Cynopterus titthaecheilus (Temminck, 1825)

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier, 2019, Pteropodidae, Handbook of the Mammals of the World – Volume 9 Bats, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 16-162 : 68

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Cynopterus titthaecheilus


11. View Plate 1: Pteropodidae

Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat

Cynopterus titthaecheilus

French: Cynoptére de Temminck / German: Indonesien-Kurznasenflughund / Spanish: Cyndptero de Indonesia

Taxonomy. Pteropus titthaecheilus Temminck, 1825 ,

“ Les iles de Java et de Sumatra.”

Cynopterus titthaecheilus was formerly a subspecies of C. sphinx . Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution.



C. t. terminus Sody, 1940 — Timor 1. View Figure

Descriptive notes. Wendie 114-127 mm,tail 9-12-5 mm, ear 18-23 mm, hindfoot 14-19 mm, forearm 74-5-84 mm; weight 76-84 g. The Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat is medium to large in size, with white ear rims and inconspicuous white wing digits. Muzzle is moderately short, bare skin is dark brown, nostrils are barely tubular, philtrum is marked, and two large triangular pads occur on lowerlip. Eyes are moderately large; iris is chestnut to olive-brown. Ears are long, dark brown, and narrowly edged in white. Pelage of head is dark grayish brown, extending into nape and dorsum where it is longer and with reddish, sometimes olive tinge; pelage becomes woollier over upper one-half of well-developed uropatagium; and calcar is short. Ruff is intense reddish orange to rich russet, with long and stiff hairs that continue up to ear bases and almostjoin on sides of back; ruff is much paler and less extended in females. Center of belly is gray, often washed with tawny-olive, and base of forearm and ventral upper one-half of uropatagium are lightly haired in dull cream to light brownish gray. Genitals are dark. Wing membranes are grayish brown; index claw is present; and dorsally, wing digits are whitish, more notable in phalanges. Juveniles lack ruff and are grayer overall, with grayish brown dorsum and slate-gray underparts. Skull lacks basicranial deflection. Laterally, rostrum is moderately short, forehead slopes, frontal profile is flat, braincase is rounded, zygomatic rootis slightly above upper alveolar line, and zygoma is moderately strong and arched posteriorly. Dorsally, rostrum is wide; paranasal recesses are inflated, reaching postorbital foramen; postorbital process is short; braincase is oval, with sharp low sagittal and nuchal crests. Ventrally, palate is wide anteriorly and flat; post-dentalis long and converges posteriorly; palatine spine is inconspicuous, joined to sphenoidal crest; and ectotympanic is wide anteriorly and edged internally with long entotympanic. Mandible is well developed, coronoid is steeply ascending, tip is squared, condyle is above lower alveolar line, and angle is well marked. Upper incisors are long and thin; C! is moderately long but bulky, with marked accessory inner cusp; P! is a spicule; and posterior cheekteeth are rather strong, rectangular in outline, and decreasing in height posteriorly. Lower incisors are long, with bifid cutting edge; P has triangular crown; C, is tall and straight, with accessory inner cusp; posterior cheekteeth are tall and decrease in height posteriorly, rectangular in outline; flat surface cusps often occur on M; and M,is peg-like. Chromosomal complement has 2n = 34 and FN = 58, with eleven submetacentric pairs, two subtelocentric pairs, three small acrocentric pairs of autosomes. X-chromosome is subtelocentric and medium-sized, and Y-chromosomeis acrocentric and small.

Habitat. Disturbed and degraded forests and more frequently secondary habitats and coastal forests from sea level up to elevations of 800 m.

Food and Feeding. The Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat is mainly frugivorous but also eats leaves and pollen during dry season mainly in coastal forest. On Lombok, pollen from up to 13 plant species is eaten, and three pollen types can be found simultaneously in one individual. In sympatry with other species of Cynopterus , the Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat tends to eat the largest fruits.

Breeding. No information.

Activity patterns. No information.

Movements, Home range and Social organization. No information.

Status and Conservation. Classified as Least Concern on The IUCN Red List. Population trend is stable, but the Indonesian Short-nosed Fruit Bat is uncommon and not known to occur in any protected area.

Bibliography. Andersen (1912b), Ando et al. (1980a), Kitchener, Gunnell & Maharadatunkamsi (1990), Tsang (2016a).














Cynopterus titthaecheilus

Don E. Wilson & Russell A. Mittermeier 2019

Pteropus titthaecheilus

Temminck 1825