Milichiella faviformis, Brake, 2009

Brake, Irina, 2009, Revision of Milichiella Giglio-Tos (Diptera, Milichiidae) 2188, Zootaxa 2188 (1), pp. 1-166: 72-80

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2188.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AB0903-FFF9-FF90-FF5A-63BBBFE3F981

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Milichiella faviformis
status

 

faviformis   -group

Species in the faviformis   -group are characterized by the combination of dull black frons, shiny black ocellar triangle and orbital plates, shiny black mesonotum, 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, usually silvery microtomentose male T2–5 except for shiny black tip, roughly sickle moon shaped S5, surstylus usually shorter or about as long as epandrium high, with very slight to slight apical dilation and with lateral side with honeycomb-like structure.

Distribution: Washington to Maryland, south to Venezuela and northern Chile.

Milichiella brevirostris Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 13B, C, I)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of yellow halter, light brown calypter, male T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for shiny black posterior half of T5, and face not protruding.

Description. Body length: 1.6–2.3 mm; wing length: 2.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum microtomentose, sometimes shiny in middle, pleuron mostly shiny black, only dorsally slightly microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter light brown, halter yellow, legs black except for yellow mid and hind basitarsus; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for shiny black posterior half of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with narrow notch (3om) and emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (1.8); M-ratio is 2.0. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of scarce setulae, tip of T5 with long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide,?x as long and 2.7x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior half (Pl. 13I). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.5x as long as epandrium high, very slightly dilated apically (1.1x), very broad (1.2x as long as wide), structure of lateral surface honeycomb-like, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 13B, C).

Special characters: labellum about as long as palpus.

Pl. 13: A. Milichiella virginae, HT   , surstylus. B. M. brevirostris   , male genitalia, lateral view. C–F. Surstylus. C. M. brevirostris   ; D. M. zaiziksensis   ; E. M. variata   . F. M. faviformis   . G. M. zaiziksensis   , male genitalia, lateral view. H–L. Male sternite 4–5. H. M. virginae, HT   ; I. M. brevirostris   ; J. M. variata   ; K. M. faviformis   ; L. M. zaiziksensis   . Scale bar: 0.1.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Mississippi: Adams Co., Natchez (31°33'0"N 91°24'0"W), 20.v.1909, Tucker ( USNM, 3216703) in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (♂ BMNH, 3216704)   , 25.v.1909 (♀ USNM, 3216716)   , 20.vi.1909 (♀ USNM, 3216717); UNITED STATES. Georgia: Tift Co., Tifton (31°27'0"N 83°30'0"W) GoogleMaps   , 27.viii.1896 (♂ USNM, 3216718). Illinois: Macoupin Co., Carlinville (39°16'.12" N 89°52'.12"W)   , 22.vi.1955, Wheeler (♂ USNM, 3216707)   . Maryland: Prince Georges Co., Bladensburg (38°55'59.88"N 76°55'59.88"W), 11.viii.19??, Barber (♂ USNM, 3216705) GoogleMaps   . Missouri (38°0'0"N 98°0'0"W) GoogleMaps   , 1–28.ii.1970, Hull (♂ CNC, 3217763)   . Texas: Travis Co., Austin (30°16'.12" N 97°43'59.88" W)   , 16.x.1950, Wheeler (♂ USNM, 3216708)   , 23.x.1951 (♂ USNM, 3216709). Virginia: Alexandria Co., Maywood (38°52'49.24"N 77°6'29.74"W) GoogleMaps   , 17.vi.1922, McAtee (♂ USNM, 3216706)   .

Distribution: Illinois to Maryland, south to Texas and Georgia.

Etymology. The species name, brevirostris   is derived from the Latin brevis = short and rostrum = proboscis and refers to the short proboscis in comparison to M. longirostris   .

Milichiella faviformis Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 13F, K)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum and middle of scutellum, black halter and black legs, male T2–5 silvery white microtomentose except for shiny posterior extended third of T5, and silvery microtomentum extremely long and in rows.

Description. Body length: 2.0 mm; wing length: 1.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule dark brown, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum shiny in middle and laterally slightly brown microtomentose, pleuron slightly brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery white microtomentose except for brown microtomentose anterolateral corner of T2, and shiny posterior extended third of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose except for lateral sides, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.6x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.2x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with narrow notch (3om) and emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.5 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.3); M-ratio is 2.5. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with one scarce row of setulae, T5 black part with long setae. S5 similar to M. zaiziksensis   . 1.4x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 2.6x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior 2/ 3 in middle and near posterior margin. Setae at posterior margin thinner than other setae (Pl. 13K). Male genitalia same as M. zaiziksensis   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus same as M. zaiziksensis   , structure of lateral surface honeycomb-like with big honeycomb parcels, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 13F).

