Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae, Barros, Lydia Vieira De, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2013

Barros, Lydia Vieira De, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2013, Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 from Brazil with description of a new species and a review of records (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera), Zootaxa 3640 (2), pp. 284-295: 285-294

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3640.2.10

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2441BA8E-4995-44A8-AD76-2A23786D23DC

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5681342

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AF1D29-FF98-FFAC-06FB-824FECFAFE45

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae
status

sp. nov.

Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae   sp. nov.

( Figs 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 ; Tables 1 View TABLE 1 –2)

Synonymy: Clathria   ( Clathria   ) sp. (Muricy et al. 2008: pp. 156).

Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte State, Bacia Potiguar (lat. 04º 51 ’ 26.6 ’’S; long. 36 º07’04.8’’W).

Type specimens: Holotype—UFPEPOR 208, Bacia Potiguar (lat. 04º 51 ’ 26.6 ’’S; long. 36 º07’04.8’’W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 30-31 m, trawl, col. Petrobras, (26 / 11 / 2003). Paratypes: UFPEPOR 663 and 664, Bacia Potiguar (lat. 04º 54 ’ 58.1 ’’S; long. 36 º 11 ’ 57.6 ’’W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 16.9 m, col. Muricy, G., (02/03/ 2007); UFPBPOR 175 and 181, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil, col. Marchi, J.G.B., (23 / 03/ 2008); UFPEPOR 1081, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, northeast Brazil, col. Lira, N.S., (12 /03/ 2010).

Diagnosis. Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae   sp. nov. is the only Clathria   ( Clathria   ) in Atlantic with auxiliary tylostrongyles, principal styles, auxiliary subtylostyles, accessory acanthostyles as megascleras; toxas and palmate isochelae as microscleres.

External morphology ( Figs. 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 ). Ficiform or erect palmate, sideways flattened resembling a fan, 4 to 30 cm high and 1 to 8 cm wide. Color in situ is orange to reddish but after fixation it turns to a brownish-cream, rugose surface to honeycombed and reticulated. The biggest oscules are concentrated at the tip, even though some smaller ones are found laterally with superficial channels gathering around them ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B). It also shows channels with a star-like pattern, which are very characteristic (see Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C).

Skeleton ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 D–F). Plumoreticulated with abundant spongin fibers and styles accompanying them. Ectosome can be distinguished from choanosome because of superficial styles, and also because of the presence of tangential auxiliary tylostrongyles ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 E), which are not seen presenting this formation elsewhere. It has disorganized ectosomal skeleton with bouquets of styles, and echinating acanthostyles and subtylostyles can be found along many channels ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 F). Microscleres are diffusely distributed.

Spicules ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A–I). Megascleres. Principal styles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A–B), thick, slightly curved, smooth (108- 182.3 - 273 / 2.4- 11.8 - 33 μm). Auxiliary subtylostyles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C–D), straight, thin, lengthy, smooth, with microspined base (210- 257.6 - 312 / 2.4- 3.7 - 6 μm). Auxiliary tylostrongyles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E–F), straight, body (shaft) smooth, with slightly different microspined extremities (curves spines), varying from tylostyles to asymmetric strongyles (99- 173.4 - 285 / 1.0- 2.8 -5.4 μm). Accessory acanthostyles ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 G–H), small, thin, with microspined base (blunt verrucose to pointy thorns) and the extreme part of the spicule microspined as well (hook-shaped spines) (60- 89.4 - 121 / 1- 3.2 - 6 μm). Microscleres. Toxas ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 J), rare, smooth, accentuated curvature in most cases, varying to less curved ones (19- 40.8 - 84 μm). Palmate isochelae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 I), smooth, normal form, abundant and relatively large in size (14.3- 18.6 - 24 μm).

Distribution ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Northeastern coast of Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba States, Brazil.

Depth. 17–31m

Etymology. The name of the species honours Nicole Boury-Esnault for her grand contribution in the field of sponge taxonomy.

Remarks. Although there are 25 valid species of Clathria   ( Clathria   ) in the Atlantic Ocean, Clathria   (C.) nicoleae   sp. nov. is the only one that has auxiliary tylostrongyles. The species that are most similar in external morphology with the new species are: C. (C.) oculata Cuartas, 1992   ; C. (C.) prolifera (Ellis & Solander, 1786)   and C. (C.) unica Cuartas, 1992   . However they don’t have auxiliary tylostrongyles and the others spicules differ in size (see Table 2). In Brazilian Coast Clathria   (C.) nicoleae   sp. nov. differs from C. (C.) calypso Boury-Esnault, 1973   because of the presence of auxiliary tylostrongyles and absence of two categories of auxiliary subtylostyles and two categories of toxas (see Table 2). Besides that, Clathria   (C.) nicoleae   sp. nov. shows palmate isochelae with dimensions far greater than any other Clathria   ( Clathria   ) from Atlantic Ocean (see Table 2).

Clathria (Clathria) calypso Boury-Esnault, 1973   ( Fig. 5–6 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 ; Table 2)

Clathria calypso Boury-Esnault 1973   , p. 286; Hechtel 1976, p. 253. Clathria (Clathria) calypso   ; Muricy et al. 2011, p. 146.

