata   species group by the pectoral-fin, which is uniformly dark or has a dark medial blotch (versus hyaline), and the anal-fin coloration of a uniformly darkened (versus hyaline). Eigenmannia matintapereira   can be further distinguished from species of the E. trilineata   species group, except E. vicentespelaea   , by the ii,16–17 pectoral-fin rays (versus ii, 13–14 in E. antonioi   and E. pavulagem   ; ii, 11–12 in E. guairaca   and E. muirapinima   ; ii, 12–14 in E. desantanai   ; ii, 14–15 in E. microstoma   and E. trilineata   ; and ii, 13–15 in E. waiwai   ). Eigenmannia matintapereira   can be distinguished from E. vicentespelaea   by the terminal mouth (versus subterminal); the number of total anal-fin rays 216– 222 (versus 169–191); between ten and 12 scales above lateral line (versus seven or eight); and 130–145 scales to the end of anal fin (versus 110–125). Eigenmannia matintapereira   also differs from species allocated to the E. trilineata   species-group, except E. trilineata   , by the number of total anal-fin rays 216–222 (versus 166– 207 in E. antonioi   ; 170–198 in E. desantanai   and E. muirapinima   ; 151–170 in E. guairaca   ; 173–207 in E. microstoma   ; 176–201 in E. pavulagem   ; 197–201 in E. vicentespelaea   ; and 167–195 in E. waiwai   ). Eigenmannia matintapereira   can be distinguished from E. trilineata   by the suborbital depth 18.2–26.1% HL (versus 32.5–46.6%); the orbital diameter 21.6–28.8% HL (versus 15.3–21.6%); and the ii,16–17 pectoral-fin rays (versus ii,14–15).

Description: Morphometric data in Table 1. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Dorsal profile of body straight from rear of head to vertical through middle of anal fin; then posteroventrally aligned with distal portion of caudal filament. Ventral profile of body slightly concave or posteroventrally aligned along anterior half of abdominal cavity; then posterodorsally aligned with last anal-fin ray. Ventral margin of caudal filament straight. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin.

Head laterally compressed with greatest width at opercular region and greatest depth at posterior margin of supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of head posterodorsally aligned from upper lip to posterior margin of orbit, concave to vertical through posterior margin of opercle, and straight to vertical through branchial opening. Ventral profile of head posteroventrally aligned from anterior margin of lower lip to branchial opening. Snout rounded in profile. Mouth terminal. Upper lip slightly overlapping lower lip or anterior profile of lips in same vertical. Premaxillary teeth 22(1) or 24(1) distributed in four rows [outermost row with 3(1) or 4(1) teeth; second row with 5(1) or 6(1) teeth; third row with 7(2) teeth; innermost with 6(1) or 8(1) teeth]. Maxilla with sickle-shaped anterodorsal process equal to width of posterior nostril. Dentary teeth 25(1) or 27(1) distributed in two series [outermost row with 15(1) or 16(1) teeth; innermost row with 9(1) or 11(1) teeth]. Dentary teeth similar in size. Coronomeckelian bone equal to 20% of length of Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid with 9(1) or 12(1) teeth in one or two series. Mouth rictus at vertical through anterior nostril or in region between nares. Anterior naris tube-like, with posterior margin located at vertical through posterior margin of rictus or in median portion of rictus. Posterior naris elliptical, without tube, located closer to anterior margin of eye than snout tip. Eye approximately circular, covered by skin, laterally located on anterior half of head. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1–4 in form of enlarged, partial cylinders with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 equals 50% length of infraorbitals 1 + 2. Branchial opening moderately elongate. Branchial membrane joined to isthmus. Anus and urogenital papilla shifting anteriorly ontogenetically. Anus and urogenital papilla at vertical through middle of, or posterior margin of, orbit in mature specimens.

Cycloid scales present from immediately posterior to head to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral line complete, with 130(2), 131(1)*, 132(2), 136(3), or 145(2) perforated scales to vertical through end of anal fin. Longitudinal series of scales above lateral line, 10(3), 11*(4), or 12(3). Scales over anal-fin pterygiophores approximately one-half the size of others.

