Tephritis argentea

Brake, Irina, 2009, Revision of Milichiella Giglio-Tos (Diptera, Milichiidae) 2188, Zootaxa 2188 (1), pp. 1-166: 26-60

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2188.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AB0903-FFA7-FFE4-FF5A-66C6BE3CFC07

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Tephritis argentea
status

 

argentea   -group

Species in the argentea   -group are characterized by the combination of posterior orbital seta absent (present in M. bimaculata   ), S5 medium setulose with many setula along posterior margin and some longer setae posterolaterally or with tuft of longer setae posterolaterally, surstylus longer than wide, about as long as epandrium high or longer, usually more than 0.5x as wide, dilated apically, bent posteriorly, usually with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin, line moving medially at base of surstylus.

Distribution: Old World.

Milichiella aldabrae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 3A, D)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum and posterolateral corners of S5 developed into shiny lappets with long setae.

Description. Body length: 2.3 mm; wing length: 2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons brown, ocellar triangle and orbital plates brown microtomentose, frontal plates greyish, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter brown, halter black, legs black except for yellow tip of fore tibia and all basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (7om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2, 3 or 3+1 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.7 prs, 2+0.7 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M weakly convergent (1.8–2.0); M-ratio is 2.4–2.5. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2-3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 1.4 x as long as wide, 1.4x as long and 1.9x as wide as S4; with scarce but long setae, posterolateral corners developed into shiny lappets with long setae (Pl. 3D). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.1x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.6x), 8.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 3A).

Holotype, ♂: SEYCHELLES. Aldabra : Picard , trail to Bassin Labine (9°25'.12" S 46°19'59.88" E), 20.iii.1986, Mathis ( USNM, 3216123), in good condition.  

Paratypes ( BMNH unless otherwise stated), same data as HT (♂ USNM, 3216124)   . SEYCHELLES. Aldabra: South I., Cinq Cases (9°25'59.88"S 46°22'59.88"E), 3–16.i.1968, Cogan & Hutson (26 ♂ BMNH, USNM, NMP, 3218756–7, 3218759–74, 3218776–83) GoogleMaps   ; Dune D’Messe (9°46'.12" S 47°34'59.88" E), 21.iii.1968, Cogan & Hutson (3 ♂, 3218800–2); Takamaka Grove (9°46'.12" S 47°34'59.88" E), 1–17.ii.1968, Cogan & Hutson (♂, 3218809), 23–27.ii.1968 (6 ♂, 3218803–8)   ; West I., near Settlement (9°22'.12" S 46°13'.12"E), 7–12.iii.1968, Cogan & Hutson (9 ♂, 3218784–92)   ; Astove I. (10°6'0"S 47°45'0"E), 5.iii.1968, Cogan & Hutson (♂, 3218799) GoogleMaps   ; Cosmoledo Atoll: Wizard I. (9°43'59.88"S 47°37'59.88"E), 6.iii.1968, Cogan & Hutson (6 ♂, 3218793–8) GoogleMaps   ; Mahe: Beau Vallon (4°36'0"S 55°25'.12"E), 4.xi.1977, David & Tsacas (♂, 3215794)   .

Distribution. Seychelles.

Etymology. The species name, aldabrae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

Remarks. Milichiella aldabrae   has been collected around coconut plantations, on pits in champignon ( Agaricus bisporus   , Agaricaceae   ), from Pandanus   ( Pandanaceae   ) and at light.

Pl. 3: A–C. Male genitalia, lateral view. A. Milichiella aldabrae   ; B. M. sumptuosa   ; C. M. formosae   . D–F. Male sternite 4–5. D. M. aldabrae   ; E. M. sumptuosa   ; F. M. formosae   . Scale bar: 0.1.

Milichiella argentea ( Fabricius, 1805)   (Pl. 4A–C)

Tephritis argentea Fabricius, 1805: 323   . INDONESIA. Moluccas: Amboina. T ♂ CAU [lost].

Lobioptera argentea   . Mik 1887: 180 [combination].

Milichiella argentea   . Becker 1907: 511, 536 [type information; discussion of different determined specimens and of synonymy, probably syn. with M. melaleuca   ; diagnosis]; Bezzi 1908: 193 [ Eritrea] (pers. note: identification doubtful); Sabrosky 1977: 273 [Oriental catalogue], 1989: 557 [Australasian/Oceanian catalogue]; Brake 2000: 104 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2+1 dc, calypter with brown margin, black legs, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.6 mm; wing length: 2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown or greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose but less so than scutellum, scutellum and pleuron brown except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter hyaline with brown margin, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose dorsally, T5 shiny except for microtomentose anterior margin.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.7x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (5–6om, female: 4–5om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2+1 dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.8 pprn, 1+0.7 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.2); M-ratio is 2.1. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ?.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 with one row of setulae at posterior margin. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.9x as long and 2.6x as wide as S4, setulose, posterior margin slightly indented (Pl. 4C). Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.8x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.6x), 3.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 4A–B).

Pl. 4: A–C. Milichiella argentea   , male. A. Hypandrium, ventral view; B. Genitalia, lateral view; C. Sternite 4 and 5. Scale bar: 0.1. Drawings by L. Papp.

Special characters: palpus relatively wide.

Material examined: INDONESIA. Maluku: Seram, Manusela National Park , Solea , Uncarya (2°51'S, 129°33'E), 1–31.viii.1987, Day (2 ♂ 7♀ BMNH, 3216127–35); Sulawesi Tengah: nr. Morowali , Ranu River Area (1°52'.12" S 121°30'0" E), 27.i.–20.iv.1980 (2♀ BMNH, 3216136–7); PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Simbang , Huon Gulf (6°34'59.88"S 147°49'59.88"E), 1898, Biró (5 ♂ HNHM, 3218475–9); Northern : Kokoda , 61 m (8°52'.12" S 147°43'59.88" E), 1–30.iv.1933, Cheesman (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216125–6)   .

Distribution: Sulawesi, Moluccas and New Guinea.

Remarks. The type specimen was last seen by Becker (1907) in the Kiel Museum, but only parts of the thorax, halter, calypter and one wing were left. This specimen is now apparently lost. The species is not identifiable from the description, but Becker found a male from New Guinea in HNHM, which he identified as M. argentea   based on the description and comparison with the type. There are actually 4 males and not just one in the HNHM and the species description is based on these specimens. In many collections the name M. argentea   has been used for a number of different species with a silvery abdomen. All identifications should therefore be treated with caution.

Becker used the above mentioned specimens from New Guinea to propose the synonymy of M. melaleuca   (probably based on Loew's description) and M. argentea   . However, he neglected the difference in wing colour and M. melaleuca   is therefore resurrected from synonymy with M. argentea   .

Milichiella argentea   was collected in Malaise traps.

Milichiella sp. A   (Pl. 5I)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 dc, 1 pprn, brown calypter, black legs, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.5 mm; wing length: 2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter brown or light brown, with yellow hairs, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: halter black, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (6om, female 4om) and emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.7 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.1); M-ratio is 1.7. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with one row of setulae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 2.6x as wide as S4, roughly triangular shape, setulose with more and longer setulae at posterior margin. Male genitalia similar to M. unicolor   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.5x), 3.2x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 4–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 5I).

Special characters: palpus relatively wide.

Material examined: SOLOMON IS. Guadalcanal: Guadalcanal (9°31'59.88"S 160°12'0"E), 1944, Berg (3 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3215985–8) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Solomon Islands.

Remarks. Milichiella sp. A   is very similar to M. argentea   and probably represents a variety of this species.

Pl. 5: A–B. Male genitalia, lateral view. A. Milichiella pseudodectes, LT. B.   M. ugandae   . C–D. M. asiatica   . C. Surstylus; D. Male sternite 4 and 5. E–G. Male sternite 4 and 5. E. M. pseudodectes, LT   ; F. M. ugandae   ; G. M. angolae   . H–I. Surstylus. H. M. angolae   ; I. M. sp. A. Scale bar: 0.1.

Milichiella angolae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 5G, H)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black ocellar triangle, brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 prsc, yellow distal tip of fore and mid tibia, silvery microtomentose male T2–5, and elongated shape of the surstylus.

Description. Body length: 2.9 mm; wing length: 2.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, but less so than scutellum, scutellum and pleuron brown except for shiny spots on an-and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline, halter black, legs black except for distal tip of fore and mid tibia yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.8 pprn, 1+0.4 prs, 2+0.7 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.1); M-ratio is 2.2. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of scarce setulae. S5 1.3 –1.4x as long as wide, 1.9–2.2x as long and 1.8–2.5x as wide as S4; setulose, posterior margin only slightly indented (Pl. 5G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus about as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.6–2.0x), 5.4–7.1x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 5H).

Holotype, ♂: ANGOLA. Santa Cruz Mission (12°30'0"N 18°30'0"E), 13.viii.1952, Munro ( USNM, 3215936), in good condition, original label: "Santa Cruz / Mission; Angola. / 13.8.52. / Carp Exp: Munro. [P]". GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (2 ♂ USNM, 3215935, 3215937); ZIMBABWE. Matetsi (18°16'.12" S 25°55'59.88" E), 1.xi.1933, Stevenson (♂ BMNH, 3215920); 1.xii.1933 (♂ BMNH, 3215921)   .

Distribution. Angola, Zimbabwe.

Etymology. The species name, angolae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

Milichiella argentiventris Hendel, 1931   (Pl. 6C, G)

Milichiella argentiventris Hendel, 1931: 72   . EGYPT. Wadi Kanssisrob, Gebel Elba. ST 3# CUGE?. Hennig 1937: 26 [citation]; Frey 1958b: 50 [Cape Verde Is.]; Steyskal 1966: 123 [type information, Egypt]; Sabrosky 1980: 688 [Afrotropical catalogue]; Papp 1984: 113 [Palaearctic catalogue]; Deeming 1998: 154 [fig. of costal break, swarming, reared from rotten yam tubers, Nigeria, Niger State, Oman, Yemen]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue].

Milichiella argentiventria   . Misspelling. Steyskal & El-Bialy 1967: 34 [checklist, Egypt].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 prsc, white wing and calypter, yellow narrow bases and tips of tibiae as well as long silvery microtomentum on male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.6–3.1 mm; wing length: 2.3–2.4 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum brown microtomentose, pleuron slightly brown microtomentose with shiny spots on anepisternum and katepisternum, wing white, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black, legs black except for yellow narrow bases and tips of tibiae and bases of tarsi (var.: legs darker); abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5–6om) and slight emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc (var.: 2+1), 2 prsc, 1+0.5 pprn, 1+0.8 prs, 3 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.0); Mratio is 1.9. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1–2 rows of setulae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 2.1x as wide as S4; setulose, posterior margin indented (Pl. 6G). Male genitalia similar to M. nigeriae   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), 2.5x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 6C).

Special characters: silvery microtomentum long.

Material examined: EGYPT. Wadi Kanssisrob , Gebel Elba (22°12'N, 36°20'E), 1.iv.–31.v.1929, Tewfik (4 ♂, USNM, 3215993–6), [topotypes]. YEMEN. Suqutra: Hadipo Pl. (12°30'0"N 54°0'0"E), 9.iv.1967, Guichard (6 ♂ BMNH, 3215929–34) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella argentiventris   var.: MALAWI. 35 km SE Monkey Bay on road to Mangochi, 500 m (14°4'59.88"S 34°55'.12"E), 12.xii.1980, Londt & Stuckenberg (♂ NMP, 3219068). Southern: Zomba, 914 m (15°22'.12" S 35°22'.12"E), 1–30.xi.1927, Smee (3 ♂ BMNH, 3215917–9); SOUTH AFRICA. KwaZulu- Natal: Ingwavuma Distr., Tongaland, near Pongola Poort 2732 AC (27°27'S, 32°3'E), 27.ii.1971, Stuckenberg & Stuckenberg (3 ♂ NMP, BMNH, 3216170, 3219065–6); Natal, Dukuduku Forest Reserve (28°22'59.88"S 32°19'.12"E), 18–19.vii.1981, Londt & Stuckenberg (♂ NMP, 3219067) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: SOUTH AFRICA. Cape: 4 km NE Steytlerville, Noorspoort Hillside , 600 m (33°18'S, 24°23'E), 22.xi.1990, Londt & Wittington (♂ NMP, 3219069) GoogleMaps   .