Special characters: labellum about as long as palpus, silvery microtomentum extremely long and in rows.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. California: San Bernardino Co., Morongo (34°1'59.88"N 116°34'.12"W), 26.ix.1944, Melander ( USNM, 3216783), in good condition.  

Paratypes ( USNM unless otherwise indicated), same data as HT (4 ♂, 3216784–7), 27.ix.1944 (12 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3216789, 3216793, 3216796, 3216801–9); MEXICO. Quintana Roo: Cancun (21°9'0"N 86°45'0"W), 16.vii.1974, Pletsch (1 ♂ 3♀, 3217765–8) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. California: Inyo Co., Big Pine, 1219 m (37°9'0"N 118°16'59.88"W), 9.ix.1965, Mulla (♂, 3216814); Independence (36°48'0"N 118°10'59.88"W), 23.viii.1952 (♂, 3216813); Kern Co. , Bakersfield (35°22'.12" N 119°1'.12"W), 7.vii.1947, Melander (14 ♂, 3216817–21, 3216824–5); Riverside Co. , Riverside (33°57'0"N 117°22'58.8"W), 12.v.1949, Melander (5 ♂, 3216810–1), 23.x.1953 (1 ♂ 1♀, 3216588, 3216812); San Bernardino Co. , 29 Palms (34°7'59.88"N 116°3'0"W), 9.v.1946, Melander (2 ♂, 3216815) GoogleMaps   . Oregon: Umatilla Co., Umapine (45°58'.12" N 118°28'59.88" W), 21.vi.1921, Melander (11 ♂ 3♀, 3216831–8, 3216840–6)   . Utah: Cache Co., Logan (41°43'59.88"N 111°49'59.88"W), 1–31.vii.1956, Bohart (♂, 3216847) GoogleMaps   . Washington: Franklin Co., Sacajawea State Park (46°12'1.08"N 119°2'21.84"W), 12.vii.1988, Mathis & Mathis (6 ♂, 3216967–72); Grant Co. , Columbia Nat. W. L. Ref., Crab Creek , 4.8 km S O’Sullivan Dam (46°52'27.84"N 119°42'50.04"W), 3.vii.1976, Woodley (4 ♂, 3216827–30); Coulee City (47°36'0"N 119°16'59.88"W), 3.ix.1920, Shannon (♂, 3216849) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined (all USNM): UNITED STATES. New Mexico: Sandoval Co., San Ysidro (35°33'0"N 106°46'.12"W), 10.vi.1977, Hanson , Knowlton (♂, 3218956). Washington: Grant Co. , Coulee City (47°36'0"N 119°16'59.88"W), 3.ix.1920, Shannon (♂, 3216848); Walla Walla Co. , Lowden (46°3'0"N 118°34'59.88"W), 22.vi.1921, Melander (♂, 3216843) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Western North America, from Washington south to California and New Mexico, also Mexico (Quintana Roo).

Etymology. The species name, faviformis   , is derived from the Latin words favus = honeycomb and forma = shape and refers to the honeycomb-like structure of the male surstylus.

Milichiella longirostris Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 14E, J)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of yellow halter, white wing, long proboscis and protruding face.

Description. Body length: 2.1–2.4 mm; wing length: 2.3 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere basomedially brown, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron slightly microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing white, veins white, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black except for yellow mid and hind basitarsus; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for shiny black posterior half of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta?slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 2.7x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (4–5om) and narrow emargination. Female posterior eye margin with notch (4–5om) and emargination.

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (~2.0); M-ratio is 3.0. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of scarce setulae, tip of T5 with long setae. S5 1.5 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 1.9x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, relatively strongly setulose on posterior 3/4 and up to lateral margins (Pl. 14J). Male genitalia similar to M. brevirostris   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus similar to M. brevirostris   , structure of lateral surface honeycomb-like, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 14E).

Pl. 14: A–B. Milichiella mojingae, HT. A.   Male genitalia, lateral view; B. Surstylus. C–D. M. cochiseae   . C. Male genitalia, lateral view; D. Surstylus. E–F. Surstylus. E. M. longirostris   ; F. M. sp. H. G. M. sp. H., male genitalia, lateral view. H–K. Male sternite 4–5. H. M. mojingae, HT   ; I. M. cochiseae   ; J. M. longirostris   ; K. M. sp. H. Scale bar: 0.1.

