Melanosternarchus,

Bernt, Maxwell J., Crampton, William G. R., Orfinger, Alexander B. & Albert, James S., 2018, Melanosternarchus amaru, a new genus and species of electric ghost knifefish (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) from the Amazon Basin, Zootaxa 4378 (4), pp. 451-479: 453-457

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4378.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B9182B25-7988-4020-92AF-3B6EE016373E

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AF5047-FFA4-A33C-FF77-F88A828759EE

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Melanosternarchus
status

new genus

Melanosternarchus  , new genus

( Figs. 1–10View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10; Table 1.)

Type species. Melanosternarchus amaru  , new species, by monotypy and original designation.

Diagnosis. Melanosternarchus  is diagnosed from all other apteronotid genera within the Navajini by bones 1– 4 of the infraorbital laterosensory canal present as tubes fused to expanded bony plates (versus only tubular-shaped bones in other genera), and overlapping contact between infraorbital bones 3 and 4 (versus these bones not contacting one another in other genera), see Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3. Melanosternarchus  can be further distinguished from all other apteronotid genera by the following combination of readily-observable characters: 1) gape long, rictus located at or behind a vertical with the eye (vs. gape short, rictus located anterior to vertical with eye), 2) scales absent over entire dorsum (vs. scales completely or partly covering dorsum), 3) one or no teeth on the premaxilla (vs two more teeth on the premaxilla), and 4) dark brown body coloration, without a pale middorsal stripe (vs. pink, light-brown, black, or uneven body colorations, sometimes with a pale middorsal stripe).

Although Melanosternarchus  is diagnosed from all known species within the Navajini by its platelike infraorbitals, this character can only be readily observed in cleared and stained specimens. We therefore provide additional characters by which it can be separated from all other Navajini genera. Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from the Apteronotus bonapartii  group ( A. apurensis  , A. bonapartii  , and A. ellisi  ) by the following four characters: 1) one or no teeth on the premaxilla vs. 4 or more; 2) scales absent along entire dorsum from nape to dorsal organ, vs. large scales present along dorsal midline posterior to nape 3); dentary teeth forming a cluster of two short, irregular rows on the posterior region of the dentary, tapering into a single row anteriorly, vs. all dentary teeth arranged in two rows; 4) dorsal margin of lateral fenestra composed of orbitosphenoid and pterosphenoid, with the margin of these bones protruding ventrally into the fenestra vs. margin of orbitosphenoid and pterosphenoid anterior to lateral fenestra (i.e. dorsal margin of fenestra composed only of pterosphenoid). This condition is illustrated for A. apurensis in Albert (2001: fig. 14A)  , and for A. bonapartii in Hilton & Cox Fernandes (2006  : fig. 4, 2017: fig. 4).

Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from all species of Compsaraia  by four characters: 1) the absence of an L-shaped (longer longitudinally than vertically) supratemporal lateral-line canal; 2) uniform brown coloration on the head and snout vs. pale patch of low melanophore density on snout in a narrow band, anterior to the eyes and lateral to nares; 3) four mandibular canal ossicles, all ventral to the lower jaw, vs. five ossicles present, with the posterior two ossicles ventral to the preopercle; 4) dark pigmentation present on pectoral and anal fins, vs. pigmentation absent from pectoral and anal fins.

Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from Pariosternarchus  by five characters: 1) gape extending to or beyond vertical with the eye, vs. gape not reaching vertical with eye; 2) head not expanded ventrolaterally, vs. head expanded ventrolaterally (a condition associated with expanded mandibular canal-ossicles); 3) one or no teeth present on premaxilla vs. 6 or more teeth on premaxilla; 4) teeth forming a cluster of two short, irregular rows on the posterior region of the dentary, tapering into a single row anteriorly, vs. teeth arranged in two rows on the dentary; 5) urohyal without posterior ossified blade, vs. posterior ossified blade present.

Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from all species of Sternarchogiton  except for S. porcinum Eigenmann & Allen  by gape extending to or beyond vertical with the eye vs. gape not reaching vertical with eye, and from S. porcinum  by brown pigmentation on head and sides, vs. pink to pale straw color on head and sides.

Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from all Sternarchella  by 1) gape extending to or beyond vertical with the eye, vs. gape not exceeding vertical with posterior naris and 2) one or no teeth on premaxilla vs. two to four rows of teeth on premaxilla.

Although there is not currently a diagnosis for Porotergus, Melanosternarchus  can be distinguished from each species in the genus. It can be differentiated from P. gimbeli Ellis  by one or no teeth on the premaxilla vs. 6–8 teeth on the premaxilla; from P. duende de Santana & Crampton  by gape extending to or beyond vertical with eye; and from P. gymnotus Ellis  by 1) dentary teeth forming a cluster of two short, irregular rows on the posterior region of the dentary, tapering into a single row anteriorly, vs. teeth arranged in two rows on the dentary and 2) one or no teeth on premaxilla vs. two or more teeth on the premaxilla.

Etymology. Melano from the Greek melas, meaning black in reference to dark pigmentation and presence in blackwater rivers, and sternarchus, a name commonly used in apteronotid taxonomy, from the Greek sternon (chest) and archos (rectum), referring to the anterior position of the anus.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Gymnotiformes

Family

Apteronotidae

Loc

Melanosternarchus

Bernt, Maxwell J., Crampton, William G. R., Orfinger, Alexander B. & Albert, James S. 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus amaru

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus amaru

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus amaru

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus amaru

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

Melanosternarchus

Bernt & Crampton & Orfinger & Albert 2018
2018
Loc

A. bonapartii

in Hilton & Cox Fernandes 2006
2006
Loc

A. apurensis

in Albert 2001
2001
Loc

Compsaraia

Albert 2001
2001