Specimens near Milichiella argentiventris   : NIGERIA. Niger: Mokwa (9°19'.12" N 5°0'0" E), 21.i.1977, Johnson (♂ USNM, 3215997), 30.vii.1977 (1 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3215998)   .

Distribution. Egypt and Yemen, varieties in Malawi and South Africa.

Remarks. The 3 syntypes are probably in CUGE. However 4 specimens from the same series are deposited in USNM and were used for species characterization. There is a variety with   2+1 dc and darker legs collected from mixed woodlands and forest margins in South Africa and Malawi. Nigerian specimens near Milichiella argentiventris   were reared from rotten yam tubers ( Dioscoreaceae   ).

Pl. 6: A. Milichiella triangula   , surstylus. B. M. nigripes   , male genitalia, lateral view. C–D. Surstylus. C. M. argentiventris   ; D. M. solitaria   ; E–H. Male sternite 4 and 5. E. M. triangula   ; F. M. nigripes   ; G. M. argentiventris   ; H. M. solitaria   . Scale bar: 0.1.

Milichiella argyrogaster ( Perris, 1876)   (Pl. 7B, C, F)

Milichia argyrogaster Perris, 1876: 208   . FRANCE. "Departement Landes". LT ♂ MNHNP [pres. des.]. Perris 1876: 208 [larvae and pupae under worm-eaten bark of piece of lime tree].

Milichiella argyrogastra   . Séguy 1934: 636 [fig. of eye]; Papp 1984: 113 [Palaearctic catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue].

Milichiella argyropasta   . Misspelling. Aldrich, 1931: 398 [citation].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of 1 pprn, calypter hyaline with light brown margin, black legs, silvery microtomentose male T2–5, in the shape and shorter setae of the surstylus.

Description. Body length: 3.5 mm; wing length: 3.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule?, basoflagellomere black, face?, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly to normally brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline with light brown margin, halter black, legs black except for brown basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with? orbital and? frontal setae, anterior frontal seta?. In males frons?x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about?x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista?, posterior eye margin with notch (7om) and emargination (2om).

Pl. 7: A–B. Male genitalia, lateral view. A. Milichiella tiefii   . B. M. argyrogaster, LT. C.   M. argyrogaster, LT   , surstylus. D. M. sterkstrooma   , male genitalia, lateral view. E–G. Male sternites 4 and 5. E. M. tiefii   ; F. M. argyrogaster, LT   ; G. M. sterkstrooma   . Scale bar: 0.1.

Thorax: 2+1? dc,? prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.8 setae prs and row of shorter setae,? keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.4); M-ratio is 2.2. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 1–2 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 about as long as wide,?x as long and 2.7x as wide as S4, nearly heart shaped, setulose ({l. 7F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus about as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (2.6x), apex flat, 6.7x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with line of setae near anterior margin (Pl. 7B, C).

Lectotype, ♂: FRANCE. Landes (44°0'0"N 0°52'.12"W), 15.vi.1874, Perris ( MNHNP, 3219070), in relatively good condition, head deformed, abdomen dissected, original labels: "MUSEUM PARIS [P] / Landes / Perris. [H]", " Milichiella   / argyrogastra / Perris [H] / E. SÉGUY det. 19[P]32[H". Milichiella argyrogaster   was described from 3 specimens. There is one probable type in MNHNP. The specimen fits the description and appears to be very old, however, both the locality label as well as the identification label were written by Séguy. I here designate this specimen as the lectotype.  

Distribution. France.

Milichiella asiatica Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 5C, D)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum and male T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose spot in middle of T2.

Description. Body length: 2.7–3.5 mm; wing length: 2.7–3.1 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates with shiny spots, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on anepisternum and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak or absent, calypter yellowish white, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose spot in middle of T2, anterolateral corner of T2 and shiny black posterolateral corner of T5, in some specimens there is also a smaller brown spot in middle of T3. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0–2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.0–4.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (5–7om, female: 4–5om) and emargination (1–3om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.4 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.1–3.0); M-ratio is 1.5–1.8. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2 posterior margin with 2–3 rows, T3–4 with 1–2 rows of relatively long setulae, T5 silvery part setulose on posterior half with row of relatively long setae near posterior margin, T5 shiny parts with long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 2.0x as long and 2.2x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior half (Pl. 5D). Male genitalia similar to M. unicolor   , 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.5–0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.6–1.7x), 2.4–3.7x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 5C).

Puparium: Empty puparium reddish brown, subshiny to almost dull. Anterior (thoracic) part dorsoventrally compressed with shallow but distinct lateral depressions on at least dorsal side. Anterior spiracles with 9 spiracular lobes (papillae).

Holotype, ♂: TAIWAN. Taipei: Yangmingshan (25°9'0"N 121°33'0"E), 22.viii.1980, Cranston ( BMNH, 3216107), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (3 ♂ BMNH, DEI, 3216108–10); INDONESIA. Java: Yogyakarta (7°48'0"S 110°24'0"E), Overbeck (♂ SMTD, 3216111) GoogleMaps   . Maluku: Ternate (0°48'0"N 127°22'59.88"E), 10.viii.1954, Alston (♂ BMNH, 3216101) GoogleMaps   ; MALAYSIA. Selangor: Sepang (2°40'59.88"N 101°43'59.88"E), 1.iii.1935 (4♀ BMNH, 3216102–5); Serdang (2°30'0"N 112°30'0"E), 16.x.1930, Corbett (♂ BMNH, 3216097); Serdang (2°30'0"N 112°30'0"E), 7.iv.1936 (2 ♂ 1♀ & 2 puparia BMNH, 3216098–00) GoogleMaps   ; PHILIPPINES. Manila: Manila (14°37'.12" N 120°58'.12"E), 1–31.x.1914 (2 ♂ USNM, 3216141–2)   ; THAILAND. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai (18°48'0"N 98°58'59.88"E), 26.iv.–31.v.1952, Thurman & Thurman (♂ USNM, 3215984) GoogleMaps   . Krung Thep Mahanakhon: Bangkoknoi, Thonburi (13°43'.12" N 100°27'0" E), 5–6.v.1959, Manop (♂ USNM, 3215962); Makasan, Bangkok (13°43'59.88"N 100°30'0"E), 11–12.v.1959, Manop [?] (♂ USNM, 3215961), 1–31.vii.1932, Smith (18 ♂ USNM, HNHM, 3216151–68), 25.ix.1977, Yasumatsu (7 ♂ USNM, 3215976, 3215978–83), 30.vi.1934, Smith (7 ♂ USNM, 3216143–9) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: INDIA. Karnataka: Bangalore, Hebbal   (12°58'.12" N 77°34'59.88" E), 26–27.x.1978, L. T. & J. B. (♂ BMNH, 3216106). Tamil Nadu: Yercaud, near Salem, 1372 m (11°39'0"N 78°10'.12"E), 6.iv.1962, Spencer (♂ CNC, 3217127)   ; INDONESIA. Java: Yogyakarta (7°48'0"S 110°24'0"E), 1–30.vi.1932, Overbeck (2 ♂ SMTD, 3215989–90), 1–28.ii.1933 (♀ SMTD, 3215992), 1–31.v.1934 (♂ SMTD, 3215991) GoogleMaps   ; MALAYSIA. Kuala Lumpur: Kuala Lumpur (3°10'.12" N 101°42'0" E), 8.viii.1958, Traub (♂ USNM, 3215975)   .

Distribution: Thailand to Taiwan, south to Java and Moluccas,? India.

Etymology. The species name, asiatica   , is an adjective derived from the Asian distribution of the species.

Remarks. Milichiella asiatica   has been collected on Elaeis guineensis Jacquin   (oil palm, Arecaceae   ) fruits, on rotting stems of oil palm ( Arecaceae   ), rotting manure, and at light.

Milichiella bakeri Aldrich, 1931   (Pl. 8B, F)

Milichiella bakeri Aldrich, 1931: 398   . PHILIPPINES. Laguna: Mt. Makiling. HT ♂ USNM. Sabrosky 1977: 273 [Oriental catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 dc, 2 prsc, brown calypter, male T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Description. Body length: 2.2–2.8 mm; wing length: 1.9–2.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face slightly greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly to normally brown microtomentose (golden brown from anterior view), scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, anterior margin slightly brownish, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter brown with dark margin, halter black, legs black except for yellowish basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for anterolateral margins of T2.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 5.2x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6–7om) and emargination (3om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.5 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.4); M-ratio is 2.0. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2 posterolateral margin with 2–3 rows of setulae, T3 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae, T4 posterior margin with 2 rows of setulae, T5 posteromedial margin of silvery part with 1 row of setulae. S5 2 x as wide and longer than S4, slightly setulose, posterior margin indented (Pl. 8F). Male genitalia similar to M. nigeriae   , with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.5x), 2.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 8B).

Special characters: palpus appears slightly wider than usual for the genus.

Holotype, ♂: PHILIPPINES. Laguna: Mt. Makiling (14°10'59.88"N 121°10'59.88"E), Baker ( USNM, 3216138), in suboptimal condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (2 ♂ USNM, 3216139–40)   .

Material of questionable identity: MALAYSIA. Sabah: Bettotan, near Sandakan (5°52'.12" N 118°4'.12"E), 21.viii.1927, C.B. K. & H.M. P (♂ BMNH, 3216169)   .

Distribution. Philippines,?Borneo.

Pl. 8: A–D. Surstylus. A. M. spinthera, HT   ; B. M. bakeri   . C. M. longiseta   ; D. M. javana, HT   ; E–H. Male sternite 4 and 5. E. M. spinthera, HT   ; F. M. bakeri   ; G. M. longiseta   ; H. M. javana, HT. Scale   bar: 0.1.

Milichiella bimaculata Becker, 1907  

Milichiella bimaculata Becker, 1907: 534   . SPAIN. Canary Is.: Gran Canaria. T ♂ ZMHU [lost?]. Becker 1907: 34 [fig. of male abdomen]; Frey 1936: 124 [on Euphorbia regis-jubae   , Canary Is.], 1958a: 62 [Canary Is.]; Hennig 1937: 27 [citation, type information]; Deeming & Báez 1985: 66 [fig. of head, Canary Is.]; Papp 1984: 113 [Palaearctic catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue]; Carles-Tolrá & Báez 2002: 174 [catalogue, Canary Is.].

Milichiella bimaculata Becker, 1908a: 163   . SPAIN. Canary Is.: Gran Canaria. T ♂ ZMHU [lost?]. Becker 1908a: 163 [on flowers of Schinus mollis   ].

Eccoptomma freyi Hendel, 1936: 125   . SPAIN. Canary Is.: Tenerife. LT ♀ NMW [pres. des.]. Hennig 1937: 28 [citation]; Frey 1958a: 62 [type information, Canary Is.]; Deeming & Báez 1985: 66 [synonymy with bimaculata   ]; Papp 1984: 112 [Palaearctic catalogue]; Carles-Tolrá & Báez 2002: 174 [catalogue, Canary Is.]; Brake 2009 [type information]. Syn. Deeming & Báez 1985: 66.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, shiny ocellar triangle and orbital plates, as well as brown microtomentose male T2–5 except for posterolateral silvery spots on T5.

Description. Body length: 2.5 mm; wing length: 2.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face grey microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, pleuron same, scutellum more strongly microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter hyaline with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for lighter tarsal joints, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for posterolateral silvery spots on T5. Female coloration and vestiture: thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, halter yellow, calypter white, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 3 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 1.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.6x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (3–4om) and emargination (2om). Female posterior eye margin with small notch (2om) and emargination

Thorax: 2+1 dc, 2+1 prsc, 1+0.6 pprn, row of prs across mesonotum, including presutural dc and prsc, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.4); M-ratio is 1.7–2.1. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior half setulose except for silvery parts. S5 similar to M. unicolor   (see Pl. 9F). Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.9x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.7x), 3.6x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3 setae along anterior margin (see Pl. 5).

Special characters: posteroventral side of head strongly setulose; middle prsc in middle of mesonotum.

