Milichiella aethiops, Brake, 2009

Brake, Irina, 2009, Revision of Milichiella Giglio-Tos (Diptera, Milichiidae) 2188, Zootaxa 2188 (1), pp. 1-166: 17-26

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2188.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AB0903-FFAE-FFC6-FF5A-65CCBA55FEA9

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Milichiella aethiops
status

 

aethiops   -group

Species in the aethiops   -group are characterized by the combination of posterior orbital seta absent, lower frontal seta medioreclinate, posterior eye margin without notch but gradually separating from head margin ventrally, abdominal triangle absent or weak, male T2–4 brown microtomentose and with or without shiny posterolateral corners, T5 usually brown microtomentose with shiny tip, S5 roughly rectangular.

Distribution: New World.

Milichiella aethiops (Malloch, 1913)   , comb. nov. (Pl. 1B, F)

Milichia aethiops Malloch, 1913b: 133   . UNITED STATES. Texas: Harlingen. HT ♂ USNM. Malloch 1913b: 133 [reared from wild tuber]; Sabrosky 1965: 732 [Nearctic catalogue], 1973: 4 [Neotropical catalogue]; Poole 1996: 178 [Nearctic checklist].

Diagnosis. Differs from other members of the aethiops   -group in the shiny black mesonotum.

Description. Body length: 2.5 mm; wing length: 2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny to shiny black, ocellar triangle subshiny, orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face silvery grey microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum and pleuron slightly brown microtomentose, except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral corners, T5 shiny black except for microtomentose anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: face brown, halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.6+0.6 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 1.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.1x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 2 (var.: 3+1) dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.7 prs and row of short setae, 2+0.8 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (1.7–2.7), M-ratio is 2.2. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 about 1.2x as long as wide, 1.4x as long and 0.9x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular with posterior margin indented, posterior 3/4 setulose (Pl. 1F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, slightly dilated posteroapically (1.4x), 2.5x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae but with relatively strong sensilla along margin, except for bare posteroapical part (Pl. 1B).

Special characters: one shorter prs anterior to main prs.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Texas: Cameron Co., Harlingen (26°10'59.88"N 97°40'59.88"W), 8.iv.1909, McMillan & Marsh ( USNM, 3216375), in good condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT but 2.iii.1909 (♀ USNM, 3216378), 12.iii.1909 (♀ USNM, 3216376), 26.iii.1909 (♀ USNM, 3216377)   .

Pl. 1: A–C. Male genitalia, lateral view. A. Milichiella pachycerei   ; B. M. aethiops   ; C. M. mexicana, HT. D.   M. pachycerei   , surstylus. E–G. Male sternite 4–5. E. M. pachycerei   ; F. M. aethiops, HT   ; G. M. mexicana, HT.   Abbreviations: ce—cercus, ep—epandrium, hyp—hypandrium, phap—phallapodeme, preg—pregonite, sur—surstylus. Scale bar: 0.1.

Additional material examined (USNM unless otherwise stated): MEXICO. Baja California Sur: Isla Espiritu Santo (24°30'0"N 110°22'.12"W), 23.iii.1953, Arnaud (♂, 3216381)   ; Queretaro: 12.9 km E Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"E), 20.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (11 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3216384–94) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. Arizona: Cochise Co., Ramsey Cany (31°25'59.88"N 110°18'0"W), 15.vi.1951 (♂, 3216380) GoogleMaps   . Florida: Levy Co., Cedar Key (29°7'59.88"N 83°1'59.88"W), 12.v.1970, Bailey (♂, 3219017) GoogleMaps   . Georgia: Clarke Co., Whitehall (33°54'0"N 83°21'0"W), 19.viii.1971, Wallace (♂, 3219016) GoogleMaps   . New Mexico: Grant Co., Gila National Forest, near Lake Roberts (33°1'59.88"N 108°10'.12"W), 28.v.–5.vi.1991, Swann (♂ DEBU, 3217647). Texas: Brewster Co. , 1.6 km W Lajitas (29°15'0"N 103°46'.12"W), 23–30.iv.1963 (♂, 3216379); Culberson Co. , Guadalupe Mountains (31°54'0"N 104°52'.12"W), 29.vi.1951, Wheeler (♂, 3219015)   . Utah: Emery Co., Green River (38°58'59.88"N 110°9'0"W), 21.v.1983, Knowlton (♂, 3219014) GoogleMaps   ; Washington Co., Zion National Park, Birch Creek (37°15'0"N 112°58'59.88"W), 27.vii.1965, Hanson (♀, 3219033) GoogleMaps   . Washington: Asotin Co., Asotin Creek , 800 m (46°19'59.88"N 117°1'59.88"W), 11.v.1924, Melander (2 ♂, 3219018–9) GoogleMaps   .

