Nesoecia insolita, Barrientos-Lozano & Rocha-Sánchez & Fernández- Azuara & Sánchez-Reyes & Almaguer-Sierra, 2020

Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina, Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y., Fernández- Azuara, Geovany J., Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua & Almaguer-Sierra, Pedro, 2020, Cryptic new species of Nesoecia Scudder, 1893 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae Pseudophyllinae) from northeastern, Mexico, Zootaxa 4859 (4), pp. 451-486: 470-478

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Nesoecia insolita

n. sp.

Nesoecia insolita   n. sp. Barrientos-Lozano & Rocha-Sánchez

( Figs. 62-94 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG )

Examined material. Holotype ♂. Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Huehuetlán, Huichihuayán, 108 masl, 24.I.2020, 21°29.169’N 98°58.513’W, leg. L. Barrientos-Lozano, A.Y. Rocha-Sánchez. GoogleMaps   Paratypes. ♀, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. N. insolita   n. sp. is nearest N. potoniya   n. sp. It differs from the latter species as follows: smaller size (39 mm males, 44.5 mm females vs. 41 mm N. potoniya   n. sp. males ( Figs. 62 View FIG , 74 View FIG vs., 34, 46a). Face flattened and smooth, frons with two conspicuous oblique dark marks; these characters are not so in N. potoniya   n. sp. ( Fig. 63b View FIG vs., 35b). Pronotum ( Figs. 64-65 View FIG vs., 36-37) shorter (males 9.0 vs. 11.0 mm in N. potoniya   n. sp.), less granu-

lated, and anterior margin less produced than in N. potoniya   n. sp. The stridulatory apparatus is of different shape and size ( Figs. 67-68 View FIG vs., 39-40). The cerci are proximally narrower and distally less produced, supraanal plate subpentagonal and distally more elongated than in N. potoniya   n. sp. ( Fig. 70 View FIG vs., 42). The subgenital plate ( Figs. 72 View FIG vs., 44) is smaller, and the styli’ apex broadly rounded, in lateral view. In N. potoniya   n. sp. the styli are broader proximally and slender towards the apex. They also differ in temporal parameters of the acoustic signal ( Figs. 90-94 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG vs., 59-61) in N. insolita   n. sp. echeme repetition rate/min (ERR/min) is from 98 to 251.5 vs., 78 in N. potoniya   n. sp.

Male description alive ( Figs. 62-74 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG ). General body color dark brown-blackish ( Figs. 62 View FIG , 74 View FIG ), femora, pronotum, and tegmina light brown with black marks and tinges of dark green on pronotum, occiput and tibiae mostly black; abdomen dark brown dorsally, ventrally yellowish-orange with tinges of dark green. Fastigium of vertex ( Fig. 63a View FIG ) triangular, broad and deeply sulcate, two conspicuous tubercles on the proximal portion-one each side, slightly surpassing the antennal scrobes; fastigium frontalis ( Fig. 63b View FIG ) broad sub-triangular, apex broadly rounded. Pronotum ( Figs. 62, 64-65 View FIG , 74) sub-cylindrical, three sulcate, not heavily granulated, with black marks and tinges of dark green, median carina conspicuous not prominent, anterior margin rounded emarginated bearing a small size tubercle on mid portion, posterior margin emarginated and weakly truncate about mid length. Lateral lobes of pronotum ( Figs. 62, 65 View FIG , 74) wider than deep, lower margin emarginated and truncate about mid length, anterior angle sub-rectangular, posterior angle obtuse angulate. Pro, meso and metasternum ( Fig. 66 View FIG ) as described for the genus. Legs short and stout, with dark brown-black ornamentation. Femora spines: anterior inner face lower margin four medium size curved sub-conical spines, the proximal portion dark brown-black then a light brown ring and black tip; middle external face lower margin with four spines (two medium and two small size); posterior spines not available (N.A). Tibiae spines: anterior external face lower margin seven small spines, each spine proximally brown with darker tip, inner face seven medium size spines on lower margin, spines proximally dark-brown, then a light brown ring and black tip; middle external face lower margin seven small spines, each spine proximally beige-brown with black tip, internal face lower margin eight spines similar in color to spines on external face but smaller; posterior spines N.A. Tegmina ( Figs. 62 View FIG , 68, 74) abbreviated not surpassing the posterior margin of the second abdominal segment, mostly dark brown-blackish, distally rounded -in dorsal view- heavily reticulated, crème veinlets, surrounding margin black; stridulatory apparatus ( Figs. 67-68 View FIG ) light brown; stridulatory file ( Figs. 69 View FIG ) length 2.8 mm, average 117 teeth. Cerci as shown in Figs. 70-72 View FIG ; supraanal plate sub-pentagonal distally produced, mid portion blackish broadly sulcate. Subgenital plate ( Fig. 72 View FIG ) proximally broad, then tapering towards the bidentate apex, teeth are short and robust each bearing a stout style more elongated than the tooth. Internal genitalia as shown in Fig. 73 View FIG .