Milichiella freyi   lectotype, ♀: SPAIN. Canary Is.: Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife, Icod de los Vinos (28°22'.12" N 16°42'0" W), Frey ( NMW, 3218324), in good condition. Milichiella freyi   has been described from a series of three female   syntypes. However, Frey (1958a) incorrectly cited the presence of holo- and allotypes in the Finnish museum. In my opinion this citation does not constitute a lectotype designation according to ICZN article 74.5 because Frey did not "select" the holotype, he just stated its presence and it is not possible to reconstruct which specimen he meant with the designation " holotype ". One of the specimens in UZMH is apparently lost and there is only a female syntype in the UZMH (Pekka Vilkamaa, pers. comm.) and one in NMW. I here designate the specimen in the NMW as the lectotype.

Material examined: SPAIN. Canary Is.: Santa Cruz de Tenerife , Gomera, Tecina (28°6'0"N 17°7'59.88"W), 11.iv.1975, Báez (♀ USNM, 3217438); Tenerife (28°19'.12" N 16°34'.12"W), XII, Becker (2 ♂ ZMHU, 3217435–6), 10.iii.1974, Báez (♂ USNM, 3217437) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Canary Islands.

Remarks. The type series of Milichiella bimaculata   consists of an unspecified number of males collected by Becker on Gran-Canaria. The types may be lost. There are two specimens from Tenerife in ZMHU that were later labeled as types, but they do not bear Becker's typical identification label and do not belong to the type series if Becker’s type locality is to be believed. Since the species is easily recognized, there is no need to designate a neotype.

Milichiella christmas Brake   , sp. n.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of subshiny black ocellar triangle, brown calypter and male abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior half of T3 and anterior two thirds of T4–5.

Description. Body length: 3.1 mm; wing length: 2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face black microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, anterior margin brown, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter brown, halter black, legs black except for brown tarsi, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior half of T3 and anterior two thirds of T4–5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.5x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 5.2x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and narrow emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3+1 prsc, 1+0.6 pprn, row of prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3); M-ratio is 1.8. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2–5 lines of setae, T2–5 brown parts setulose, except for anterior half or two thirds of T2. S5 about as long as wide, posterior margin about 2.5x as wide as anterior margin, 1.7x as long and 2.8x as wide as S4; posterior half setulose with relatively long setulae (see Pl. 8F). Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus similar to M. javana   , 0.9x as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.7x), 3.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (see Pl. 8D).

Special characters: thoracic setae very long.

Holotype, ♂: CHRISTMAS I. (10°30'0"S 105°40'.12"E), Andrews ( BMNH, 3216180), in fairly good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (3 ♂ BMNH, 3216181–3); CHRISTMAS I. North part of island (10°30'0"S 105°40'.12"E), 1–31.xii.1897, Andrews (4 ♂ BMNH, USNM, 3216184–7)   .

Distribution. Christmas Island.

Etymology. The species name, christmas   , is a noun in apposition and is derived from the type locality.

Remarks. Some specimens have a less extensive silvery pattern on the male abdomen.

Milichiella circularis Aldrich, 1931  

Milichiella circularis Aldrich, 1931: 397   . UNITED STATES. Hawaii. HT ♂ BBM. Aldrich 1931: 397 [collected in pineapple fields and near compost]; Bryan 1934: 441 [citations, Hawaii]; Krauss 1945: 317 [Hawaii]; Bianchi 1967: 323 [swarming over mill waste, Hawaii]; Hardy & Delfinado 1980: 363 [figs of male terminalia, males swarming, breeding in decaying vegetation, Hawaii]; Sabrosky 1989: 557 [Australasian/Oceanian catalogue]; Nishida 1992: 111 [Hawaii]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue].

Milichiella circularis Illingworth, 1929: 234   . Nomen nudum. Illingworth, 1929: 234 [swarming near rubbish dump, Hawaii].

Milichia circularis   . Williams 1931: 308 [Hawaii].

Milichiella sp.   Swezey 1926: 378 [near compost, Hawaii].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny or subshiny ocellar triangle, brown microtomentose mesonotum, male abdomen silvery microtomentose on lateral sides of T2, anterior half of T3, T4 except for posterior margin, and anterior two thirds of T5.

Description. Body length: 2.8–3.5 mm; wing length: 2.6–2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny or subshiny depending on angle of light, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white with yellow margin, halter black, legs black except for yellow tarsi; abdomen silvery microtomentose on lateral sides of T2, anterior half of T3, T4 except for posterior margin, and anterior two thirds of T5; silvery area more extensive in some specimens.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om) and narrow emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.7 prs and row of shorter setae, 2+0.5 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.1); M-ratio is 1.3–1.7. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 silvery parts bare, black parts setulose, setae at lateral margins of T2 relatively short. S5 2 x as wide and long as S4, roundish, posterior margin indented, scarce setulae. Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), 3.3x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (see Pl. 6C).

Paratypes: UNITED STATES. Hawaii (19°19'12"N 155°16'48"W), Illingworth (2 ♂ USNM, 3216857); Oahu, Honolulu (21°18'0"N 157°51'0"W), 9.ix.1926, Swezey (5 ♂ USNM, 3216851–5), 15.xii.1926, Bryan (♂ USNM, 3216856) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: GUAM. Anderson AFB [?] (13°28'.12" N 144°49'59.88" E), 1–31.x.1957, Krauss (♂ USNM, 3216872)   ; MICRONESIA. Yap: Yap, Colonia (9°31'.12" N 138°7'59.88" E), 1.vii.–31.viii.1950, Goss (♂ USNM, 3216871); PAKISTAN. Punjab: Faisalabad (31°25'.12" N 73°9'0" E), 1–30.ix.1939, Sohi (4 ♂ USNM, 3216860–3)   ; PALAU IS. Koror I.: (7°19'59.88"N 134°30'0"E), 2.i.1953, Beardsley (♀ BMNH, 3216874), 6.i.1953 (♂ USNM, 3216866), 6.iv.1953 (♂ USNM, 3216870), 14.iv.1953 (♀ USNM, 3216875), 5.v.1953 (♀ USNM, 3216873), 17.vi.1953 (1 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3216864–5), 10.vii.1953 (1 ♂ 2♀ BMNH, 3216867–9) GoogleMaps   ; TAIWAN. Taipei: Yangmingshan (25°9'0"N 121°33'0"E), 22.viii.1980, Cranston (2 ♂ USNM, 3216858–9) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Hawaii,? Guam,? Pakistan,? Palau Is.,? Taiwan,?Yap.

Remarks. Specimens have been collected in pineapple fields, near compost, and at light. Questionable specimens have been collected on cattle dung.

Milichiella formosae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 3C, F)

Milichiella bakeri   of authors, nec Aldrich [misidentification]. Hennig 1939: 85 [ Taiwan, description of female].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose ocellar triangle and mesonotum, calypter hyaline with brown margin, and silvery microtomentose T2–5.

Description. Body length: 4.1 mm; wing length: 3.3–3.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates brown microtomentose, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same except for small shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter hyaline with brown margin and brown hairs, halter black, legs black except for yellow tip of fore tibia and all basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.4x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 5.1x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (5–6om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2, 2+1 or 3+1 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.7+0.5 prs, 2+0.8 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.0–2.2); M-ratio is 2.2–2.3. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with mostly 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 posterior margins with 1 row of setulae, posterolateral corner of T2 with 2 rows. S5 1.2 –1.3x as long as wide, 1.5x as long and 2.1–2.2x as wide as S4, extremely setulose posterolaterally (Pl. 3F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus about as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.2–1.3x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (2.1x), 8.0–8.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with line of long setae along anterior margin (Pl. 3C).

Holotype, ♂: TAIWAN. (23°30'0"N 121°0'0"E), Sauter ( DEI, 3218272), in good condition, original labels: "Formosa [H]", "??? Roth [H, undecipherable]", "coll. Oldenberg [P]", "spinthera / det.? [H]". GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (4 ♂ 3♀ DEI, BMNH, 3218266–71, 3218273)   ; TAIWAN. Tao-yuan [=Toyenmongai] (23°18'25"N 120°18'38"E) (14 ♂ HNHM, 3218450–63) GoogleMaps   ; INDIA. Meghalaya: Nongpoh-Forest [=Nongph?] (25°54'0"N 91°54'0"E), 25–28.iv.1980, Freidberg (♂ USNM, 3215796) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. India, Taiwan.

Etymology. The species name, formosae   , is a genitive noun derived from the former name of the type locality, Formosa, which is Portuguese for beautiful.

Milichiella javana de Meijere, 1911   (Pl. 8D, H)

Milichiella javana de Meijere, 1911: 427   . INDONESIA. Java: Semarang, 6°58’S, 110°29’E. HT ♂ ZMAN. De Meijere 1918: 353 [citation]; Sabrosky 1977: 273 [Oriental catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue]; Jong 2000: 102 [type information].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 3+1 dc, white calypter with brown margin, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length:> 2.5 mm; wing length: 2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown or black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter white with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for anterolateral corner of T2 and shiny black posterolateral corner of T5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.5x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.8–4.1x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om) and narrow emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.8 prs and row of shorter setae, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.9); M-ratio is 1.8. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more, T2–5 posterior margin with 1–2 rows of setulae, more on lateral sides of T2; T5 shiny parts with long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 2.0x as long and 2.2x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose on posterior half (Pl.8Pl. 8: A–D. Surstylus. A. M. spinthera, HT   ; B. M. bakeri   . C. M. longiseta   ; D. M. javana, HT   ; E–H. Male sternite 4 and 5. E. M. spinthera, HT   ; F. M. bakeri   ; G. M. longiseta   ; H. M. javana, HT. Scale   bar: 0.1.H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae and 1 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.6x), 2.7x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 8Pl. 8: A–D. Surstylus. A. M. spinthera, HT   ; B. M. bakeri   . C. M. longiseta   ; D. M. javana, HT   ; E–H. Male sternite 4 and 5. E. M. spinthera, HT   ; F. M. bakeri   ; G. M. longiseta   ; H. M. javana, HT. Scale   bar: 0.1.D).

Holotype, ♂: INDONESIA. Java: Semarang (6°58'S, 110°29'E), 1–30.iv.1909, Jacobson ( ZMAN, 3215797), in good condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Additional material examined: INDONESIA. Java: Semarang, Djerakah (6°58'0"S 110°28'60"E), 1–31.viii.1910, Jacobson (♂ ZMAN, 3215798) GoogleMaps   ; SRI LANKA. Northern: Mannar Distr., Kondachchi (8°43'.12" N 79°58'.12"E), 20.ix.1975, Sands (♂ BMNH, 3215939)   ; Ma Villu (8°42'0"N 80°1'59.88"E), 16–19.ix.1980, Krombein et al. (4 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3215904–7) GoogleMaps   ; TAIWAN. T’ai-p’ing-ling [= Taihorin ] (25°6'54.07"N 121°22'41.9"E), 1–31.vii.1911, Sauter (3 ♂ HNHM, 3218465–7) GoogleMaps   ; TANZANIA. Dar-es-salaam (6°51'0"S 39°18'0"E), 1–30.ix.1937, Saska (5 ♂ HNHM, 3218445–9) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity: MALAYSIA. Sabah: 10 km SW Tambunan (5°40'.12" N 116°22'.12"E), 30.viii.1983, Hevel & Steiner (2 ♂ USNM, 3216189–90); TAIWAN. Kang-kou [=Kankau] (22°0'0"N 120°51'59.98"E), 1–30.iv.1912, Sauter (3 ♂ HNHM, 3218468, 3218472, 3218474); Tah-pan [=Tapani], 1–31.iii.1911, Sauter (4 ♂ HNHM, 3218469–71, 3218473) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Tanzania; Sri Lanka, Java, Taiwan,?Borneo.

Remarks. Milichiella longiseta Hardy & Delfinado   and M. spinthera Hendel   are possibly synonymous with M. javana   , but more material, especially of the latter two species, needs to be studied to evaluate the variation within the species.

Milichiella sp. B  

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, calypter light brown with brown margin, yellowish basitarsi, silvery microtomentose male T2–5 and shape of surstylus.

Description. Body length: 2.5–3.5 mm; wing length: 2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter light brown with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for yellowish basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (6om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 2 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent; M-ratio is 2. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2–5 posterior margin with one row of setulae, T2 posterolaterally with more rows, T2 without tuft of long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 3.3x as wide as S4, roughly triangular shape, setulose with more setula at posterior margin. Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.8x), 2.5x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with few setulae along anterior margin, sensilla along margin.

