Clistax bahiensis Profice & Leitman, 2013

Profice, Sheila R. & Leitman, Paula, 2013, Clistax bahiensis (Acanthaceae), a new epiphytic species from Bahia, Brazil, Phytotaxa 132 (1), pp. 47-52 : 48-51

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.132.1.4

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scientific name

Clistax bahiensis Profice & Leitman


Clistax bahiensis Profice & Leitman , sp.nov. ( Figure 1 View FIGURE 1 )

Distinguitur etiam haec species a congeneris praecipue habitu epiphyticus in arbores, bracteolis dimorphis oblongolanceolatis et lanceolatis atque corollis longis, rubris.

Type :— RAZIL . Bahia: Camacã , RPPN Serra Bonita, 9,6 Km NW of Camacã on road to Jacareci and Jussari , then 6 Km up road to Serra Bonita , 15°23`29”S, 39°33`55” W, 21 September 2004, W GoogleMaps . W GoogleMaps . Thomas 14205, Amorim A . M., J . L. Paixão & S . Sant´Ana , (Holotype: CEPEC!, isotype: RB!, NY) .

Epiphytic herb, stem subcylindrical, glabrous, some nodes bearing fibrous roots. Petiole glabrous, 2–5 mm long. Blade lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, apex acuminate, base acute, margins entire, glabrous on both surfaces, cystoliths conspicuous, but not prominent, 3,2–6,5 × 0,5–2,5 cm. Flowers axillary, one or two in each axil. Bracts green with redish-brown markings, linear or subulate 2–10 × 0,5–2 mm. Bracteoles red, papyraceous, cystoliths conspicuous, the outer surface bearing incospicuous glandular trichomes, anterior oblong-lanceolate, 1,7–2,5 × 6,5–10 mm, posterior lanceolate 1,7–2,5 × 3,5–5 mm. Calyx cupular with four small triangular lobes, persistent, 1–1,5 × 3 mm. Corolla red, 5–6 cm long, externally covered with glandular trichomes, tube cylindric, 2,5–3 cm long, base 4–5 mm wide, throat 6–7 mm wide, upper lip erect, oblong, apex obtuse, inferior lip 3-lobed, middle lobe orbicular, 5–6 × 5–6 mm, lateral lobes oblong, 5–6 × 4–5 mm. Stamens 2, insert near base of corolla tube, extending to just below tips of upper lip, filaments 4 cm long. Anthers 2-thecous, thecae shallowly superposed to one another, calcarate at base, 6–7 mm long. Pollen 2- porate, appertures flanked by isolated and ornamented insulae, arranged in 2–3 rows. Disc fleshy, annular, 2 mm long. Ovary glabrous, style filiform, 4,5 cm long. Stigma unequally bilobed. Capsule clavate, 1,8–2 cm long, apex round, apiculate, base contracted, 1–1,2 × 5–6 cm. Seeds 4, orbicular, surface glabrous.

Paratype:— BRAZIL. Bahia: Camacã, RPPN Serra Bonita, acesso pela estrada Jacareci, ca. 10,6 Km de Camacã , 15° 22`52”S, 39°34`11”W, 27 July 2005, Amorim A. M GoogleMaps . 4170, P. Fiaschi, J . Paixão, V . Filadelfo & S . Sant´Ana ( CEPEC!, RB!); Arataca, Serra do Peito de Moça , complexo Serra das Lontras, road Arataca-Una, RPPN “Caminho das Pedras”, 12 October 2005, Amorim A. M . 5301, J. Paixão, L. C. J . Gomes & S . Sant’Ana ( CEPEC!); Arataca, Serra do Peito de Moça , complexo Serra das Lontras, road Arataca-Una, RPPN “Caminho das Pedras”, 12 October 2005, Amorim A. M . 5358, J. Paixão, L. C. J . Gomes & S . Sant’Ana ( CEPEC!); Arataca, RPPN Palmeira / IESB , 15 ° 9’43”S, 39 ° 20’37”W, 17 December 2005, Jardim J. G 4915, J. L GoogleMaps . Paixão, M. M . Lopes & L. C. J . Gomes ( CEPEC!); Arataca, Parque Nacional da Serra das Lontras , trilha para Peito de Moça , 15°14`54”S, 39°20`54” W, 13 November 2011, P GoogleMaps . Leitman 474 ( CEPEC!, RB!); Arataca, estrada Una-São José da Vitória, Serra do Javi , ca. 5 Km da Fazenda Família Unida , 15°08`56”S, 39°19`35” W, 13 March 2012, P GoogleMaps . Leitman 541 ( RB!) .

Distribution and Conservation: The species occurs in preserved remnants of Montane Atlantic Forest (800–1000 m elevation) of southern Bahia and is currently known from the municipalities of Arataca and Camacã. Although it was collected within two conservation units – Serra das Lontras National Park (Arataca) and Serra Bonita Private Conservation Reserve (Camacã) – it is considered to be Endangered ( EN), based on IUCN (2012) criteria.

Habitat and ecology: Epiphytic herb growing on accumulated organic matter, occuring up to 8m on the phorophyte ( Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Epiphytism is rare for this family; only two of the c. 3500 species recognized today exhibit this habit ( Zotz 2013). For the Atlantic Forest, two accidental occurrences of usually terrestrial species, Justicia brasiliana Roth and Ruellia angustiflora (Nees) Lindau ex Rambo , are cited for Rio Grande do Sul ( Giongo & Waechter 2004). Clistax bahiensis Profice & Leitman was not seen on the ground, and therefore was considered as a true epiphyte.

Phenology: Collected with flowers from March until December and with fruits from September to October.

Etymology: The epithet is a reference to the state of Bahia, where the type collection was made.

Clistax species bear two-porate pollen, with appertures flanked by isolated and ornamented insulae, arranged in rows. The present study highlights Clistax as a stenopalynous genus, with a great similarity of pollen morphology among its species ( Figure 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Clistax bahiensis is readily distinguished from congeneric species by dimorphic bracteoles, the anterior oblong-lanceolate and the posterior lanceolate, and red corolla with 5–6 cm long. Table 1 shows a comparison of morphological traits among Clistax species.

with insulae.


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Botanische Staatssammlung München


University of the Witwatersrand


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History




Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


University of Copenhagen