Material near Milichiella aethiops   : MEXICO. Zacatecas: 15 km E Sombrerete (23°37'59.88"N 103°40'.12"W), 28–31.vii.1951, Hurd (♀ USNM, 3216383); UNITED STATES. Texas: Culberson Co., Guadalupe Mountains National Park , Williams Ranch (31°52'59.88"N 104°51'0"W), 27.viii.1976, Foster (♂ USNM, 3216382) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: MEXICO. Zacatecas: 15 km E Sombrerete (23°37'59.88"N 103°40'.12"W), 30.vii.1951, Hurd (♂ USNM, 3218742); UNITED STATES. Texas: Brewster Co., Big Bend N.P., Nine Point Draw, 914 m (29°30'0"N 103°31'.12"W), 20.v.1959, Mason (♀ USNM, 3218107)   .

Distribution: North America from Washington State to Georgia, south to middle Mexico and Florida.

Remarks. The holotype and several other specimens have 2 dc, but there is a series of specimens from Mexico with 3+1 dc. Milichiella aethiops   was reared from wild tuber and cactus. Specimens were collected in dry stream beds and by using Malaise traps.

Milichiella mexicana Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 1C, G)

Diagnosis. Differs from other members of the aethiops   -group in the combination of subshiny mesonotum, yellow halter and black legs.

Description. Body length: 1.9 mm; wing length: 2.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates slightly brown microtomentose with a shiny spot posteriorly on orbital plate, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum subshiny (very slightly brown microtomentose), scutellum and pleuron slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black; abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral corners, T5 shiny black except for microtomentose anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose dorsally, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 1.6x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 2.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.6 prs, 1+0.8 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.0); M-ratio is 2.2. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 about 1.1x as long as wide, roughly rectangular with posterior margin indented, posterior 2/3 setulose (Pl. 1G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.6x) bent anteriorly, about 3.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 1C).

Special characters: setae on lunule longer than interfrontal setulae.

Holotype, ♂: MEXICO. Queretaro: 12.9 km E Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"E), 3.viii.1960, Ryckman, Ryckman & Christianson ( USNM, 3217258), in good condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (7 ♂ 3♀ USNM, 3217256–7, 3218514, 3218526–32), 20.vi.1960 (2 ♂ 8♀ USNM, 3218540–1, 3218558–65); MEXICO. Durango   : 149.7 km N Durango City (24°1'.12" N 104°40'.12"W), 18.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♀ USNM, 3218573)   . Sonora: 20.9 km N Guaymas (27°58'59.88"N 110°54'0"W), 29.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (2♀ USNM, 3218571–2) GoogleMaps   ; 6.4 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 24.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (13 ♂ 6♀ USNM, BMNH, CNC, 3218533, 3218542–4, 3218546–54, 3218566–70, 3218845)   .

