Nesoecia huichihuayan, Barrientos-Lozano & Rocha-Sánchez & Fernández- Azuara & Sánchez-Reyes & Almaguer-Sierra, 2020

Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina, Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y., Fernández- Azuara, Geovany J., Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua & Almaguer-Sierra, Pedro, 2020, Cryptic new species of Nesoecia Scudder, 1893 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae Pseudophyllinae) from northeastern, Mexico, Zootaxa 4859 (4), pp. 451-486: 453-458

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Nesoecia huichihuayan

n. sp.

Nesoecia huichihuayan   n. sp. Barrientos-Lozano & Fernández-Azuara

( Figs. 1-33 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG )

Examined material. Holotype ♂. Mexico, San Luis Potosí,   Huehuetlán, Huichihuayán, 108 masl, 19.X.2018, 21°29.169’N 98°58.513’W, leg. L. Barrientos-Lozano, G.J. Fernández-Azuara, A.Y. Rocha-Sánchez. GoogleMaps   Paratypes. 3♀: 4♂, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. N. huichihuayan   n. sp., may be compared with N. nigrispina Stål   (see Cigliano et al., 2020; It may be distinguished of the latter species by its larger size (37 mm males, 45 mm females vs. 34 and 35 mm N. nigrispina   male and female, respectively; see Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1895; Cigliano et al., 2020) ( Figs. 1 View FIG , 13a View FIG ; 14 View FIG ). Tegmina ( Figs. 1 View FIG , 13a View FIG , 14 View FIG ) are slightly more elongated (8.3 mm males and 8.7 mm females vs. 7 mm in male and 8.0 mm in female N. nigrispina   ); in females tegmina are broader and the distal apex does not overlap. In males, the stridulatory apparatus is of different shape and larger size ( Figs. 6-7 View FIG ); the cerci are shorter and proximally broader, tapering gradually, distally curved inwards, and bear a more acuminate apex spine ( Figs. 9-11 View FIG ); the subgenital plate ( Fig. 11 View FIG ) is distally more produced and the styli proximally broader than in N. nigrispina   . In females, the ovipositor is longer (18.8 vs. 15 mm) ( Figs. 14, 24 View FIG ), the pronotum larger (10.5 vs., 10.0 mm in N. nigrispina   ), more coarsely granulated, and the posterior margin not conspicuously truncate ( Figs. 14, 17-18 View FIG ); tegmina broadly ovate, in dorsal view, the distal apex does not overlap ( Figs. 14, 20 View FIG ). These set of characters are not so in N. nigrispina   (see Cigliano et al., 2020; Common/ basic/ Show AllImages. aspx).

Male description alive ( Figs. 1-13 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG ). General body color dark brown ( Figs. 1 View FIG , 13 View FIG ), head pronotum and tegmina almost black. Fastigium of vertex triangular, broadly pointed, deep and broadly sulcate along midline, scarcely surpassing the antennal scrobes; fastigium frontalis broad sub-triangular, apex broadly rounded ( Figs. 2a, 2b View FIG ). Pronotum ( Figs. 1, 3, 4 View FIG , 13a) three sulcate, coarsely granulated, declivent from anterior towards mid-portion, with large black marks typical of the genus, anterior margin rounded strongly emarginated bearing a medium size tubercle on mid portion, posterior margin emarginated and slightly truncate about mid length. Lateral lobes of pronotum ( Figs. 1, 4 View FIG ) wider than deep, lower margin emarginated and truncate about mid-length, anterior angle sub-rectangular, posterior angle obtuse angulate. Pro, meso, and metasternum ( Fig. 5 View FIG ) as described for the genus. Legs short, brown-pinkish with dark brown-black ornamentation. Femora spines: anterior inner face lower margin five spines (four large: one small, the small spine proximal to the body); middle external lower margin with three spines (small, medium, and large size, respectively, from proximal to distal portion); posterior external face lower margin six spines (one small, two medium, and three large, from proximal to distal portion). Tibiae spines: anterior external face lower margin seven small reddish-brown spines with dark tip, inner face seven spines on lower margin, size medium to small from proximal to distal portion; middle external and internal face each with seven small spines on lower margin; posterior external face three crème color spines with dark tip on upper margin, and 10 smaller reddish-brown spines on lower margin, inner face nine small spines on upper margin and seven smaller on lower margin. Tegmina ( Figs. 1 View FIG , 7, 13a) abbreviated not surpassing the posterior margin of the second abdominal segment, mostly dark brown-blackish, broadly ovate, densely reticulated, crème veinlets; stridulatory apparatus ( Fig. 6-7 View FIG , 13a) dark brown in alive specimens-yellowish in dead collection specimens; stridulatory file ( Fig. 8 View FIG ) length 3.2 mm, average 145 teeth. Cerci as shown in Figs. 9-11 View FIG . Subgenital plate ( Fig. 11 View FIG ) proximal half broad, then tapering towards the bidentate apex, each teeth bearing a robust style. Internal genitalia as shown in Fig. 12 View FIG .