Type locality: Brazil, Bahia State, Off Prado (Corumbau District; 16 º 47 ’S – 38 º 53 ’W).

Type specimens: Holotype—MNHN.LBIM.D.NBE 1035, 16º 47 ’S – 38 º 53 ’W, Corumbau District, 27 m, Calypso   sta. 76 expedition, det. N. Boury-Esnault.

Redescription: External morphology ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A). Ramified sponge, brown-purplish, 4 cm height, surface is hispid with thin, tangencial peel, clear detachable. Oscules can be seen at the tip of each small branch.

Skeleton ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 B–C). Ectosome with auxiliary styles forming bouquets. Choanosome plumoreticulated containing well developed spongin fibers with principal styles and echinating acanthostyles. Fibres may form a polygonal matrix. Palmate isochelae seemingly randomly dispersed.

Spicules ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A–I). Megascleres. Principal styles ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A) smooth and stout, varying from straight to slightly curved (246- 312.5 - 387 / 10- 13.8 - 16 μm). Auxiliary subtylostyles I ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 B), normally straight, smooth, lengthy and with a poorly defined base (267- 312 - 351 / 3- 5 - 6 μm). Auxiliary subtylostyles II ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 C), smooth, thin, varying from straight to curved and with a slightly bulbous base (90- 118.9 - 141 / 1.5- 2.4 - 3 μm). Accessory acanthostyles ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 G), straight, some with a flattened base, irregularly acanthose, straight or bent spines, curved spines concentrated in the median (57- 62.4 - 69 / 5.1- 5.8 - 6 μm). Microscleres. Toxas I (‘accolada’- type) ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 H), rare, not observed in SEM, long, thin, slightly curved in the middle and with straight endings (321- 432 - 522 / 1 μm). Toxas II ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 I), are longer, thin, strongly curved and some with extremities slightly lifted (108- 142.6 - 216 / 1.5 μm). Palmate isochelae ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 J), rather narrow, but otherwise of quite usual shape, very little size variation and abundant (10- 11.7 - 13.5 μm).

Distribution. Corumbau District, Bahia State, Brazil.

Depth. 27 m

Remarks. In the process of redescribing this species it was noticed an additional spicules category. Spicular nomeclature was used as it is found in Hooper (1996). The auxiliary styles described by Boury-Esnault (1973) were divided into two categories of auxiliary subtylostyles varying size and shape ( Figure 6 View FIGURE 6 B–C, Table 2). Beside this, it was observed that some spicules dimensions were different from the ones in the original description (see Table 2). It was noted, as well, that toxas I were much more rare and toxas II had a wide range of sizes and shapes ( Figure 6 View FIGURE 6 H–I).

TABLE 1. Comparison of spicule dimensions (μm) among specimens of Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae sp. nov. collected in Basin Potiguar (RN) and João Pessoa (PB). Values are in micrometres (μm) and n = 30.

Specimen Locality Styles Subtylostyle Tilostrongyle Acanthostyle Toxas Isochelae
UFPEPOR 208* (RN) 136- 180.9 -218 / 6.6- 11.2 -15 219- 251.6 -282 / 2.4- 3.8 -6 127- 165 -244 / 1.5- 3 -5.4 78- 87.9 -94 / 2- 3.2 -4 27- 33.1 -45 15- 18.6 -21
UFPEPOR 663 (RN) 150- 199.3 -259 / 4.5- 10.8 -12.6 213- 247.2 -291 / 3- 3.2 -3.6 99- 144.2 -192 / 1.5- 2.7 -3.6 61- 87.1 -99 / 2.4- 2.9 -3.6 24- 38.8 -57 15.6- 18.2 -21
UFPEPOR 664 (RN) 117- 174.8 -210 / 4.5- 8.0 -12 218- 250.5 -285 / 2.4- 3.5 -4.8 116- 159.1 -195 / 2.4- 2.9 -4.3 79- 90 -99 / 2.4- 3 -3.6 19- 28.9 -38 14.4- 17 -19.5
UFPBPOR 175 (PB) 108- 181.2 -261 / 3- 13.6 -27 210- 258.8 -286 / 3- 3.6 -6 100- 182.6 -243 /1- 2.3 -3.5 71- 85.6 -121 / 2.5- 3.2 -5 26- 49 -84 14.3- 19.2 -22
UFPBPOR 181 (PB) 111- 165.6 -246 / 2.4- 8.7 -15 219- 270.6 -306 / 2.4- 4.1 -6.0 150- 190.3 -285 /1- 2.8 -5 60- 83.7 -105 / 1- 2.5 -3 20- 44.7 -84 15- 18.7 -21
UFPEPOR 1081 (PB) 135- 192.2 -273 / 6- 18.4 -33 225- 266.7 -312 / 3- 4 -6 129- 199.2 -252 / 2- 2.8 -4 90- 102.4 -114 /3- 4.7 -6 21- 50.5 -84 16.5- 20.2 -24
*holotype