Additional material examined (all: Ryckman et al.): MEXICO. Queretaro: 16.1 km W Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"W), 20.vi.1960 (♀ USNM, 3218896) GoogleMaps   ; 12.9 km E Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"E), 20.vi.1960 (7♀ USNM, BMNH, 3218884–90), 3.viii.1960 (4 ♂ 10♀ USNM, CNC, 3217259–60, 3217262–4, 3218848–51, 3218891–5) GoogleMaps   . Sonora: 20.9 km N Guaymas (27°58'59.88"N 110°54'0"W), 29.vi.1960 (3♀ USNM, 3218534, 3218903–4) GoogleMaps   ; 6.4 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 24.vi.1960 (39 ♂ 22♀ USNM, BMNH, 3218556–7, 3218810–44, 3218846–7, 3218861–81, 3218883)   ; 130.4 km W Sonoyta (31°51'0"N 112°49'59.88"W), 21.vi.1960 (♂ USNM, 3218853) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella mexicana   var. 1: UNITED STATES. Arizona: Yuma Co., San Felipe Pass. W. Cibola (33°18'0"N 114°39'0"W), 5.v.1960, Ryckman & Olsen (2♀ USNM, 3218860, 3218897). California: San Bernardino Co. , 8.1 km N San Bernardino (34°4'59.88"N 117°16'.12"E), 9.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (4 ♂ 2♀ USNM, 3218854–7, 3218905–6) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella mexicana   var. 2: BAHAMAS. San Salvador and Rum Cay Distr.: Rum Cay (23°37'59.88"N 74°49'59.88"W), 16.iii.1953, Hayden & Giovannoli (♂ USNM, 3218641); MEXICO. Sonora: 16.1 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 13.viii.1959, Werner & Nutting (4 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3218969–73)   .

Milichiella mexicana   var. 3: MEXICO. San Luis Potosi: 86.9 km N San Luis Potosi (22°10'.12" N 101°0'0" W), 4.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (♂ 5♀ USNM, 3218852, 3218898–902)   .

Material of questionable identity: MEXICO. Sonora: 6.4 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 24.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (2 ♂ 11♀ USNM, 3218515–25, 3218858–9)   . Guanajuato: N San Miguel de Allende (20°55'59.88"N 100°48'0"W), 4.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (♀ USNM, 3217261) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED STATES. California: Imperial Co., Fish Creek Mts , 152 m (32°58'59.88"N 115°58'59.88"W), 20.iv.1955, Mason (♂ CNC, 3217697) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Middle to northern Mexico with varieties north to California and east to Bahamas.

Etymology. The species name, mexicana   , is derived from the type locality.

Remarks. Milichiella mexicana   var. 1 from southern Arizona and California differs from the type series in having a slightly narrower surstylus with a straight anterior margin, variety 2 from Rum Cay, Bahamas differs in having a posteriorly bent surstylus, and variety 3 from San Luis Potosi, Mexico differs in a straight anterior margin on the surstylus.

Milichiella mexicana   has been reared from Opuntia (Platyopuntia)   , Pachycereus schottii   , Myrtillocactus   , and Cereus giganteus   ( Cactaceae   ). Specimens of variety 3 have been reared from Myrtillocactus geometrizans   . Specimens of variety 2 have been collected in light traps.

Milichiella opuntiae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 2B, C, H)

Diagnosis. Differs from other members of the aethiops   -group in the combination of 3–4 prsc and light brown calypter. Differs from M. pseudopuntiae   in the more densely setulose postgena, mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, and S5 more densely setulose and setulae longer.

Description. Body length: 3.2 mm; wing length: 3.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons black, ocellar triangle slightly black microtomentose, orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face silvery grey microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline with hyaline or light brown margin, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 black microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral margins of T2–4 and posterior 3/4 of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose dorsally, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 3 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 1.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Pl. 2: A. Milichiella pseudopuntiae   , surstylus. B–C. M. opuntiae   . B. Surstylus; C. Male genitalia, lateral view. D–E. M. peyotei   . D. Male genitalia, lateral view; E. Surstylus. F. M. santacatalinae   , surstylus. G–J. Male sternite 4–5. G. M. pseudopuntiae   ; H. M. opuntiae   ; I. M. peyotei   ; J. M. santacatalinae   . Scale bar: 0.1.

Thorax: 4+1 dc, 4+1 prsc, 1 pprn, 2 prs and row of short setae, 1 strong and 2+0.8 thinner keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M weakly convergent (1.9); M-ratio is 1.7. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 about as long as wide, about 1.3x as long and 1.1x as wide as S4, roughly quadrangular; posterior 2/3 setulose (Pl. 2H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus as long as epandrium high, slightly bent posteriorly and dilated apically (1.4x) bent anteriorly, about 6.2x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 2B, C).