Material examined: MALAYSIA. Kuala Lumpur: Kuala Lumpur Gardens (3°10'.12" N 101°42'0" E), 16.vi.1938, Pendlebury (♂ BMNH, 3215899); Kuala Lumpur (3°10'.12" N 101°42'0" E), 25.viii.1922, Pendlebury (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215900)   .

Distribution. Malaysia.

Remarks. Milichiella sp. B   is not named because the specimens are in poor condition and may represent a variety of another species. Specimens have been collected flying in hot sunshine, near a Croton   bush ( Euphorbiaceae   ).

Milichiella lacteiventris Malloch, 1931   (Pl. 9D, H)

Milichiella lacteiventris Malloch, 1931: 77   . AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Eidsvold. HT ♂ AMS. Lee et al. 1956: 322 [type information]; Sabrosky 1989: 557 [Australasian/Oceanian catalogue]; Brake 2000: 105 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum and male abdomen with T2 brown microtomentose except for silvery posterolateral corner, T3–4 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose posteromedial spot which shimmers silvery depending on the direction of light, T5 silvery microtomentose.

Description. Body length: 2 mm; wing length: 2.6 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 very weak, calypter hyaline to yellowish, halter black, legs black except for yellow tarsi; abdomen with T2 brown microtomentose except for silvery posterolateral corner, T3–4 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose posteromedial spot which shimmers silvery depending on the direction of light, T5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 1.9x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2+1 dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.8 pprn, 1+0.8 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.7); M-ratio is 1.9. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 1.9x as wide as S4, setulose with longer setae posterolateral (Pl. 9H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus about as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), 1.8x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 9D).

Holotype, ♂. AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Eidsvold (25°22'S, 151°4'E), ( AMS, 3217848; K 232315), in good condition but head missing. GoogleMaps  

Additional material examined: AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Eidsvold (25°22'S, 151°4'E) (2 ♂, ANIC, 3217849), [topotypes]; Gladstone (23°51'S, 151°15'E), 19.xii.1961, McAlpine (2$ AMS, 3217851) GoogleMaps   . Western Australia: Lulingui Station, near Derby, West Kimberley (17°19'.12'' S 123°37'59.88'' E), 26.viii.1929, Mackerras & Campbell (2# ANIC, 3217850)   .

Material of questionable identity: AUSTRALIA. Northern Territory: Palmerston, (13°19'59.88''S 130°18'0''E), 1–31.xii.1908, Lichtwardt (# DEI, 3218261); Standley Chasm, NW Jay Creek (23°52'.12'' S 133°27'0'' E), 4.x.1972, Liepa (2# ANIC, 3217853). Queensland: Ingham (18°34'59.88''S 146°12'0''E), 15.iii.1961, Harley (2# ANIC, 3217852) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Australia (Queensland, Western Australia,? Northern Territory).

Remarks. Males with completely silvery abdomens could possibly be varieties of M. lacteiventris   .

Pl. 9: A–B. Milichiella unicolor   . A. Surstylus; B. Male genitalia, lateral view. C–E. Male genitalia, lateral view. C. M. nigeriae nigeriae   ; D. M. lacteiventris   ; E. M. sp. D. F–I. Male sternite 4 and 5. F. M. unicolor   ; G. M. nigeriae nigeriae   ; H. M. lacteiventris   ; I. M. sp. D. Scale bar: 0.1.

Milichiella longiseta Hardy & Delfinado, 1980   (Pl.8C, G)

Milichiella longiseta Hardy & Delfinado, 1980: 365   . UNITED STATES. Hawaii: Oahu, Honolulu. HT ♂ BBM. Hardy & Delfinado, 1980: 365 [figs of head, male abdomen, terminalia, swarming]; Sabrosky 1989: 557 [Australasian/ Oceanian catalogue]; Nishida 1992: 111 [Hawaii]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 dc, calypter hyaline with yellow to brown margin and yellow hairs.

Description. Body length: 3.1–3.7 mm; wing length: 2.6 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere brown, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 very weak, calypter hyaline with yellow to brown margin and yellow hairs, halter black, legs black except for yellowish tarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.4x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6–7om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.8 prs and row of shorter setae, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.6); M-ratio is 1.7. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae, more on posterolateral margins of T2, tip of T5 with long setae. S5 more than 2x as wide and 2x as long as S4, roundish, posterior margin more angular, indented, slightly setulose (Pl. 8G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1–2 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), 2.2x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 8C).

Paratypes: UNITED STATES. Hawaii: Oahu, Hills behind Dillingham Air Force Base (21°25'59.88"N 157°58'.12"W), 1.xi.1970, Gagne (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215940–1); Honolulu (21°18'0"N 157°51'0"W), 8.iii.1951, Beardsley (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215942–3), 1–30.ix.1951 (4 ♂ BMNH, USNM, 3215944–7), 23.xi.1968, Delfinado (♂ USNM, 3215948), 5.iii.1955, Ikeda (2 ♂ USNM, 3215949–50) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined: MALAYSIA. Sabah: 17 km S Keningau (5°21'0"N 116°10'59.88"E), 31.viii.1983, Hevel & Steiner (3 ♂ USNM, 3215901–3) GoogleMaps   ; PALAU IS. Babelthuap I.: Ngerehelong (7°30'0"N 134°36'0"E), 6.v.1957, Sabrosky (7 ♂ USNM, 3215963–6, 3215968–70) GoogleMaps   . Koror I.: (7°19'59.88"N 134°30'0"E), 1.iv.1953, Beardsley (3 ♂ USNM, 3215971, 3215973–4) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Hawaii; Malaysia and Palau Islands.

Remarks. Specimens have been collected swarming at 11am–12 pm.

Milichiella melaleuca ( Loew, 1863)   , nomen dubium

Argyrites melaleuca Loew, 1863: 16   . SOUTH AFRICA. "Bloemfontain". T ♂ lost?.

Argyrites melaleucus   . Mik 1887: 180 [citation].

Milichiella melaleuca   . Becker 1907: 512, 536 [as a synonym of M. argentea   ]. Sabrosky 1980: 688 [Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Milichia melaleuca   . Bezzi 1908: 193 [ Eritrea].

Diagnosis. Differs from most congeners in the combination of white wing, black legs, and male T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Description according to original description. Male coloration and vestiture: basoflagellomere black; thorax black, wing white, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent.

Distribution. South Africa.

Remarks. The type of Milichiella melaleuca   is not in the ZMHU or MCZ and is probably lost. This species is not identifiable from the description, and is therefore a nomen dubium. Milichiella melaleuca   is possibly a senior synonym of M. argentiventris Hendel   , based on the white wings. It is not synonymous to M. argentea   because of the different wing colour (see remarks under that species).

Milichiella nigeriae nigeriae ( Duda, 1935)   (Pl.9C, G)

Milichia (Pareccoptomma) nigeriae Duda, 1935: 26   . NIGERIA. Gadau. LT ♂ BMNH [pres. des.]. Duda 1935: 26 [swarming near baobab].

Eccoptomma nigeriae   . Sabrosky 1958: 4 [combination].

Milichiella nigeriae   . Sabrosky 1980: 688 [combination, Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of 4 dc, 2 prsc, and male abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown spot in middle of T2 and brown posteromedial third or half of T3–4.

Description. Body length: 2.2–3.5 mm; wing length: 2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face black microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same except for big shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, scutellum slightly stronger brown microtomentose than mesonotum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline, halter black, legs black, hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown spot in middle of T2 and brown posteromedial third or half of T3–4.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 6.1x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.7 prs, 2+0.5 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.4); M-ratio is 1.5–1.7. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 silvery parts bare, brown parts setulose, lateral margins with long setae. S5 wider and longer than S4, roundish, posterior margin indented (Pl. 9G). Male genitalia with hypandrium long, apical seta on cercus longer than surstylus, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long than epandrium high, dilated apically (1.5x), slightly bent posteriorly, 2.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl.9).

Special characters: setae long and thin.

Lectotype, ♂: NIGERIA. Gadau (11°49'59.88"N 10°10'.12"E), 6.vi.1933, Lewis ( BMNH, 3217570), in good condition. The type series consists of 10 males from Nigeria, Gadau, 24.iv or 6.vi 1933 in BMNH. There are 52 specimens from this locality with this date in BMNH and 7 in ZMHU. Ten of the BMNH specimens bear Duda's identification label, with one labeled as “Typus” by Duda, the others as “Cotypus”. Six of the ZMHU specimens also bear Duda's identification label but without type designation. I here designate the specimen labeled as type as lectotype, with the specimens labeled as cotypes as paralectotypes. The other specimens are not types. The purpose of the designation is to fix the specimen that Duda intended as the primary type.  

Paralectotypes, same data as LT (8 ♂ BMNH, 3217571–8), 24.iv.1933 (♂ BMNH, 3217579)   .

Additional material examined: NIGERIA. Gadau (11°49'59.88"N 10°10'.12"E), 1933, Buxton & Lewis (4 ♂ BMNH, 3217622–5), 24.iv.1933, Lewis (3 ♂ BMNH, ZMHU, 3217621, 3217905–6), 6.vi.1933 (46 ♂ BMNH, ZMHU, 3217580–620, 3217907–11); Zaria: Between Maigana & Soba (10°58'59.88"N 8°4'.12"E), 1.iv.1973, Knutson & Deeming (8 ♂ USNM, 3217895–902)   ; Shika (8°37'59.88"N 10°34'59.88"E), 26.i.1975, Deeming (♂ USNM, 3217894) GoogleMaps   ; GHANA. Kwadaso , 17.iii.1969, Endroyi (♂ HNHM, 3218429)   .

Distribution. Ghana, Nigeria.

Remarks. Specimens have been collected swarming near Baobab.

Milichiella nigeriae acrosticalis ( Sabrosky, 1958)  

Eccoptomma acrosticalis Sabrosky, 1958: 2   . TANZANIA. Ngaruka, W Meru. HT ♂ SMNS. Syn. nov.

Milichiella acrosticalis   . Sabrosky 1980: 688 [combination, Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 104 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from M. nigeriae   only in the presence of 4 prsc.

Description. Body length: 3.3 mm; wing length: 2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same except for big shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline, halter black, legs black, hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown spot in middle of T2 and brown posteromedial third or half of T3–4.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3+1 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.7+0.4 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.8); Mratio is 1.7. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 silvery parts bare, brown parts setulose, lateral margins with long setae. S5 wider and longer than S4, roundish, posterior margin indented. Male genitalia with hypandrium long, long seta on cercus longer than surstylus, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long than epandrium high, dilated apically (1.5x), slightly bent posteriorly, 2.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 9C).

Special characters: setae long and thin.

Paratypes: TANZANIA. Ngaruka, W Meru (3°15'0"S 36°45'0"E), 29.i.–14.ii.1952 (2 ♂ USNM, 3217903–4) GoogleMaps   .

Additional material examined: KENYA. Eastern: Athi (1°27'0"S 36°58'59.88"E), 1–31.v.1946, van Someren (10 ♂ BMNH, 3217881–90) GoogleMaps   ; Nairobi area : 48.3 km NW Nairobi (1°16'59.88"S 36°49'59.88"E), 13.i.1968, Krombein (2 ♂ USNM, 3217892–3) GoogleMaps   ; MALAWI. Southern: Blantyre (15°46'.12" S 35°0'0" E), 1914, Davey (3 ♂ BMNH, 3217878–80); TANZANIA. Makoa (3°21'0"S 37°19'.12"E)   , 19.i.1959, Lindner (♂ USNM, 3217891)   ; Old Shinyanga (3°33'0"S 33°24'0"E), 15.i.1952, Burtt (32 ♂ BMNH, 3217626–38) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Eastern Africa.

Remarks. Paratypes of M. acrosticalis   were compared with M. nigeriae   and found to differ only in the number of prescutellar setae. As there are several cases of varying numbers of thoracic setae within one species in Milichiella   , M. acrosticalis   is synonymized with M. nigeriae   but retained as an eastern subspecies.

Milichiella sp. C  

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 3+1 dc, 3+1 prsc, male T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brownish spot near abdominal triangle.