Female description alive ( Figs. 14-25 View FIG View FIG View FIG ). In general appearance similar to the male but larger size ( Fig. 14 View FIG ). Head dark brown-black color, fastigium of vertex triangular, distally produced weakly V-shape emarginated, surpassing slightly the antennal scrobes ( Fig. 15), fastigium frontalis ( Fig. 16 View FIG ) sub-triangular, apex broadly rounded. Pronotum ( Figs. 14, 17-18 View FIG , 25) similar to the male, less densely granulated, anterior margin rounded emarginated and slightly produced, posterior margin emarginated not conspicuously truncate; lateral lobes ( Figs. 14, 18 View FIG ) wider than deep, pro, meso, and metasternum as shown in Fig. 19 View FIG . Supraanal plate and cerci as shown in Figs. 21-22 View FIG . Subgenital plate ( Figs. 22-23 View FIG ) sub-triangular, proximally broad, then tapering gradually towards the shallow V-shape emarginated apex forming two broad lobes. Ovipositor as in Figs. 24 View FIG .

Measurements (mm). Male. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid-portion to end of abdomen, 37.0 (35.0-39.0). Pronotum length along midline, 10.0 (9.0-11.0), and maximum width, 7.7 (7.0-8.0). Femora length, anterior and posterior, respectively: 10.0 (9.0-11.0), 14.0 (11.5-15.5). Tegmina length 8.3 (8.0-9.0), and maximum with 6.2 (6.0-6.5). Female. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid-portion to end of abdomen, 45.0 (44.0- 46.0). Pronotum length along midline, 10.5 (10.0-11.0), and maximum width, 9.7 (9.0-10.0). Femora length, anterior and posterior, respectively: 12.2 (11.5-13.0), 19.0 (18.0-20.0). Tegmina length 8.8 (8.4-9.0), and maximum with 6.0 (6.0-6.0). Length of ovipositor, 18.8 (18.0-20.5).

Distribution ( Fig. 26 View FIG ). This species is known only from its type Locality, Huichihuayán, municipality of Huehuetlán, at the Huasteca Region, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

Habitat ( Fig. 27 View FIG ). N. huichihuayan   n. sp. inhabits the Biogeographical Province of the Eastern Sierra Madre (ESM) at the Huasteca Region, State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The ecosystem this species lives is tropical evergreen forest. The insects live on herbaceous or shrubby vegetation in humid and shady areas, late instar nymphs and adults have been collected at night on plants of the genus Sansevieria   ( Asparagaceae   ); first instar nymphs collected by sweep net on herbaceous vegetation. During the day, nymphs and adults remain quiet and hiding, resting along the leaves of herbaceous plants, being active at night. Climate in Huichihuayán, Huehuetlán is warm-humid with rains all year, average annual temperature is 25.2 °C and annual precipitation 1,922 mm.

Etymology. Specific epithet refers to the type Locality “Huichihuayán”, a small and picturesque town located southeast of the state of San Luis Potosí.

Acoustic Signal ( Figs. 28-33 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG ). Males of N. huichihuayan   n. sp., sing day and night. They produce a low frequency audible song made up of two syllables mostly ( Figs. 28 View FIG , 31 View FIG ). For this species we recorded two rhythms of acoustic signals: a) a very fast signal ( Fig. 28-29 View FIG View FIG ) emitted at a rate of up to 390 echemes/min (n = 9 min analysis), this high echeme repetition rate per minute may be achieved because there is no minor interval (MiI) between syllables 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) or major interval (MaI) between echemes. Duration of two-syllable echemes is 160.0 ± SD 11.0 ms (148.0-188.0; n = 32), duration of S1 and S2, respectively, is: 38.0 ± SD 2.2 ms (32.0-41.0; n =25), 124.0 ± 12.0 (107.0-145.0; n =25); b) a low rate song ( Figs. 31-32 View FIG View FIG ) without minor interval (MiI) emitted at a rate of 128.0 echemes per min (n =5 min), duration of two-syllable echemes is 277.0 ± 11.2 ms (259-310; n =25), duration of S1 82.4 ± 6.0 ms (73.0-104.0; n =25), and S2 195.2 ± 10.0 ms (175-214; n =25); major interval (MaI) duration 249.0 ± 37.2 ms (204.0-363.0; n =25). In both rhythms of signals the peak fi is 14-26 kHz ( Figs. 29-30 View FIG View FIG , 32-33 View FIG View FIG ).