Special characters: mesonotal setulae scarce, setae long, setae on lunule longer than interfrontal setulae.

Holotype, ♂: MEXICO. Queretaro: 12.9 km E Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"E), 3.viii.1960, Ryckman, Ryckman & Christianson ( USNM, 3216193), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (60 ♂ 1♀ USNM, BMNH, 3216194–7, 3216199–203, 3216242–4, 3216246–93, 3216585), 20.vi.1960 (2 ♂ USNM, 3216198, 3216204); MEXICO. Queretaro: 16.1 km W Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"W), 20.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♂ USNM, 3216322) GoogleMaps   . Guanajuato: N San Miguel de Allende (20°55'59.88"N 100°48'0"W), 4.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (4 ♂ USNM, 3216205–8) GoogleMaps   .

Specimens near Milichiella opuntiae   : MEXICO. Guanajuato: 14.5 km NW León (21°7'.12" N 101°40'.12"W), 20.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♂ USNM, 3218927); N San Miguel de Allende (20°55'59.88"N 100°48'0"W), 4.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (7♀ USNM, 3218720–6). Hidalgo: Pachuca, 518 m (20°7'.12" N 98°43'59.88" W), 29.vii.1954, Chillcott (♀ CNC, 3218253). Queretaro: 16.1 km W Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"W), 20.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (4♀ USNM, 3218715–8); 12.9 km E Queretaro (20°37'59.88"N 100°22'59.88"E), 3.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (46♀ USNM, BMNH, 3218664, 3218669–87, 3218689–714) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Middle Mexico.

Etymology. The species name, opuntiae   , is a genitive noun derived from the Opuntia   cactus the species has been reared from.

Remarks. Milichiella opuntiae   has been reared from Opuntia (Platyopuntia)   and Myrtillocactus   ( Cactaceae   ).

Milichiella pachycerei Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 1A, D, E)

Diagnosis. Differs from other members of the aethiops   -group in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum and 1 prsc.

Description. Body length: 2.3 mm; wing length: 2.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny black with a shiny spot posteriorly on orbital plate, lunule brown, basoflagellomere brown, basomedially yellowish, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron slightly stronger microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black to light brown, legs black, except for lighter bases of tibiae; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose, tip of T5 slightly brown microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose dorsally, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 1.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 3 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 1+0.7 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M weakly convergent (1.8); M-ratio is 1.6. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 absent. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 about 1.2x as long as wide, 1.4x as long and 0.9x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular with posterior margin indented, posterior 3/4 setulose (Pl. 1E). Male genitalia with hypandrium long, apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, slightly dilated posteriorly (1.3x), 2.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface slightly striate, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 1A, D).

Special characters: gena more than half as wide as antenna, lunula high.

Holotype, ♂: MEXICO. Sonora: 20.9 km N Guaymas (27°58'59.88"N 110°54'0"W), 29.vi.1960, Ryckman, Harvey & Ryckman ( USNM, 3216367), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (9 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3216368–9, 3216396, 3218652–7); MEXICO. Sonora: 8.1 km W Santa Ana (30°31'.12" N 111°7'59.88" W), 13.iv.1960, Ryckman et al. (3 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3216370, 3216373, 3218659)   .

Additional material examined: MEXICO. Sonora: 20.9 km N Guaymas (27°58'59.88"N 110°54'0"W), 29.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (1 ♂ 5♀ USNM, 3216340, 3218658, 3218660–3); 8.1 km W Santa Ana (30°31'.12" N 111°7'59.88" W), 13.iv.1960, Ryckman et al. (3 ♂ 4♀ USNM, BMNH, 3216371, 3218665–8, 3219042–3); UNITED STATES. Arizona: Maricopa Co., Phoenix (33°25'59.88"N 112°4'.12"W) GoogleMaps   , 20.iv.1979, Barber (♂ DEBU, 3218332)   .

Distribution: Mexico (Sonora) and southern adjacent Arizona.

Etymology. The species name, pachycerei   , is a genitive noun derived from the plant species from which this species has been reared, Pachycereus schottii   .

Remarks. The type series has been reared from Pachycereus schottii   ( Cactaceae   ).