Pectoral-fin rays, ii,16(4) or ii,17*(6). Distal margin of pectoral fin approximately straight. Tip of pectoral fin reaching vertical through base of anal-fin rays 28– 35. Anal-fin origin at vertical on base of first pectoralfin ray; total anal-fin rays, 216–222 (206*, N = 10; Table 2). Distal margin of anal fin straight. Caudal filament cylindrical, tapering gradually distally; relatively short and approximately 50% LEA in mature specimens.

Precaudal vertebrae 13(2). Anterior vertebrae 9(1) or 10(1). Transitional vertebrae 3(1) or 4(1). Displaced haemal spines 2(1) or 3(1).

Coloration in alcohol: Background colour dark. Head dark dorsally and gradually becoming lighter ventrally. Lips and suborbital region dark. Body dark dorsally and gradually becoming lighter to region overlying anal-fin pterygiophores. Specimens up to 80.0 mm LEA, with background colour yellowish. Four longitudinal dark stripes along body. Lateral-line stripe thin, one scale deep, extending from first perforated lateralline scale to distal portion of caudal filament. Superi- or medial stripe thick, between three and five scales deep, tapering from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 25–31 to posterior one-third of body. Inferior medial stripe thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between base of anal-fin rays 27–30 to posterior onethird of body. Anal-fin base stripe thick, six or seven scales deep, extending from vertical through base of first to vertical through base of last anal-fin ray. Stripes in specimens up to 80.0 mm LEA, less conspicuous. Pectoral fin uniformly darkened or with dark blotch in median portion, distal margin hyaline. Anal fin uniformly dark. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline, with scattered tiny chromatophores on interradial membranes in juveniles up to 80.0 mm LEA.

Distribution: Eigenmannia matintapereira   sp. nov. is known from Rio Uneiuxi and Rio Urubaxi, tributaries of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil ( Fig. 6).

Etymology: The epithet ‘ matintapereira   ’ is a reference to ‘Matinta Pereira’, the mythical figure that haunts people in search of tobacco and coffee in northern Brazil. According to reports, its appearance is marked by a blackened aspect, an allusion to the colour pattern present in Eigenmannia matintapereira   sp. nov.

Remarks: Eigenmannia matintapereira   sp. nov. has an intensely dark background colour, a pectoral fin that is black or with a dark blotch, and an anal fin uniformly darkened. This colour pattern is similar to that in E. nigra   ; however, it can be easily distinguished from E. nigra   by: the presence of four stripes along the body (versus stripes absent); 216–222 anal-fin rays (versus 231–247); body depth at the vertical through the tip of longest pectoral-fin ray, 14.1–15.0% LEA (versus 16.6– 18.9%); body depth at the vertical through first analfin ray, 11.6–12.5% LEA (versus 13.3–15.0%); orbital diameter, 21.6–28.8% LEA (versus 15.1–20.0%); and suborbital depth 18.2–26.1% HL (versus 28.9–35.2%).

Material examined

Holotype: Brazil. Amazonas : MZUSP 109618, 152.9 mm LEA, Rio Uneiuxi , Rio Negro basin, Município de Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, 0°21′45.0″ S, 65°04′13.0″ W, collected by M. Toledo-Piza, O. Oyakawa, G. Mattox, and J. Santana, 8 February 2011. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: Brazil. Amazonas   : MZUSP 117004 View Materials , 3 View Materials + 1CS, 79.7–143.6 mm   LEA, collected with holotype GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 109695 View Materials , 5 View Materials + 1CS, 65.7–167.7 mm   LEA, Rio Urubaxi , Rio Negro basin, 0°30′6″ S, 64°49′11″ W, collected by M. Toledo-Piza, O. Oyakawa, G. Mattox, and J. Santana, 9 February 2011 GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 963 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 91.62 mm   LEA, Rio Negro , collected by M. Goulding, 24 October 1979   ; MPEG 1314 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 76.9 View Materials 94.6 View Materials , Ilha Gavião , Rio Negro basin, collected by T. Bullock, 15 May 1967   . MZUSP 29973 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 99.7 mm   LEA, Rio Arirará , collect- ed by M. Goulding, 6 October 1979   . MZUSP 29974 View Materials , 1, 123.6 mm   LEA, Rio Marauiá , Rio Negro Basin, collected by M. Goulding, 13 October 1979   . MZUSP 29975 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 100 View Materials – 120.6 mm   LEA (1 specimen damaged) Rio Negro , collected by M. Goulding, 18 October 1979   . MZUSP 29981 View Materials , 1, 120.3 mm   LEA, Rio Negro , collect- ed by M. Goulding, 16 February 1980   .