Description. Body length: 2.7 mm; wing length: 2.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, pleuron same, except for shiny spots on anepisternum and katepisternum, scutellum brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter white, halter black, legs black; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose, except for brownish spot near abdominal triangle.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6–7om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3+1 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.7 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5); M-ratio is 1.8. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ?.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–4 posterior margin with 1 row of setulae. S5 about 1.1x as long as wide, about 1.8x as long and 2.0x as wide as S4, setulose with larger setae posteriorly (see Pl. 9F). Male genitalia same as M. unicolor   , 2 setae on subepandrial plate, surstylus ~0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.5x), 3.0x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (see Pl. 9B).

Special characters: nearly no setulae directly anterior to prsc and posterior dc.

Material examined: KENYA. Nairobi area : Nairobi, Zone H, HZS 3181 (1°16'59.88"S 36°49'59.88"E), 1–30.ix.1951, Edwards (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216172), 10.x.1951 (6 ♂ BMNH, 3216173–5); MOZAMBIQUE. Maputo: Maputo (25°58'.12" S 32°34'59.88" E), 1.iv.–31.vii.1914, Junod (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215923); SOUTH AFRICA. KwaZulu-Natal: Weenen (28°51'0"S 30°4'.12"E), 1–28.ii.1925, Thomasset (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216177); Transvaal, Lichtenburg, Brauns (♂ HNHM, 3218399); UGANDA. Southern: Mbarara (0°36'0"S 30°40'.12"E), 15.xi.1934, Edwards (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216176) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Eastern to southern Africa.

Milichiella sp. C   is possibly only a variety of M. nigeriae acrosticalis   with more extensive silvery microtomentum on the male tergites.

Milichiella nigripes Malloch, 1931   (Pl 6B, F)

Milichiella nigripes Malloch, 1931: 77   . AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Sydney. HT ♂ AMS. Lee et al. 1956: 326 [type information]; Sabrosky 1989: 557 [Australasian/Oceanian catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of shiny black mesonotum, dark calypter and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2–2.7 mm; wing length: 2.7–2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum shiny black, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter brown with dark margin, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for anterolateral corner of T2 and shiny black posterolateral corner of T5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.5x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5–6om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 2+0.8 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.7); M-ratio is 1.6. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 2 rows of scarce setulae; T5 shiny parts with long setae. S5 about 1.1x as long as wide, about 1.9x as long and 2.5x as wide as S4, setulose, posterior margin indented (Pl. 6F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, dilated posteroapically (1.5x), 1.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 6B).

Special characters: pair of 0.7 setae between postocellar setae and second 0.5 pair of setae on ocellar triangle.

Holotype, ♂: AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Sydney (33°52'60"S 151°13'0"E), 1–28.ii.1924 ( AMS, 3217834; K 232642), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratype, same data as HT (♂ USNM, 3215959)   .

Additional material examined: AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Sydney (33°52'60"S 151°13'0"E), 1–28.ii.1924 (2 ♂ AMS, 3217835–6); Bronte, near Sydney (33°55'S, 151°13'E), 24.iii.1967, McAlpine (4 ♂ AMS, BMNH, 3217837–40); Mosman (33°49'.12" S 151°13'59.88" E), 20.ii.1924, Mackerras (7 ♂ ANIC, 3217841–7)   .

Distribution. Australia (New South Wales).

Milichiella pseudodectes ( Séguy, 1933)   (Pl. 5A, E)

Milichia pseudodectes Séguy, 1933: 50   . Mozambique. Chiramba. LT ♂ MNHNP [pres. des.].

Milichiella pseudodectes   . Sabrosky 1980: 688 [combination, Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of 1 prsc, yellow bases and tips of tibiae, brown microtomentose male T2–5 except for shiny tip of T5.

Description. Body length: 1.8 mm; wing length:? mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plate slightly brown microtomentose, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face black microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum microtomentose (probably brown), scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter apparently brown with brown margin and yellow hairs, halter black, legs black except for yellow bases and tips of tibiae, and basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for shiny tip of T5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta slightly medioproclinate. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.4x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (4–5 om) and emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1? pprn, 1? prs,? keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent; M-ratio is 2.0. Fore femur normal setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2–4 posterior half setulose, T5 posterior 2/3 setulose. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.6x as long and 1.2x as wide as S4, setulose, posterior margin indented (Pl. 5E). Male genitalia with 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.9x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.9x), 5.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 5A).

Lectotype, ♂: MOZAMBIQUE. Sofala: Chiramba (16°55'.12" S 34°40'.12"E), mid January 1929, Lesne ( MNHNP, 3219071), specimen has been tainted with liquid so that the colours are not true any more, one wing and several legs missing, abdomen dissected. The number of type specimens is not stated in the original description. The single specimen present in MNHNP is here designated as lectotype.  

Distribution. Mozambique.

Milichiella quintargentea Brake   , sp. n.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum and male abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 silvery grey microtomentose except for brown anterior margin.

Description. Body length: 2.4 mm; wing length: 2.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose except for big shiny spot on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black, legs black except for brownish tarsi; abdomen with T1–4 brown microtomentose, T5 silvery grey microtomentose except for brown anterior margin. Female coloration and vestiture: halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny except for microtomentose anterior margin.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 5.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om, female: 4–5om) and narrow emargination (1–2om).

Thorax: 3+1 (var.: 2) dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.7 pprn, 1+0.6+0.6 prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5–3.3); M-ratio is 1.8–1.9. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 at least posterior half setulose. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.6x as long and 1.9x as wide as S4, heart shaped (see Pl. 9H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae; hypandrium long, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.6x), 2.3x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (see Pl. 6C).

Holotype, ♂: NIGERIA. Niger: Mokwa (9°19'.12" N 5°0'0" E), 15.vii.1977, Johnson ( USNM, 3217411), in good condition.  

Paratype: TANZANIA. Tanga: Tanga (5°7'.12" S 39°4'59.88" E), 21.i.1967, Nathanie (♂ CNC, 3217410)   .

Milichiella quintargentea   var.: INDIA. Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad (17°22'.12" N 78°25'59.88" E), 5.xi.1971, Pont (♂ BMNH, 3217409); PAKISTAN. Punjab: Faisalabad (31°25'.12" N 73°9'0" E), 1–31.vii.1939, Sohi (2♀ USNM, 3217417–8), 1–31.viii.1939 (2 ♂ USNM, 3217413–4), 1–31.viii.1939, Sapra (3 ♂ 1♀ USNM, 3217412, 3217415–6, 3217419)   ; SAUDI ARABIA. Asir: Maraba (17°46'1.2"N 42°30'21.6"E), 15.x.–30.xi.2004, Dawah (♂ NMWC, 3219182) GoogleMaps   ; UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. Al-Ajban (23°31'.12" N 54°19'59.88" E), 26.vi.–25.vii.2006, van Harten (1 ♂ 11♀ NMWC, 3219165–76), 2–22.xi.2006 (1 ♂ 2♀ NMWC, 3219177–9); Bitnah (25°11'25.08"N 56°14'8.16"E), 4.vii.–12.viii.2006, van Harten (2♀ NMWC, 3219180–1); Sharjah, Sharjah Desert Park (25°21'0"N 55°22'.12"E), 4–8.xii.2004, van Harten (♂ NMWC, 3219164), 20.xi.2004 (♂ NMWC, 3219163) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Nigeria and Tanzania, variety from   India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and United Arab States.

Etymology. The species name, quintargentea   , is an adjective derived from the Latin quintus = five and argenteus = silver, referring to the silvery fifth tergite of the males.

Remarks. Specimens from India, United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia with 2 dc. Milichiella quintargentea   has been reared from rotten yam tubers. The variety has   been collected on cattle dung and in yellow pan, light, and Malaise traps.

Milichiella solitaria ( Lamb, 1914)   (Pl. 6D, H)

Eccoptomma solitarium Lamb, 1914: 361   . SEYCHELLES. Mahé: Cascade Estate , 800 ft or above. LT ♂ BMNH [pres. des.].

Milichiella solitaria   . Sabrosky 1980: 688 [Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of subshiny black ocellar triangle, 3+1 dc, black tibiae, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 3.2 mm; wing length: 2.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum brown microtomentose (densely when viewed from anterior, otherwise weakly), pleuron same, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter light brown with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for brown tarsi, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta slightly medioreclinate. In males frons 2.8x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6–7om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3+1 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+2 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.6); M-ratio is 1.5. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with more than 3 lines of setae, T2 posterior margins with 3–4 rows of setulae, T3–4 with 2 rows, tip of T5 with long setae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.9x as long and 3.3x as wide as S4, setulose on posterior 3/4, heart-shaped (Pl. 6H). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.4x), 2.5x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 6D).

Special characters: nearly no setulae directly anterior to prsc and posterior dc.

Lectotype, ♂: SEYCHELLES. Mahé (4°40'.12" S 55°30'0" E), 1–30.ix.1908, Gardiner ( BMNH, 3216188), in good condition, abdomen dissected. Of the two syntypes cited in the original description, only one is apparently available; the other is lost. I here designate the single specimen in BMNH as lectotype.  

Material of questionable identity: GHANA. Ashanti: Obuasi (6°45'0"N 1°30'0"W), 23.xi.1907, Graham (♂ BMNH, 3216171); NIGERIA. Osun: Ile-Ife (7°3'0"N 4°30'0"E), 15.vii.1969, Medler (♀ BMNH, 3218088) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Seychelles,? Ghana,? Nigeria.

Remarks. One of the questionable specimens was caught on a palm ( Arecaceae   ).

Milichiella sp. D   (Pl 9E, I)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of 3+1 dc and male abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior margin of T4, and anterior third of T5, which get wider laterally; tip of T5 shiny.

Description. Body length: 3.0 mm; wing length: 2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face black microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter light brown with brown margin, halter black, legs black, basitarsi yellow; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterior margin of T4, and anterior third of T5, which get wider laterally; tip of T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.6 frontal setae, middle frontal seta slightly medioproclinate. In males frons 2.4x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.9x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and slight emargination (1om).

Thorax: 3+1 dc, 3? prsc, 2 pprn,? prs, 2+0.5 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.9); M-ratio is 2.1. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ?.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2–4 lines of setae, T2–5 brown parts setulose. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 1.6x as wide as S4, setulose (Pl. 9I). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus about as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.6x), 2.9x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 9E).

Material examined: UGANDA. Ankole, Kichwamba (0°43'N, 30°12'E), 1–5.v.1968, Spangler (♂ USNM, 3216584) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Uganda.

Remarks. Milichiella sp. D   is not named because the description is based on a single specimen that is similar to M. solitaria   and may be an aberrant specimen of this species.

Milichiella spinthera Hendel, 1913   (Pl. 8A, E)

Milichiella spinthera Hendel, 1913: 107   . TAIWAN. Pilam. HT ♂ DEI. Hennig 1941: 176 [Taiwan, type information]; Rohlfien & Ewald 1970: 444 [type information]; Morge 1976: 509 [figs of head, type habitus]; Sabrosky 1977: 274 [Oriental catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Milichiella spinithera   . Misspelling. Iwasa 1999: 30 [swarming around cattle houses, fig of male genitalia, sternites and photo of male dorsal habitus, Japan].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of black basoflagellomere, slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 1 prsc, white calypter, and male T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Description. Body length: 3.1 mm; wing length: 2.5 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule dark brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, with yellow veins, brown spot at apex of vein R1 very weak, calypter white, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 1 frontal seta (lower frontal seta probably lost), anterior frontal seta?. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (7om) and narrow emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1+0.7 pprn, 1 prs and row of 0.5 setae, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.5); M-ratio is 1.5. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of sparse setulae. S5 about 1.3x as long as wide, about 1.8x as long and 2.5x as wide as S4, setulose on posterior half (Pl. 8E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.7x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.9x), 3.2x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 8A).

Holotype, ♂: TAIWAN. Pi-nang [=Pilam] (23°30'0"N 121°0'0"E), 1–31.vii.1912, Sauter ( DEI, 3218259), in good condition, abdomen dissected. GoogleMaps  

Material of questionable identity: AUSTRALIA. Northern Territory: Port Darwin (12°25'.12" S 130°48'0" E), 1–28.ii.1909, Brunetti (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215897–8), 1–31.iii.1909 (2 ♂ BMNH, ANIC, 3215895–6); INDIA. Punjab: Abohar (30°10'59.88"N 74°13'59.88"E), 1–30.ix.1969 (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215916) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Taiwan,? Australia,? India.