Milichiella peyotei Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 2D, E, I)

Diagnosis. Differs from other member of the aethiops   -group in the combination of silvery microtomentose face, subshiny mesonotum, 3+1 dc and 1 prsc.

Description. Body length: 2.9 mm; wing length: 2.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny to shiny black, ocellar triangle slightly brown microtomentose, orbital plates subshiny to shiny, lunule black, basoflagellomere basomedially yellow, face silvery microtomentose, palpus brown; thorax with mesonotum subshiny (very slightly brown microtomentose), scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral corners, T5 shiny black except for microtomentose anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: palpus yellow, halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 and anterior margin of T5 brown microtomentose, tip of T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons?x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.6 prs and row of short setae, 1+0.8+0.7 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.3); M-ratio is 1.6. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 absent. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.2x as long and 1.0x as wide as S4, roughly triangular with posterior margin indented, posterior 2/3 setulose (Pl. 2I). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.8x as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.7x), bent posteriorly, 7.3x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 2D, E).

Special characters: female palpus enlarged and bright yellow.

Holotype, ♂: MEXICO. San Luis Potosi: Huisache (22°55'.12" N 100°25'.12"W), 5.i.1971, Bejatano ( USNM, 3218981), in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (3 ♂ 7♀ USNM, BMNH, 3218982–91)   .

Distribution: Middle Mexico.

Etymology. The species name, peyotei   , is derived from the plant, peyote, from which this species was reared.

Remarks. All specimens were reared from peyote, Lophophora williamsii   ( Cactaceae   ).

Milichiella pseudopuntiae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 2A, G)

Diagnosis. Differs from M. opuntiae   in the less setulose postgena, mesonotum subshiny, and S5 less setulose and setulae shorter.

Description. Body length: 2.3 mm; wing length: 2.2–2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle slightly brown microtomentose between ocelli, but tips and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face silvery microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum subshiny (very slightly brown microtomentose), scutellum and pleuron slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline with hyaline or light brown margin, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 black microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral margins of T2–4 and posterior 3/4 of T5. Female coloration and vestiture: halter base of knob yellow, rest brown, abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose dorsally, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 3 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3+1, 4+1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs and row of short setae, 1+0.8 or 2+0.8 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.0); M-ratio is 2.0. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.4x as long and 1.0x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular, posterior margin indented, posterior 2/3 setulose (Pl. 2G). Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.3x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly and tip slightly bent anteriorly, dilated apically (1.1–1.2x), 6.4–6.5x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 2A).

Special characters: mesonotal setulae scarce, setae on lunule longer than interfrontal setulae.

. Holotype, ♂: MEXICO. Sonora: 6.4 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 24.vi.1960, Ryckman, Harvey & Ryckman ( USNM, 3216228), in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (48 ♂ 32♀ USNM, BMNH, CNC, 3216214–27, 3216229, 3216231–2, 3216234–9, 3216295–316, 3216318–9, 3216321, 3216323–37, 3216345–6, 3216348–58, 3216397, 3218535–7); MEXICO. Durango: 149.7 km N Durango City (24°1'.12" N 104°40'.12"W), 18.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (2 ♂ 3♀ USNM, 3216211–2, 3216338–9, 3218538)   . Puebla: 6.4 km S Acatlan (18°12'0"N 98°3'0"W), 2.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (♀ USNM, 3216341) GoogleMaps   . San Luis Potosi: 86.9 km N San Luis Potosi (22°10'.12" N 101°0'0" W), 4.viii.1960, Ryckman et al. (2 ♂ USNM, 3216209–10)   ; UNITED STATES. Arizona: Pima Co., Tuscon (32°13'.12" N 110°55'.12"W), 7.iv.1980, Marshall (♂ DEBU, 3217648)   . California: Los Angeles Co., Pomona, San Dimas Canyon (34°3'0"N 117°45'0"W), 13.xii.1959, Ryckman & Olsen (♂ USNM, 3216294); San Bernardino Co. , 8.1 km N San Bernardino (34°4'59.88"N 117°16'.12"E), 9.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♀ USNM, 3216343); San Bernardino (34°4'59.88"N 117°16'.12"W), 6.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♂ USNM, 3216241) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined: MEXICO. Chihuahua: 32.2 km N Meoqui (28°18'0"N 105°30'0"W), 17.vi.1960, Ryckman et al. (♂ USNM, 3216240) GoogleMaps   . Sonora: 16.1 km E Navojoa (27°4'.12" N 109°28'.12"W), 13.viii.1959, Werner & Nutting (2 ♂ 2♀ USNM, 3218911, 3218934–6)   ; UNITED STATES. Arizona: Yavapai Co., Cleator (34°16'.12" N 112°13'.12"E), 19.vi.1951, Wheeler (2 ♂ 2♀ USNM, 3218907–10). California: Los Angeles Co. , San Dimas Canyon (34°13'.12" N 117°45'0" E)   , 24.xi.1957, Christianson & Fonseca (♂ USNM, 3218932)   ; Riverside Co., 8.1 km S Loma Linda (34°1'59.88"N 117°15'0"W), 18.x.1959, Ryckman & Olsen (2♀ USNM, 3216342, 3218539) GoogleMaps   . Texas: Bexar Co., San Antonio (29°25'.12" N 98°28'59.88" W), 3.iv.1942, Melander (♂ USNM, 3218933)   .