Puparium: Empty puparium yellow brown, shiny to subshiny, Posterior spiracles borne on protuberances, which are closer together than in M. tiefii   and M. asiatica   .

Special characters: labellum and palpus elongate, labellum about 1.6x as long as palpus and slightly longer than vertical eye diameter, face protruding.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Florida: Putnam Co., Hollister (29°37'.12" N 81°48'0" W), 20.viii.1985, Milstrey (& puparium USNM, 3216719), ad. 11.ix.1985, in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT but ad. 12.ix.1985 (♂ USNM, 3216720), 12.xii.1984 (1 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3216721, 3216725); UNITED STATES. Florida: Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest, Croom Reservation (28°34'59.88"N 82°13'.12"W), 13.iv.1989, Barber (♂ DEBU, 3217764); Highlands Co. , Archbold Biological Station (27°16'59.88"N 81°21'0"W), 13–19.iv.1970, Wirth (♀ USNM, 3216726) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Florida.

Etymology. The species name, longirostris   , is derived from the Latin longus = long and rostrum = proboscis and refers to the long proboscis.

Remarks. Milichiella longirostris   has been reared from a gopher tortoise burrow.

Milichiella mojingae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 14A, B, H)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of subshiny to shiny black mesonotum and male abdomen with T2 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior margin and lateral sides, T3–4 silvery except for posteromedial margin, T5 anteriorly silvery and middle brown microtomentose, posterior half shiny black.

Description. Body length: 1.7 mm; wing length: 1.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule?, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum subshiny to shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron partly shiny, partly brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for mid and hind basitarsus; abdomen with T2 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior margin and lateral sides, T3–4 silvery except for posteromedial margin, T5 anteriorly silvery and middle brown microtomentose, posterior half shiny black.

Head: frons with? orbital and? frontal setae, anterior frontal seta?. In males frons?x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 5.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista short, about as long as base of arista wide, posterior eye margin with?.

Thorax:? dc,? prsc,? pprn,? prs,? keps setae, posterior prsc?x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc?. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M weakly convergent (1.4); M-ratio is 2.8. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ?.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2?. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.3x as long and 2.5x as wide as S4, setulose, posterior margin strongly indented (Pl. 14H). Male genitalia without strong setae on cercus, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, not bent, not dilated, about 3.0x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface honeycomb-like, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 14A, B).

Holotype, ♂: PANAMA. Colon: Fort Sherman, Mojinga Swamp (9°18'0"N 79°58'.12"W), 7.v.1952, Blanton ( USNM, 3218637), in suboptimal condition, abdomen dissected.  

Paratype, same data as HT (♂ USNM, 3218638)   .

Distribution. Panama.

Etymology. The species name, mojingae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

Milichiella variata Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 13E, J)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum, yellow halter, thorax with numerous acrostichal setae, labellum about as long as palpus, black legs, male T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for shiny tip of T5.

Description. Body length: 1.6–1.9 mm; wing length: 1.5–1.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule dark brown, basoflagellomere basomedially brown, face grey brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black, fore and hind tarsus with dark yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for shiny tip of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 or 2+0.4 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.8x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with narrow notch (3om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.4); M-ratio is 3.2. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 2.0x as wide as S4, rectangular, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior 3/4 and nearly up to lateral margins (Pl. 13J). Male genitalia same as M. brevirostris   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus same as M. brevirostris   , structure of lateral surface weak honeycomb-like, more like longitudinal creases, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 13E).

Special characters: labellum about as long as palpus, thorax 0.8–0.9x as long as wide, numerous acrostichal setae, silvery microtomentum long.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Texas: Travis Co., Austin (30°16'.12" N 97°43'59.88" W), 23.xi.1958, Wheeler [?] ( USNM, 3217224), in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (♂ USNM, 3217225), 9.xi.1958 (1 ♂ 2♀ USNM, BMNH, 3217226–8), 13.xi.1958 (♂ USNM, 3217223)   .

Milichiella variata   var.: MEXICO. Nayarit: Jalisco (21°27'0"N 104°54'0"W), 1–30.ix.1965, Krauss (6 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3216710–5). Sonora: 25.8 km NE Ciudad Obregon (27°28'.12" N 109°58'59.88" W), 15.v.1961, Howden & Martin (♂ CNC, 3217229)   .

Distribution: Texas, variety from   Mexico (Nayarit, Sonora).