Non-type specimens: LBP 18301 View Materials , 9, 49.1–142.3 mm   LEA, Rio Negro, 0°30′5.3″ S, 64°49′12.2″ W (all specimens damaged) GoogleMaps   .

EIGENMANNIA MICROSTOMA ( REINHARDT, 1852)  

( FIGS 13, 14; TABLE 3)

Sternopygus microstomus Reinhardt, 1852: 147   (type locality: Lagoa Santa). Eigenmann & Ward, 1905: 173 (synonym of Eigenmannia virescens   ). Eigenmann, 1910: 499 (synonym of E. virescens   ). Ellis, 1913: 127 (synonym of E. virescens   ). Fowler, 1951: 434 (synonym of E. virescens   ). Nielsen, 1974: 48 (in catalogue of type specimens at ZMUC). Mago-Leccia, 1978: 16 (synonym of E. virescens   ). Britski, 2001: 19 (types collected by Reinhardt).

Sternopygus virescens, Lütken, 2001: 134   , 161 (description and reference to S. microstomus   ).

Eigenmannia microstoma, Mago-Leccia, 1994: 20   (catalogue). Albert, 2003: 488 (catalogue).

Eigenmannia virescens   (in part), Alves & Leal 2010: 49 (only specimens from Rio Pandeiros).

Diagnosis: Eigenmannia microstoma   can be distinguished from other species in the E. trilineata   species group, except E. trilineata   , by the suborbital depth 29.9– 40.8% HL (versus 18.4–27.8% in E. antonioi   ; 20.8– 28.9% in E. desantanai   ; 22.2–27.5% in E. guairaca   ; 18.2– 26.1% in E. matintapereira   ; 18.7–28.4% in E. muirapinima   ; 19.4–27.4% in E. pavulagem   ; 21.7– 27.4% in E. vicentespelaea   ; and 19.0–28.3% in E. waiwai   ). Eigenmannia microstoma   differs from E. trilineata   by the premaxillary dentition, 16 teeth distributed in three rows (outermost row with five teeth; median row with six; innermost row with five teeth) [versus 31–33 distributed in four rows (outermost row with eight to nine teeth; second row with five to six teeth; third row with ten teeth; innermost with seven to nine teeth)]; by the dentary dentition with 16 teeth distributed in two rows (outermost row with ten teeth; innermost row with six teeth) [versus 23 distributed in two rows (outermost row with eight teeth; innermost row with 15 teeth)]; and depth of the posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 approximately equal to the total length of infraorbitals 1 + 2 (versus less than 50% of the length of infraorbitals 1 + 2). Eigenmannia microstoma   also differs from other species in the E.trilineata   species-group, except E. vicentespelaea   , by the length of the coronomeckelian bone, which equals 45% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage (versus 20% of the length of Meckel’s cartilage). Eigenmannia microstoma   can be distinguished from E. vicentespelaea   by: the terminal mouth (versus subterminal); 11–15 longitudinal series of scales above the lateral line (versus seven or eight); the body depth at the vertical through the tip of longest pectoral-fin ray, 16.9–20.8% LEA (versus 10.5– 14.5%); the body depth at the vertical through the first anal-fin ray, 14.0–18.1% LEA (versus 11.5–13.3%); the head depth at the posterior limit of the supraoccipital bone, 76.1–101.1% HL (versus 68.6–74.7%); the head depth at the orbit, 56.7–78.1% HL (versus 49.3– 55.8%); and the length of anterodorsal process of maxillar, which is equal to the width of the posterior nostril (versus 50% of the width of the posterior nostril).