Material of questionable identity: UNITED STATES. Texas: Kimble Co., Llano River (30°37'.12" N 100°25'59.88" W), 23.v.1972, Wirth (3♀ USNM, 3218941–3)   .

Distribution: California to Texas, south to middle Mexico.

Etymology. The species name, pseudopuntiae   , denotes the similarity of this species to M. opuntiae   .

Remarks. Milichiella pseudopuntiae   has been collected in light and Malaise traps and reared from Opuntia (Platyopuntia)   , Opuntia occidentalis   , Pachycereus sp.   , Myrtillocactus geometrizans   and Echinocactus polycephalus   ( Cactaceae   ).

Milichiella santacatalinae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 2F, J)

Diagnosis. Differs from other members of the aethiops   -group in the combination of yellowish palpus, subshiny mesonotum and yellow halter.

Description. Body length: 2.8 mm; wing length: 2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny black, lunule yellow, basoflagellomere basomedially yellowish, face grey microtomentose, palpus yellowish; thorax with mesonotum subshiny, scutellum and pleuron slightly brown microtomentose except for shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter yellow, legs black except for base and tip of fore and mid tibia and all basitarsi; abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose except for shiny posterolateral corners, T5 shiny black except for microtomentose anterior margin.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioreclinate. In males frons 1.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 2.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin without notch, gradually separating from head margin ventrally.

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc less than 0.8x as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc absent. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5); M-ratio is 2.5. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 weak. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 0.9 x as long as wide, 1.1x as long and 1.0x as wide as S4, roughly rectangular with posterior margin indented, posterior 2/3 setulose (Pl. 2J). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus shorter than longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus?x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteriorly (2.1x), straight, about 7.8x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 2F).

Special characters: setae on lunule as long as interfrontal setulae.

Holotype, ♂: UNITED STATES. Arizona: Apache Co., Santa Catalina Mts., Molina Basin , 1341 m (34°6'0"N 109°10'59.88"W), 8.vii.1972, Sluss ( CNC, 3217693), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (3 ♂ CNC, USNM, 3217694–6)   .

Material of questionable identity: MEXICO. Nuevo León: Vallecillo (26°40'.12" N 99°58'.12"W), 2–5.vi.1951, Hurd (♀ USNM, 3218755); UNITED STATES. Arizona: Pima Co., Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (park) (32°1'59.88"N 112°52'.12"W), 15.iv.1947, Melander (4 ♂ USNM, 3218959–62)   .

Distribution. Arizona,? Mexico (Nuevo León).

Etymology. The species name, santacatalinae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

DEBU

Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Milichiidae

Genus

Milichiella

Loc

Milichiella aethiops

Brake, Irina 2009
2009
Loc

Milichia aethiops

Poole, R. W. 1996: 178
Sabrosky, C. W. 1965: 732
Malloch, J. R. 1913: 133
Malloch, J. R. 1913: 133
1913