Etymology. The species name, variata   , is an adjective derived from the Latin word variatus = marked with contrasting colours, referring to the contrast between the shiny black thorax and silvery abdomen.

Remarks. Variety or separate species from Mexico with brown calypter margin, brown mid basitarsus, surstylus narrower at base and shape of sternite intermediate between M. brevirostris   and M. longirostris   .

Milichiella virginae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 13A, H)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum, anteriorly brown microtomentose scutellum, but shiny in middle and laterally, wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5), halter black and male T2–5 silvery white microtomentose except for shiny posterior extended third of T5.

Description. Body length:? mm; wing length: 2.2 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule dark brown, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black except for microtomentose anterior and posterior margin (posterior of dc), scutellum shiny in middle and laterally and anteriorly brown microtomentose, pleuron not visible, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery white microtomentose except for brown microtomentose anterolateral corner of T2, and shiny posterior extended third of T5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 2.1x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (4om) and emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.5 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5); M-ratio is 2.6. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with one scarce row of setulae, T5 black part with long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 2.2x as long and 3.4x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior 2/ 3 in middle and near posterior margin (Pl. 13H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus slightly longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.5x as long as epandrium high, slightly dilated apically (1.3x), 1.7x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface weak honeycomb-like, with big parcels, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 13A).

Special characters: labellum about as long as palpus.

Holotype, ♂: BRITISH VIRGIN IS. Virgin Gorda: Prickly Pear I. (18°30'0"N 64°22'.12"W), 6.iv.1958, Clarke ( USNM, 3216850), in suboptimal condition, abdomen dissected.  

Material of questionable identity: JAMAICA. Cornwall: Trelawny, Duncans (18°27'0"N 77°31'59.88"W), 23.viii.1966, Howden & Becker (♀ CNC, 3218257) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. Florida: Monroe Co., Sugarloaf Key, Sec 25 SE 1/4 Kitchings Hammock (24°37'59.88"N 81°30'0"W), 10–19.viii.1992, Peck & Peck (♂ DEBU, 3217779) GoogleMaps   ; VENEZUELA. Aragua: Puerto de Cata (10°27'46.08"N 67°44'8.16"W), 10–11.vi.1976, Menke & Vincent (♀ USNM, 3218111) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Virgin Islands,?Florida,? Jamaica,? Venezuela.

Etymology. The species name, virginae   , is derived from the type locality.

Remarks. Milichiella virginae   was collected at light.

Milichiella zaiziksensis Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 13D, G, L)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum and scutellum, yellow halter, hyaline wings, medium or long proboscis and protruding face, male abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for shiny tip of T5.

Description. Body length: 2.5–2.6 mm; wing length: 1.9–2.3 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule dark brown, basoflagellomere black, sometimes basomedially reddish, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum shiny, pleuron slightly brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, margin yellow, halter yellow, legs black except for yellowish mid and hind basitarsus (var.: all basitarsi yellowish); abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for shiny tip of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 2.1x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with narrow notch (3om) and emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.6); M-ratio is 2.7. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with single line of setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 1.4 x as long as wide, 2.0x as long and 1.7x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior 3/4, even more so near posterior margin, setae at posterior margin thinner than other setae (Pl. 13L). Male genitalia with long seta on cercus, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.5x as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.4x), very broad, structure of lateral surface medium size honeycomb-like, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 13D, G).