Remarks. A specimen of questionable identity was collected on a date palm ( Arecaceae   ).

Milichiella sterkstrooma Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 8D, G)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of 2+1 dc, calypter with brown margin, black legs, and male abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery microtomentose anterior half of T3–5 which is wider laterally.

Description. Body length: 3.1 mm; wing length: 3.1 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates subshiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on anepisternum and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter hyaline with brown margin (var.: light brown), halter black, legs black, hind tarsus with yellow brush ( var. mid   basitarsus yellowish); abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose except for silvery microtomentose anterior half of T3–5 which is wider laterally (var.: visible parts of T3–4 brown microtomentose except for silvery anterolateral margin of T3). Sometimes it appears as if there are two brown spots at posterior margin of T3–5.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.6 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.5x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2+1 dc, 2 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.9 prs, 3 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (1.9); M-ratio is 2.1. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2–5 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose on brown parts. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 1.4x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose (Pl. 8G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.2x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (2.4x), 7.8x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with line of long setae near anterior margin (Pl. 8D).

Holotype, ♂: SOUTH AFRICA. Northern Province : Sterkstroom (24°0'0"N 29°30'0"E), 30.xii.1973, Dyce ( ANIC, 3217796), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT (3 ♂ ANIC, 3217794–5, 3217797)   .

Milichiella sterkstrooma   var.: SOUTH AFRICA. KwaZulu-Natal: Natal, Umtamvuna Nature Reserve , forest margin, 450 m (31°0'6"S, 30°10'38"E), 29.x.1990, Whittington (♂ NMP, 3219045) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. South Africa.

Etymology. The species name, sterkstrooma   , is an arbitrary combination of letters derived from the type locality and is a noun in apposition.

Milichiella sumptuosa de Meijere, 1911   (Pl. 3B, E)

Milichiella sumptuosa de Meijere, 1911: 426   . INDONESIA. Java: Srondolwetan [=Srondol], 7°05’S, 110°25’E. LT ♂ ZMAN [pres. des.]. De Meijere 1911: 426 [males swarming in front of cowshed], 1918: 353 [citation]; Sabrosky 1977: 274 [Oriental catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue]; Jong 2000: 209 [type information].

Milichiella smithi Aldrich, 1931: 399   . THAILAND. Bangkok. HT ♂ USNM. Sabrosky 1977: 274 [Oriental catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue]. Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of posteriorly silvery microtomentose mesonotum, silvery T2–5 and strongly setulose posterolateral corners of S5.

Description. Body length: 2.4–3.2 mm; wing length: 2.7–3.0 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates brown microtomentose narrow frontal plates grey microtomentose, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face brown or greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum anteriorly brown microtomentose, posteriorly silvery (var.: completely brown); scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter brown or yellow with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates brown microtomentose, wide frontal plates silvery grey microtomentose, thorax with mesonotum greyish to yellowish brown microtomentose, median line and scutellum more brownish, lateral sides more greyish, pleuron same except for shiny spots, calypter hyaline with yellow margin, halter yellow, abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2 frontal setae, anterior frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.1–2.6x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.7x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5–6om) and emargination (male: 1om, female 3om).

Thorax: 2–5 (female: 2) dc, 2 (female: 1) prsc, 1 pprn, 1 prs and row of 0.5 setae (female:1 prs), 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.2); M-ratio is 2.2–2.4. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2 posterior margin with 2 rows of scarce setulae, T3–5 with one row of setulae. S5 1.6 x as long as wide, 2.1x as long and 1.9x as wide as S4, strongly setulose with long setae at posterolateral corners (Pl. 3E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae; hypandrium long, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.3x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), very narrow, 10x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface without setulae (Pl. 3B).

Milichiella sumptuosa   lectotype, ♂: INDONESIA. Java: Semarang, Srondolwetan [=Srondol] (7°4'.12" S 110°24'0" E), 1–31.viii.1909, Jacobson (ZMAN, 3215876; DIPT.0728.1), in good condition. There is a series of 15 ST of M. sumptuosa   at ZMAN, of which one bears de Meijere's identification label with ' Typ' added in his handwriting. I here designate this specimen as   lectotype to fix the specimen that de Meijere had intended as the primary type.

Milichiella sumptuosa   paralectotypes, same data as LT (14 ♂ ZMAN, 3215877–87)   .

Milichiella smithi   holotype, ♂: THAILAND. Krung Thep Mahanakhon: Makasan, Bangkok (13°43'59.88"N 100°30'0"E), 1928, Smith ( USNM, 3218317; 441719), either 23. Apr. or 27. Oct. 1928; most setae and most legs missing, abdomen dissected GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella smithi   paratypes, same data as HT but 23.iv.1928 (4 ♂ USNM, 3215863–6), 27.x.1928 (17 ♂ USNM, 3215845–6, 3215848–62)   .

Additional material examined: BANGLADESH. Sylhet, Major Hall (24°31'59.88"N 91°52'.12"E), 28.iv.2005 (4 ♂ BMNH, 3215809–12); INDIA. Assam: Doom Dooma (27°34'.12" N 95°34'.12"E)   , 12.v.1943, Hardy (6 ♂ USNM, 3215820–4, 3215893), 23.v.1943 (10 ♂ USNM, 3215825–31, 3216091–3)   ; Doom Dooma, 20.9 km NE (27°34'.12" N 95°34'.12"E), 2.xii.1943, Hardy (4 ♂ USNM, 3215832–4, 3215892). Delhi: New Delhi (28°37'.12" N 77°13'.12"E), 1–31.x.1958, Krauss (2 ♂ USNM, BMNH, 3215818, 3215894). Tamil Nadu: Cinchona , Anamalai Hills , 1067 m (10°18'N, 77°0'E), 1.v.1956 – 31.v.1967, Nathan (3 ♂ USNM, 3215869–71) GoogleMaps   ; Yercaud, Shevaroy Hills, 1372 m (11°46'.12" N 78°13'59.88" E), 1–31.iii.1955, Nathan (2 ♂ USNM, 3215872–3). West Bengal: Calcutta (22°30'0"N 88°19'59.88"E), 25.ii.1907 (♂ MNHNP, 3219085), 6–7.vii.1907, N. A. (♂ MNHNP, 3219084), 1.ii.1908, N. A. (10 ♂ ZMAN, 3215890–1) GoogleMaps   ; INDONESIA. Java: Cigombong (7°0'0"S 107°0'0"E), 30.iv.1980, Norris (9 ♂ ANIC, 3217822–30) GoogleMaps   ; Ciherang (6°36'0"S 106°58'59.88"E), 1.v.1980, Norris (2 ♂ ANIC, 3217832–3) GoogleMaps   ; Legok (6°48'0"S 107°58'59.88"E), 1.v.1980, Norris (♂ ANIC, 3217831) GoogleMaps   ; Jawa Barat: Bogor PST (6°34'.12" S 106°45'0" E), 14.v.1980, Norris (13 ♂ ANIC, 3217809–21); Sumatra: Buo, Pad. Bev. (0°28'.12" S 100°46'.12"E), 1914, Jacobson (12 ♂ ZMAN, 3215888–9)   ; LAOS. Annam (♂ HNHM, 3218400)   ; MALAYSIA. Perak-Pahang divide, F.M.S., 1280 m (4°15'0"N 101°54'0"E), 7.vi.1923, Pendlebury (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215842–3) GoogleMaps   ; Pinang: Sungri Pinang Hills (5°19'59.88"N 100°19'59.88"E), 31.iii.1957, Pagden (2 ♂ BMNH, 3215806–7) GoogleMaps   ; Sungri Pinang Hills, Rawang Kawah (5°19'59.88"N 100°19'59.88"E), 25.viii.1956, Pagden (♂ BMNH, 3215808) GoogleMaps   : NEPAL. Central: Kathmandu , 1341 m (27°42'0"N 85°19'.12"E), 28.iv.1967, Can. Nepal Exped. (9♀ CNC, 3217800–8); Kathmandu, Balaju, 1372 m (27°43'59.88"N 85°18'0"E), 5.v.1967, Can. Nepal Exped. (♂ CNC, 3217799); Doti [?], 1280 m (29°16'.12" N 80°58'59.88" E), 2.v.1967, Ecker-Racz [?] (♂ USNM, 3215867) GoogleMaps   ; Taplejung, Dobhan, River Maewa , north shore, 1006 m (27°30'0"N 85°3'0"E), 31.i.1962, Coe (7 ♂ BMNH, 3215835–41) GoogleMaps   ; PAKISTAN. Karakoram Mts. valley of Indus, Chalt Nagar village , 1750 m (36°15'N, 74°19'E), 19–20.ix.1998, Gyualai & Garai (4 ♂ 5♀ HNHM, 3218403–11) GoogleMaps   ; PHILIPPINES. Negros Occidental: Ma-ao (10°28'59.88"N 122°58'59.88"E), 22.vi.1906, Banks (4 ♂ BMNH, 3215813–6) GoogleMaps   ; THAILAND. Chiang Mai: Chiang Dao , ~ 5 km NW Chiang Dao, 425 m (19°23'N, 98°56'E), 6.v.1969, Burton (♂ USNM, 3215875) GoogleMaps   ; Meung, Nakronrajasrima , 5–7.vii.1959, Manop [?] (♂ USNM, 3215874)   ; Talum (15°0'0"N 100°0'0"E), 21.i.1902, Robinson & Annandale (♂ BMNH, 3215817) GoogleMaps   ; Tham Sakoen NP (19°23'N, 100°38'E), 26.xi.2003, Földváry & Szappanos (No. 17) (♂ HNHM, 3218401) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella sumptuosa   var.: MALAYSIA. Sarawak: 20 km SE Sebuyau, Tuba (1°31'.12" N 110°55'59.88" E), 15–22.i.1979, Gaerdenfors et al. (♂ USNM, 3215795)   .

Distribution: India and Nepal to Philippines, south to Java.

Remarks. One male from Borneo with completely brown microtomentose mesonotum.

I here synonymize Milichiella smithi Aldrich   with M. sumptuosa   based on the comparison of external characters and male terminalia between the type series.

Milichiella sumptuosa   was collected swarming on bugs, in front of cowsheds and under trees in the sun, collected over and along creeks in forest and at “lcol.-light”.

Milichiella tiefii ( Mik, 1887)   (Pl. 7A, E)

Lobioptera tiefii Mik, 1887: 178   . Austria. Kärnten: Oberfederaun. LT ♂ NMW [pres. des.]. Mik 1887: 178 [on and swarming near stack of logs of old beech branches]; Brake 2009 [type information].

Stenoporomyia tiefii   . Becker 1905: 238 [Palaearctic catalogue].

Lobioptera tiefi   . Misspelling. Becker 1907: 511 [syn. to M. argyrogastra   ].

Milichiella tiefi   . Misspelling. Becker, 1905: 237; Aldrich, 1931: 398.

Milichiella argrogastra   . Misidentification. Becker 1907: 534 [diagnosis].

Milichiella argyrogaster   . Misidentification. Hennig 1937: 26 [diagnosis, larvae in decaying wood, males flying in hot sunny weather near cut old Populus   logs and females running on these, Russia; Austria]; Stackelberg 1958: 186 [ Russia: North European territory]; Papp 1978: 17 [ Hungary], 1984: 113 [Palaearctic catalogue]; Gregor 1986: 184 [catalogue, Slovakia], 1987: 262 [checklist, Slovakia]; Ferrar 1987: 223 [citation]; Roháček & Gregor 1984: 17 [ Slovakia]; Roháček 1995: [biology, development, description of egg, larva and puparium]; Carles-Tolrá & Báez 2002: 174 [catalogue, Spain].

Milichiella argylogaster   . Misspelling. Iwasa 1999: 30 [figs of male genitalia, sternites and photo of male dorsal habitus, Japan].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, 1 pprn, and male abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose anterior 2/3 of T2.