Female description alive ( Figs. 75-86 View FIG ) In general appearance similar to the male but larger size ( Figs. 75 View FIG , 86 View FIG ). Face ( Fig. 75, 76-77, 79 View FIG ) light brown-pinkish color, two oblique marks below the antennal scrobes, one each side. Occiput mostly dark brown-black color, fastigium of vertex ( Fig. 76) triangular, distally produced, surpassing slightly the antennal scrobes, fastigium frontalis ( Fig. 77 View FIG ) broad, as in the male, apex broadly rounded. Pronotum ( Figs. 75, 78-79 View FIG , 86) similar to the male, more dense and coarsely granulated, anterior margin rounded emarginated, a moderate size tubercle on mid length; posterior margin moderately emarginated and less conspicuously truncate than in the male; lateral lobes ( Figs. 75, 79 View FIG , 86) wider than deep. Sternal tergites as shown in Fig. 80 View FIG . Supraanal plate and cerci as shown in Fig. 82 View FIG . Subgenital plate ( Figs. 83-84 View FIG ) half proximal portion broad, then tapers towards the bilobated apex. Ovipositor as in Fig. 85 View FIG .

Measurements (mm). Male. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid-portion to end of abdomen, 39.0. Pronotum length along midline, 9.5 and maximum width, 8.5. Femur anterior length, 10.0, posterior femur length N.A. Tegmina length 8.0 and maximum width 5.5. Female. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid-portion to end of abdomen, 44.5. Pronotum length along midline, 10.5 and maximum width 10.0. Femur anterior length, 18.0, posterior femur length N.A. Tegmina length 9.0 and maximum with 6.0. Length of ovipositor, 18.5.

Distribution ( Fig. 26 View FIG ). This species is known only from its type locality, Huichihuayán, municipality of Huehuetlán at the Huasteca Region, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

Habitat ( Fig. 27 View FIG ). As described for N. huichihuayan   n. sp.

Etymology. Specific epithet “ insolita   ”, refers to the unexpected finding of this species. It was discovered when analyzing the acoustic signal that did not match with any of the previous species.

Mating behavior ( Figs. 87-89 View FIG View FIG View FIG ). Mating behavior was observed twice for this species, under laboratory conditions. Most frequently, the male sings at a fast rhythm for 3-5 seconds, then he slows down the acoustic signal. The female, orientates towards the acoustic signal and starts approaching the male. The male repeats this pattern of singing two-three times and he may also descend from the branch to come closer to the female, often he walks towards the female, then they establish antennal contact, come closer, and adopt the copulatory position. Then the male engages the female with his cerci and transfers a very large spermatophore; mating took five minutes in both cases observed. Mating may occur without the male producing the acoustic signal, in this case, the male simply approaches the female slowly, immediately the female also walks towards the male, then the female vibrates the tip of the abdomen several times against the substrate or the cage’ floor, the male responds e xhibiting the same behavior; afterward the male seizes the female with his cerci and transfers the large spermatophore during mating.

Acoustic Signal ( Figs. 90-94 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG ). Males of N. insolita   n. sp. sing day and night. They produce a low frequency audible song made up of two syllables predominantly ( Fig. 90 View FIG ), occasionally males produce echemes of three syllables. Two rhythms of acoustic signals were recorded: a) a fast rhythm signal ( Figs. 90-91 View FIG View FIG ) emitted at a rate of up to 251.5 echemes/min (n = 5 min analysis), duration of two syllable echemes is 96.2 ± SD 4.4 ms (89.0-108.0; n =28), duration of syllables one and two (S1 y S2), respectively: 29.6 ± 3.3 ms (23.0-35.0; n =28), 46.0 ± 4.4 ms (35.0- 57.0; n =28); minor interval (MiI) duration 20.2 ± 4.1 ms (14.0-37.0; n =28), major interval (MaI) duration 142.8.0 ± 8.2 ms (127.0-165.0; n =28). b) a slow rhythm song ( Figs. 90 View FIG , 93 View FIG ) emitted at a rate of 98.0 echemes per min (n =3 min), duration of two syllable echemes is 197.0 ± 6.0 ms ((191.0-206.0; n =22), duration of S1 y S2, respectively: 126.0 ± 6.0 ms (118.0-132.0; n =22), 52.0 ± 4.0 ms (46.0-57.0; n =22); minor interval (MiI) duration 17.8 ± 1.6 ms (16.0-21.0; n =22), major interval (MaI) duration is 494.3 ± 66.8 ms (330.0-623.0; n =22). In both type of signals the fi ranges between 14 and 24 kHz, and the peak fi is between 14-20 kHz ( Figs. 91-94 View FIG View FIG View FIG View FIG ).