Description: Morphometric data are presented in Table 3. Body elongate and laterally compressed. Dorsal profile of body nearly straight from rear of head to vertical through middle of anal fin, and then posteroventrally aligned with distal portion of caudal filament. Ventral profile of body slightly concave along anterior half of abdominal cavity, then posterodorsally aligned with last anal-fin ray. Ventral margin of caudal filament straight. Greatest body depth at vertical through distal margin of pectoral fin.

Head laterally compressed, with greatest width at opercular region and greatest depth at posterior margin of supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex from upper lip to vertical through branchial opening. Ventral profile of head slightly concave from anterior margin of lower lip to branchial opening. Snout rounded in profile. Mouth terminal. Upper lip slightly overlap- ping lower lip. Premaxilla teeth 16(1); distributed in three rows [outermost row with 5(1) teeth; median row with 6(1) teeth; inner row with 5(1) teeth]. Maxilla with sickle-shaped anterodorsal process equal to width of posterior nostril. Dentary teeth 16(1); distributed in two rows [outer row with 10(1) teeth; inner row with 6(1) teeth]. Dentary teeth all similar in size. Coronomeckelian bone equal to 45% length of Meckel’s cartilage. Endopterygoid with 11(1), 13(1), or 16(1) teeth in one or two series. Mouth rictus extending posteriorly to vertical through anterior nostril of, or in region between, naris. Anterior naris tube-like, with posteri- or margin located at vertical through posterior margin of, or in median portion of, rictus. Posterior naris elliptical, without tube, located closer to anterior margin of eye than snout tip. Eye approximately circular, covered by skin, laterally located on anterior half of head. Antorbital and infraorbitals 1–4 in form of enlarged, partial cylinders with slender osseous arches. Fifth and sixth infraorbitals slender and tubular. Depth of posterodorsal expansion on infraorbitals 1 + 2 equals total length of infraorbitals 1 + 2. Branchial opening moderately elongate. Branchial membrane joined to isthmus. Anus and urogenital papilla shifting anteriorly ontogenetically. Anus and urogenital papilla at vertical through posterior margin of orbit in mature specimens.

Cycloid scales present from immediately posterior to head to distal portion of caudal filament. Lateral line complete with 112(2), 117(1), 118(1), 119(2), 120(1), 121(2), 126(1), 128(2), 132(1), 135(1), or 142(1) [syntypes, 121(1), 126(1), 128(1), or 132(1)] perforated scales to vertical through end of anal fin. Longitudinal series of scales above lateral line 11(1), 12(3), 13(6), 14(7), or 15(1) [syntypes, 12(1), 13(3), 14(1), or 15(1)]. Scales over anal-fin pterygiophores approximately one-half the size of others.

Pectoral-fin rays, ii,12(2), ii,13 (6), ii,14(10), or ii,15(5) [syntypes, ii,13(2), ii,14(3), or ii,15(1)]. Distal margin of fin approximately straight. Tip of pectoral fin reaching vertical through base of anal-fin rays 25–27. Analfin origin immediately posterior to vertical through pectoral-fin base. Total anal-fin rays, 173–207 [syntypes, 180–207 total anal-fin rays, N = 15; Table 2). Distal margin of anal fin slightly concave. Caudal filament cylindrical, tapering gradually distally; relatively short and approximately 25% LEA in mature specimens.

Precaudal vertebrae 14(6) or 16(1). Anterior vertebrae 10(6) or 12(1). Transitional vertebrae 3(3) or 4(3). Displaced haemal spines 3(7).

Coloration in alcohol: Background colour pale yellow to dark brown. Head dark brown dorsally and gradually becoming lighter ventrally. Lips and suborbital region yellowish. Body dark brown gradually and becoming lighter to region overlying anal-fin pterygiophores. Four longitudinal dark stripes along body. Lateral-line stripe thin, one scale deep, extending from first perforated lateral-line scale to distal portion of caudal filament. Superior medial stripe thick, two scales deep, tapering from vertical between analfin rays 18–20 and posterior one-third of body. Inferi- or medial stripe moderately thick, two scales deep, extending from vertical between anal-fin rays 15–22 and posterior one-third of body. Anal-fin base stripe thick, two or three scales deep, extending from vertical through base of first to last anal-fin ray. Pectoral and anal fins hyaline, with scattered tiny chromatophores on interradial membranes.