Description. Body length: 2.5–3 mm; wing length: 2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter brown with dark margin, halter black, legs black except for brown tarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose except for brown microtomentose anterior 2/3 of T2, change from brown to silvery gradually.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.6 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 1.9x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 3.2x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 1+0.8 prs and row of shorter setae, 3 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2); M-ratio is 2.2. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2–5 lines of setae, T2 posterior margin with 3–4 rows of setulae, T3–4 posterior margins with 1 row of setulae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 1.8x as wide as S4, nearly heart shaped, setulose (Pl. 7E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 1.1x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, slightly dilated apically (2.0x), 6.6x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with line of long setae near anterior margin (Pl. 7A).

Special characters: palpus ventrally with long setae (longer than palpus wide).

Lectotype, ♂: AUSTRIA. Kärnten: Oberfederaun (46°34'59.88"N 13°49'.12"E), 13.vi.1884, Tief ( NMW, 3218327), in good condition.  

Paralectotypes, same data as LT (2 ♂ NMW, 3218328–9)   .

Additional material examined: ITALY. Bolzano: Bolzano (46°31'.12" N 11°22'.12"E), 11.vi.1871, Loew (♂ ZMHU, 3217408), 11.vi.1873 (♂ ZMHU, 3217407), 12.vi.1873 (♂ ZMHU, 3217406)   .

Distribution. Spain to Slowakia, northern european Russia and Japan.

Remarks. The original description of Milichiella tiefii   is based on 3 males in NMW. I here designate one as the lectotype. Milichiella tiefii   is a valid species and not synonymous with M. argyrogaster   . The synonymy by Becker was based on 3 specimens in Loew's collection he identified as M. argyrogaster   . These are in fact M. tiefii   . Comparison of the syntypes of M. tiefii   and the probable type of M. argyrogaster   shows they are different species.

Milichiella tosi Becker, 1907  

Milichiella tosi Becker, 1907: 536   . SEYCHELLES. T ♂ lost?. Sabrosky 1980: 688 [Afrotropical catalogue].

Description according to Becker. Male coloration and vestiture: frons and orbital plates microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose?, wing hyaline, calypter white, halter black, legs blackbrown; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2? orbital and 2 frontal setae.

Thorax: 2 dc. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M weakly convergent; M-ratio is 1.5.

Distribution. Seychelles.

Remarks. The type specimen(s) was collected on the Seychelles and identified by Giglio-Tos as Milichiella argentea   . Becker did not see the specimen(s) himself, but had Bezzi check it. The genus Milichiella   was described by Giglio-Tos based on this specimen(s). The Turin collection is not accessible in the near future and the specimens are not in the Milano collection. It is probable that the type (s) are lost. Milichiella tosi   differs from the other two species with a silvery abdomen found on the Seychelles in the white calypter. I have seen one specimen from Mahé with white calypter; however, it differs from the description of Milichiella tosi   in having shiny black orbital plates and yellow fore and hind basitarsi.

Milichiella triangula Brake   , sp. n. (Pl 6A, E)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 dc, 2 pprn, calypter hyaline or yellowish, tibiae black, silvery microtomentose male T2–5, and triangular shape of male S5.

Description. Body length: 3.5 mm; wing length: 2.9 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and upper orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron same, except for shiny spots on an- and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins light brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter hyaline or yellowish, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi, hind basitarsus darker; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.6 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.3x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.2x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.8 pprn, 1+0.8+0.5 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.2); M-ratio is 1.6. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 posterior margin with 1 row of scarce setulae. S5 1.2 x as long as wide, 1.7–1.8x as long and 2.3–3.2x as wide as S4; shape triangular with posterior margin indented (Pl. 6E). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus ~0.7x as long as epandrium high, dilated apically (1.4–1.7), 2.9–3.1x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 6A).

Holotype, ♂: SRI LANKA. North Central: Anuradhapura Distr. , 9.7 km S Tantirimalai, 61 m (8°34'.12" N 80°15'0" E), 31.x.1976, Dietz, Karunaratne & Balasooriya ( USNM, 3215914), in good condition.  

Paratypes, same data as HT (5 ♂ USNM, 3215909–13)   ; NIGERIA. Kaduna: Zaria, Dumbi Wood (11°3'57.6"N 7°42'0"E), 30.iii.1973, Knutson (♂ USNM, 3215938) GoogleMaps   ; Kwara: Ilorin (10°52'59.88"N 4°1'.12"E), 1912, Scott-Macfie (3 ♂ BMNH, 3215924–6)   .

Material of questionable identity: ANGOLA. Namibe: Bruco (15°7'.12" S 13°10'59.88" E), 26.ii.–2.iii.1972 (♂ BMNH, 3215922)   .

Distribution. Nigeria, Sri Lanka,? Angola.

Etymology. The species name, triangula   , is an adjective derived from the Latin triangulus = triangular and refers to the triangular shape of male S5.

Milichiella ugandae Brake   , sp. n. (Pl. 5B, F)

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of slightly brown microtomentose mesonotum, calypter light brown with brown margin, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.6 mm; wing length: 2.6–2.7 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons shiny or subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face brown microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum slightly brown microtomentose, scutellum and pleuron brown microtomentose, except for shiny spots on anepisternum and katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter light brown with brown margin, halter black, legs black except for brown basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.5x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.3x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with notch (5om) and narrow emargination (1om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 1 prsc, 1 pprn, 2 prs, 2+0.7 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (~2.8); M-ratio is 2.6. Fore femur densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner mostly with 2 lines of setae but triangular extension with more setae, T2–5 posterior margins with 2 rows of scattered relatively long setulae. S5 1.3 x as long as wide, 1.8x as long and 2.2x as wide as S4, posterior margin indented, setulose (Pl. 5F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus as long as longest epandrial seta, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus about as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (2.3x), apex slightly flat, 6.1x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with line of long setae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 5B).

Special characters: ocellar triangle long and narrow, reaching anterior third of frons.

Holotype, ♂: UGANDA. Ankole , Kichwamba (0°43'N, 30°12'E), 1–5.v.1968, Spangler ( USNM, 3216121), in good condition. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes, same data as HT but 23–29.iv.1968 (2 ♂ USNM, 3216119–20); UGANDA. Central : Entebbe , 1160 m (0°4'.12" N 32°27'0" E), 1–30.iv.1973, Falke (14 ♂ CNC, 3217128–31, 3217133, 3217135, 3217137–40, 3217142, 3217144–6); Katona , Mujenje , 1–30.ix.1913 (4 ♂ HNHM, 3218437–40); Ruwenzori Range, Namwamba Valley, 3048 m (0°4'59.88"N 30°10'.12"E), 1.xii.1934 – 31.i.1935, Jackson (♂ BMNH, 3216112). Western: Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe, 1372 m (0°13'59.88"N 30°1'.12"E), 1.xii.1934 – 31.i.1935, Edwards (♂ BMNH, 3216113)   .

Additional material examined: GHANA. Ashanti: Obuasi (6°45'0"N 1°30'0"W), 24.xi.1906, Graham (♂ BMNH, 3216118) GoogleMaps   ; Kumasi (6°40'60"N 1°37'0"W), 1–25.vi.1965, Endroyi (♂ HNHM, 3218428) GoogleMaps   ; SOUTH AFRICA. KwaZulu-Natal: Natal, Salt Rock , 10 m (29°29'S, 31°15'E), 5–12.x.1991, Londt (♂ NMP, 3219063) GoogleMaps   ; TANZANIA. Kimamba (6°46'48"S 37°7'48"E), 25.xi.1938, Saska (2 ♂ HNHM, 3218433–4) GoogleMaps   ; Marangu (3°16'59.88"S 37°31'.12"E), 1–20.iii.1959, Lindner (♂ USNM, 3216122)   .

Milichiella ugandae   var. 1: GHANA. Kumasi-Kwadaso (6°42'N, 1°39'W), 3–28.iii.1997, Scheibelreiter (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216114–5) GoogleMaps   ; UGANDA. Bwamba (0°49'59.88"N 30°3'0"E), 1.vii.–31.viii.1946, van Someren (2 ♂ BMNH, 3216116–7) GoogleMaps   ; ZIMBABWE. N. Vumba (19°4'59.88"S 32°45'0"E), 3.iv.1964 (6 ♂ NMP, 3219055, 3219057, 3219062), 14.vi.1964, Cookson (6 ♂ NMP, 3219053–4, 3219058, 3219060–1), 17.vi.1964 (♂ NMP, 3219056), 23.vi.1964 (4 ♂ NMP, 3219050–2, 3219059) GoogleMaps   .

Milichiella ugandae   var. 2: CAMEROON. Centre-Sud: N Kolbisson, near Yaoundé (3°51'0"N 11°34'59.88"E), 10.xi.1977, Tsacas (♂ MNHNP, 3219096) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Eastern Africa, Ghana, and South Africa, varieties from Zimbabwe and Cameroon.

Etymology. The species name, ugandae   , is a genitive noun derived from the type locality.

Remarks. Milichiella ugandae   var. 1 differs from the type series in a slightly narrower surstylus with round apex. Variety 2 has the same surstylus as var. 1 and many more setae at posterior margin of S5. Milichiella ugandae   var. 1 has been collected in Malaise traps and var. 2 on palm trees ( Arecaceae   ).

Milichiella unicolor ( de Meijere, 1906)   (Pl. 9A, B, F)

Milichia unicolor de Meijere, 1906: 333   . CAMEROON. Victoria, 4°01’N, 9°12’E. LT ♀ ZMAN [pres. des.]. De Meijere 1906: 333 [pollinating Abrame angustum L. J.]; Bezzi 1908: 193 [Eritrea]; Rohlfien & Ewald 1970: 445 [2 ST in DEI]; Jong 2000: 225 [type information].

Milichiella unicolor   . Becker 1907: 536 [diagnosis]; de Meijere 1914: 254 [short description of female, Java], 1918: 353 [citation]; Sabrosky 1977: 274 [Oriental catalogue], 1980: 688 [Afrotropical catalogue]; Brake 2000: 106 [world catalogue].

Milichiella tosi   . Misidentification. Cuthbertson 1936: 56 [swarming behaviour, Zimbabwe].

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose ocellar triangle and mesonotum as well as 2+1 dc, 2 prsc, and silvery microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length: 2.3–3.4 mm; wing length: 2.3–2.6 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons brown, ocellar triangle and orbital plates same, lunule brown, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose with varying degree of grey anteriorly and laterally, scutellum and pleuron same, wing hyaline, veins yellow, brown spot at apex of vein R1 absent, calypter white, halter black, legs black except for yellow tip of fore and mid tibia, and bases of all tarsi, fore and hind tarsus with yellow brush; abdomen with T2–5 silvery microtomentose. Female coloration and vestiture: thorax with mesonotum greyish brown microtomentose, scutellum same, pleuron greyish, halter yellow, abdomen with T2–4 brown microtomentose, T5 shiny.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.0–2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.0x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (7–8om, female: 5–6om) and emargination (3–4om).

Thorax: 2+1 dc, 2 prsc, 1+0.7 pprn, 1+0.6+0.5 (female: 1+0.5) prs, 2 keps setae, posterior prsc as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (2.7); M-ratio is 1.3. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 with scattered small setulae at posterior margin (2–3 rows). S5 about 1.3x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 1.5x as wide as S4, with scattered setulae (Pl. 9F). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae; hypandrium long, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6–0.8x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.5–1.8x), 2.7–3.3x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (Pl. 9A, B).

Lectotype, ♀: CAMEROON. Victoria (4°1'N, 9°12'E), 1905, Winkler (ZMAN, 3216096; DIPT.0729.1), in good condition, head slightly deformed. The female ST deposited in ZMAN bears de Meijere's identification label with the word “Type” in his handwriting. This specimen is here designated as the lectotype. The purpose of the designation is to fix as primary type the specimen that de Meijere intended. GoogleMaps  

Paralectotypes, same data as LT (2♀ DEI, 3218287–8)   .