Special characters: labellum 1.0–1.4x as long as palpus and up to same length as vertical eye diameter, face protruding.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. California: San Bernardino Co., ZZYZX Spring (35°8.6'N, 116°6.3'W), 29.iv.2002, Mathis & Mathis ( USNM, 3216724; Ent 00191400), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes ( USNM unless otherwise indicated), same data as HT (2 ♂, 3216722–3); UNITED STATES. California: San Bernardino Co., Morongo (34°1'59.88"N 116°34'.12"W), 26.ix.1944, Melander (2 ♂, 3216752); Imperial Co. , 19.3 km E Heber (32°43'.12" N 115°31'.12"W), 11.v.1956, Haig (♂, 3216773); Inyo Co. , Nevares Springs (36°30.7'N, 116°49.3'W), 1.iv.2005, Mathis & Mathis (♀, 3216780); Panamint Springs (36°20'23"N, 117°28'1"W), 15.viii.1953, Schlinger (1 ♂ 1♀, 3216771–2); Lake Co. , Saratoga Springs (39°10'.12" N 122°58'.12"W), 30.v.1953, Belkin (10 ♂ 4♀, 3216754–65, 3216767–8); Orange Co. , Corona del Mar (33°34'59.88"N 117°52'.12"W), 16.ix.1949 (2 ♂, 3216753); Riverside Co. , Anza Borrego Desert State Park , Mt. Palm Springs (32°51'0"N 116°13'.12"W), 5.iv.1967, Wood (5 ♂ CNC, 3217195–9); Hot Mineral (33°43'59.88"N 116°3'0"W), 30.iv.1952, Belkin (♂, 3216733); Palm Canyon (33°33'0"N 116°33'0"W), 12.i.1953, Arnaud (6 ♂, 3216749–51); Palm Desert, Boyd Deep Canyon, Desert Research Center (33°43'.12" N 116°22'.12"W), 4.xi.1999, Arnaud & Arnaud (♀, 3216781); Thermal (33°37'59.88"N 116°7'59.88"W), 8.iv.1955, Richards (♀ CNC, 3217204); Thousand Palms (33°48'38.3"N 116°22'34.42"W), 19.iii.1951, Tinkham (4 ♂, 3216747–8), 25.iii.1955, Mason (2 ♂ CNC, 3217200–1), 3.iv.1955 (♀ CNC, 3217202), 17.iv.1955, Richards (♀ CNC, 3217203), 12.iii.1960, Melander (10 ♂, 3216741–6); Thousand Palms, Willis Palm Oasis (33°48'38.3"N 116°22'34.42"W), 3.iv.1955, Mason (39 ♂ 3♀ CNC, BMNH, 3217151–92), 9.iv.1955 (♀ CNC, 3217194), 17.iv.1955 (♀ CNC, 3217193) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined: CHILE. Tacna: Tacna (18°0'20.16"S 70°14'53.88"W), 22.x.1902, Schnuse (♂ ZMHU, 3217778), paralectotype of Eccoptomma montanum   GoogleMaps   ; MEXICO. Puebla: Tehuacán (18°30'0"N 97°25'59.88"W), 23.vi.1951, Hurd (2 ♂ USNM, 3218743–4) GoogleMaps   ; PERU. Lima: Lima, Lagunas de Villa (12°3'0"S 77°3'0"W), 14.ii.1984, Mathis (♂ USNM, 3217776) GoogleMaps   . Piura: Piura (5°12'0"S 80°37'59.88"W), 25.vi.1911, Townsend (7 ♂ USNM, 3217769–75) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. California: San Bernardino Co., 29 Palms (34°7'59.88"N 116°3'0"W), 9.v.1946, Melander (♂ USNM, 3216587) GoogleMaps   . Florida: Monroe Co., Key West (24°34'.12" N 81°48'0" W), 1–30.xi.1950, Krauss (♂ USNM, 3217777)   ; VENEZUELA. Aragua: Puerto de Cata (10°27'46.08"N 67°44'8.16"W), 10–11.vi.1976, Menke & Vincent (♂ USNM, 3217268) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella zaiziksensis   var. (all USNM): UNITED STATES. Arizona: Yuma Co., 16.1 km NE Ehrenberg (33°36'0"N 114°31'.12"W), 16.iv.1969, Pinger (4 ♂, 3216776–9); Yuma (32°43'.12" N 114°37'.12"W), 6.vii.1953, Haga (♂, 3216775), 16.vii.1953 (♂, 3216774). California: Imperial Co. , Hot Mineral (33°25'32.16"N 115°41'6"W), 25.iv.1953, Belkin (♂, 3216736); Riverside Co. , 6th Ave. County Park, 9.7 km NE Blythe (33°36'0"N 114°34'59.88"W), 16.iv.1969, Pinger (3 ♂, 3216738–40); Coachella Valley , Oasis (33°55'.12" N 116°33'0" W), Tinkham (♂, 3216737); Hot Mineral (33°43'59.88"N 116°3'0"W), 30.iv.1952, Belkin (8 ♂, 3216727–35) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: California and Florida, south to Venezuela and northern Chile, variety from   Arizona and California.

Etymology. The species name, zaiziksensis   , is derived from the pronunciation of the type locality, the Zzyzx Springs.

Remarks. Milichiella zaiziksensis   has been collected in an Arnauld Flight Trap, on yucca ( Agavaceae   ), and flying in small swarms in the sun, mating. Specimens of the variety were   collected on cotton ( Malvaceae   ).

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

DEBU

Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph

ZMHU

Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universitaet

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Milichiidae

Genus

Milichiella