Distribution: Eigenmannia microstoma   is known from Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil ( Fig. 6).

Remarks: Eigenmannia microstoma   was considered a junior synonym of E. virescens   for years until its revalidation by Mago-Leccia (1994). Mago-Leccia (1994) did not, however, present any basis for recognizing E. microstoma   as a valid species, resulting in doubts about the identity of the species. Campos-da-Paz (1997) redescribed E. microstoma   and commented that this species has no, or only one or two, body stripes. This information differs from that in the original description ( Reinhardt, 1852), which reports four body stripes in this species. All syntypes have lost their colour pattern, but recently specimens collected from the type locality have been found to bear four stripes on the flanks. We only recognize specimens with four stripes as belonging to E. microstoma   . Albert (2001) proposed that E. microstoma   could be more closely related to Eigenmannia humboldtii (Steindachner, 1878)   and Eigenmannia limbata   (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro, 1903) than to E. trilineata   because of the body depth in mature specimens (more than 11% TL) and total length over 350 mm in sexually mature individuals; however, E. microstoma   shares with the other species of the E. trilineata   species group the presence of the putative synapomorphy we proposed herein. Therefore, we included E. microstoma   as a member of the E. trilineata   species group.

Material examined

Syntypes: Brazil. Minas Gerais: all from Município de Lagoa Santa, Rio São Francisco basin. BMNH   1868.7.8.2–3, 2 syntypes, 101.1 – 139.3 mm LEA   . ZMUC P2516 (formerly ZMUC 21), 1 syntype (only photo and radiograph), 162.8 mm LEA   . ZMUC P2517 (formerly ZMUC 23), 1 syntype, 153.8 mm LEA   . ZMUC P2518 (formerly ZMUC 24), 1 syntype, 176.6 mm LEA   . ZMUC P2519 (formerly ZMUC 25), 1 syntype, 105.1 mm LEA   . ZMUC P2520 (formerly ZMUC 26), 1 syntype, 101.1 mm LEA   .

Non-type specimens: Brazil. Alagoas: MNRJ 24494 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 130.8 View Materials – 178.8 mm   LEA, floodplain of Marituba, village of Maribuba do Peixe, Município de Penedo. Minas Gerais   : MCNIP 143, 3, 99.5 –119.0 mm   LEA, Rio Juramento at Juramento Dam   . MCP 14109 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 83.6 mm TL (damaged), Rio São Francisco between Município de Três Marias and Pirapora, 18°13′ S, 45°15′ W GoogleMaps   . MCP 19840 View Materials , 1, 182.9 mm   LEA, same data as MCP 14109 View Materials   . MCP 45216 View Materials , 5 View Materials + 1CS, 57.7–91.6 mm   LEA, Rio Pandeiros, Município de Januária , 15°40′18″ S, 44°38′12″ W GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 22955 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 154.6 View Materials – 156.6 mm   LEA, Rio São Francisco, Município de Três Marias , 18°30′ S, 45°17′ W GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 24643 View Materials , 1 View Materials + 1CS, 131.1 mm   LEA, Três Marias dam, 18°30′ S, 45°17′ W GoogleMaps   . USNM 44966, 1, 165.9 mm LEA, Município de Lagoa Santa   .

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

LEA

University of Lethbridge

MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Gymnotiformes

Family

Sternopygidae

Genus

Eigenmannia

Loc

Eigenmannia matintapereira

Peixoto, Luiz Antônio Wanderley, Dutra, Guilherme Moreira & Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin 2015
2015
Loc

Eigenmannia virescens

Alves CM & Leal CG 2010: 49
2010
Loc

Sternopygus virescens, Lütken, 2001: 134

Lutken CF 2001: 134
2001
Loc

Eigenmannia microstoma, Mago-Leccia, 1994: 20

Albert JS 2003: 488
Mago-Leccia F 1994: 20
1994
Loc

Sternopygus microstomus

Britski HA 2001: 19
Mago-Leccia F 1978: 16
Nielsen JG 1974: 48
Fowler HW 1951: 434
Ellis MM 1913: 127
Eigenmann CH 1910: 499
Eigenmann CH & Ward DP 1905: 173
Reinhardt J 1852: 147
1852