Additional material examined (BMNH unless otherwise indicated): CONGO. Lake Tanganyika, Usumbura (6°0'0"S 29°30'0"E), 26.v.1927, Bois (2 ♂, 3216067–8) GoogleMaps   ; GHANA. Ashanti: Obuasi (6°45'0"N 1°30'0"W), 31.v.1907, Graham (♂, 3216066). East : Accra , Legon (5°39'0"N 0°10'59.88"W), 19.iii.1969, Richards (♀, 3216084); Kumasi (6°40'60"N 1°37'0"W), 23.vi.1947, Bowden (4 ♂ NMP, 3219046), 24.vi.1967, Endroyi (♂ HNHM, 3218430); Kumasi-Kwadaso (6°42'N, 1°39'W), 3–28.iii.1997, Scheibelreiter (10♀, 3216074–83) GoogleMaps   ; MADAGASCAR. Toliara [=Tulear]: Amboasary, Berenty Reserve (25°1'.12" S 46°22'59.88" E), 6–16.v.1983, Noyes & Day (♀, 3216071); NIGERIA. Osun: Ile-Ife (7°3'0"N 4°30'0"E), 19.xii.1968, Medler (♀, 3216070), 25.i.1970 (♂ USNM, 3216090). Oyo: Ibadan (7°22'59.88"N 3°55'59.88"E), 16.v.1969, Medler (♂, 3216069). Zaria: Between Maigana & Soba (10°58'59.88"N 8°4'.12"E), 1.iv.1973, Knutson & Deeming (3 ♂ USNM, 3216087–9) GoogleMaps   ; SIERRA LEONE. Western Area: Freetown (8°30'0"N 13°16'59.88"W), 30.ix.1933, Lewis (14 ♂, 3216052–65) GoogleMaps   ; TANZANIA. Old Shinyanga (3°33'0"S 33°24'0"E), 15.i.1952, Burtt (2 ♂, 3216072–3) GoogleMaps   ; UGANDA. Central: Kampala, Mulago (0°19'.12" N 32°34'59.88" E), 1.ix.1936, Gibbins (4 ♂, 3216048–51), 30.ix.1936 (6 ♂ 40♀, 3216000–45). Western : Kigezi Distr. , Ruhiza , Impenetrable Forest , 1220 m (1°0'0"S 29°40'.12"E), 1–10.vi.1972, Babyetagara (♂ CNC, 3217792); Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe, 1372 m (0°13'59.88"N 30°1'.12"E), 1.xii.1934 – 31.i.1935, Edwards (2 ♂, 3216046–7)   ; ZIMBABWE. Harare: Harare [= Salisbury ] (17°49'59.88"S 31°3'0"E), 10.xi.1934, Cuthbertson (2 ♂ BMNH, ZMHU, 3216085–6) GoogleMaps   .

Material of questionable identity (all HNHM): GHANA. Kumasi (6°40'60"N 1°37'0"W), 8.ii.1966, Endroyi (♂, 3218431); Kwadaso, 10–24.vii.1965, Endroyi (♂, 3218432), 14.vii.1969 (♂, 3218435) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution: Sierra Leone to Uganda, south to Zimbabwe and Madagascar.

Remarks. Milichiella unicolor   was collected on leaves, swarming in gardens and in sunshine near bamboo about 8 m in the air, at light, and in Malaise traps. It has been bred from decaying banana skins. The type specimens were collected pollinating " Abrame angustum L. J.". There is a Malvaceae   species called Abroma augusta L. However   , this species occurs in Asia and Australia, not in Africa, and it seems unlikely that a milichiid would pollinate Abroma augusta   , because the flowers are very big. Therefore the plant was probably misidentified.

Milichiella sp. E  

Diagnosis. Differs from congeners in the combination of brown microtomentose mesonotum, 2 or more prs, hyaline calypter with light margin, and brown microtomentose male T2–5.

Description. Body length:? mm; wing length: 2.8 mm. Male coloration and vestiture: frons subshiny black, ocellar triangle and orbital plates shiny black, lunule black, basoflagellomere black, face greyish microtomentose, palpus black; thorax with mesonotum brown microtomentose, scutellum same, pleuron slightly more dark and greyish microtomentose with shiny Desmometopa m-nigrum   like spot on anepisternum and spot on katepisternum, wing hyaline, veins brown, brown spot at apex of vein R1 weak, calypter hyaline with light margin, halter black, legs black except for yellow basitarsi; abdomen with T2–5 brown microtomentose.

Head: frons with 2 orbital and 2+0.5 frontal setae, middle frontal seta medioclinate. In males frons 2.2x as wide at posterior margin than at base of antenna, arista about 4.9x as long as basoflagellomere width, pubescence on arista very short, posterior eye margin with wide notch (6om) and emargination (2om).

Thorax: 2 dc, 2 prsc, 2 pprn, 1+0.8+0.5 prs, 2+0.6 keps setae, posterior prsc about as long as posterior dc, seta between posterior prsc and posterior dc present. Wing with veins R 4+5 and M convergent (3.0); M-ratio is 1.7. Fore femur slightly more densely setulose, tibial organ absent.

Male abdomen: posteromedial triangular projection of T1 into T2 present. Tergal chaetotaxy: T2 anterolateral corner with 2–3 lines of setae, T2–5 setulose. S5 1.1 x as long as wide, 1.7x as long and 2.0x as wide as S4, roundish shape, setulose (similar to Pl. 9G). Male genitalia with apical seta on cercus longer than epandrial setae, hypandrium long, 1 seta on subepandrial plate, surstylus 0.6x as long as epandrium high, bent posteriorly, dilated apically (1.7x), 2.4x as long as wide, structure of lateral surface smooth, medial surface with 3–5 setulae along anterior margin moving medially basally (see Pl. 8D).

Material examined: SRI LANKA. North Central: Anuradhapura Distr., Padaviya archeological site, 60 m (8°48'0"N 80°45'0"E), 11–14.x.1977, Krombein et al. (♂ USNM, 3217449) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. Sri Lanka.

Remarks. The species is not named because the single male might be an aberrant specimen of Milichiella quintargentea   .

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

NMP

National Museum (Prague)

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

MNHNP

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay

DEI

Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

ZMHU

Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universitaet

ZMAN

Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Zoologisch Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

NMWC

National Museum of Wales

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tephritidae

Genus

Tephritis

Loc

Tephritis argentea

Brake, Irina 2009
2009
Loc

Milichiella spinithera

Iwasa, M. 1999: 30
1999
Loc

Milichiella argylogaster

Iwasa, M. 1999: 30
1999
Loc

Milichiella longiseta

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Nishida, G. M. 1992: 111
Sabrosky, C. W. 1989: 557
Hardy, D. E. & Delfinado, M. D. 1980: 365
Hardy, D. E. & Delfinado, M. D. 1980: 365
1980
Loc

Milichiella nigeriae

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
1980
Loc

Milichiella acrosticalis

Brake, I. 2000: 104
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
1980
Loc

Milichiella pseudodectes

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
1980
Loc

Milichiella solitaria

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
1980
Loc

Milichiella argentiventria

Steyskal, G. C. & El-Bialy, S. 1967: 34
1967
Loc

Eccoptomma nigeriae

Sabrosky, C. W. 1958: 4
1958
Loc

Eccoptomma acrosticalis

Sabrosky, C. W. 1958: 2
1958
Loc

Milichiella bakeri

Hennig, W. 1939: 85
1939
Loc

Carles-Tolra, M. & Baez, M. 2002: 174
Ferrar, P. 1987: 223
Gregor, F. 1986: 184
Rohacek, J. & Gregor, F. 1984: 17
Papp, L. 1978: 17
Stackelberg, A. A. 1958: 186
Hennig, W. 1937: 26
1937
Loc

Eccoptomma freyi

Carles-Tolra, M. & Baez, M. 2002: 174
Deeming, J. C. & Baez, M. 1985: 66
Deeming, J. C. & Baez, M. 1985: 66
Papp, L. 1984: 112
Frey, R. 1958: 62
Hennig, W. 1937: 28
Hendel, F. 1936: 125
1936
Loc

Milichiella tosi

Cuthbertson, A. 1936: 56
1936
Loc

Milichia (Pareccoptomma) nigeriae

Duda, O. 1935: 26
Duda, O. 1935: 26
1935
Loc

Milichiella argyrogastra

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Papp, L. 1984: 113
Seguy, E. 1934: 636
1934
Loc

Milichia pseudodectes Séguy, 1933: 50

Seguy, E. 1933: 50
1933
Loc

Milichiella argentiventris

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Deeming, J. C. 1998: 154
Papp, L. 1984: 113
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
Steyskal, G. C. 1966: 123
Frey, R. 1958: 50
Hennig, W. 1937: 26
Hendel, F. 1931: 72
1931
Loc

Milichiella argyropasta

Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 398
1931
Loc

Milichiella bakeri

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 273
Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 398
1931
Loc

Milichiella circularis

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Nishida, G. M. 1992: 111
Sabrosky, C. W. 1989: 557
Hardy, D. E. & Delfinado, M. D. 1980: 363
Bianchi, F. A. 1967: 323
Krauss, N. L. H. 1945: 317
Bryan, E. H., Jr. 1934: 441
Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 397
Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 397
1931
Loc

Milichia circularis

Williams, F. X. 1931: 308
1931
Loc

Milichiella lacteiventris

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Sabrosky, C. W. 1989: 557
Lee, D. & Crust, M. & Sabrosky, C. W. 1956: 322
Malloch, J. R. 1931: 77
1931
Loc

Milichiella nigripes

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1989: 557
Lee, D. & Crust, M. & Sabrosky, C. W. 1956: 326
Malloch, J. R. 1931: 77
1931
Loc

Milichiella smithi

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 274
Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 399
1931
Loc

Milichiella circularis

Illingworth, J. F. 1929: 234
Illingworth, J. F. 1929: 234
1929
Loc

Milichiella sp.

Swezey, O. H. 1926: 378
1926
Loc

Eccoptomma solitarium

Lamb, C. G. 1914: 361
1914
Loc

Milichiella spinthera

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 274
Morge, G. 1976: 509
Rohlfien, K. & Ewald, B. 1970: 444
Hennig, W. 1941: 176
Hendel, F. 1913: 107
1913
Loc

Milichiella javana

Brake, I. 2000: 105
Jong, H. 2000: 102
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 273
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1918: 353
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1911: 427
1911
Loc

Milichiella sumptuosa

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Jong, H. 2000: 209
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 274
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1911: 426
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1911: 426
1911
Loc

Milichiella bimaculata

Becker, T. 1908: 163
Becker, T. 1908: 163
1908
Loc

Milichia melaleuca

Bezzi, M. 1908: 193
1908
Loc

Milichiella argentea

Brake, I. 2000: 104
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 273
Bezzi, M. 1908: 193
Becker, T. 1907: 511
1907
Loc

Milichiella bimaculata

Carles-Tolra, M. & Baez, M. 2002: 174
Brake, I. 2000: 105
Deeming, J. C. & Baez, M. 1985: 66
Papp, L. 1984: 113
Hennig, W. 1937: 27
Frey, R. 1936: 124
Becker, T. 1907: 534
Becker, T. 1907: 34
1907
Loc

Milichiella melaleuca

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
Becker, T. 1907: 512
1907
Loc

Lobioptera tiefi

Becker, T. 1907: 511
1907
Loc

Milichiella argrogastra

Becker, T. 1907: 534
1907
Loc

Milichiella tosi

Sabrosky, C. W. 1980: 688
Becker, T. 1907: 536
1907
Loc

Brake, I. 2000: 106
Sabrosky, C. W. 1977: 274
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1914: 254
Becker, T. 1907: 536
1907
Loc

Milichia unicolor

Jong, H. 2000: 225
Rohlfien, K. & Ewald, B. 1970: 445
Bezzi, M. 1908: 193
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1906: 333
de Meijere, J. C. H. 1906: 333
1906
Loc

Stenoporomyia tiefii

Becker, T. 1905: 238
1905
Loc

Milichiella tiefi

Aldrich, J. M. 1931: 398
Becker, T. 1905: 237
1905
Loc

Lobioptera argentea

Mik, J. 1887: 180
1887
Loc

Argyrites melaleucus

Mik, J. 1887: 180
1887
Loc

Lobioptera tiefii

Mik, J. 1887: 178
Mik, J. 1887: 178
1887
Loc

Milichia argyrogaster

Perris, E. 1876: 208
Perris, E. 1876: 208
1876
Loc

Argyrites melaleuca

Loew, H. 1863: 16
1863
Loc

Tephritis argentea

Fabricius, J. C. 1805: 323
1805