Cormocephalus (C.) guildingii, Newport, 1845

Schileyko, Arkady A. & Cupul-Magaña, Fabio G., 2021, Cormocephalus (Cormocephalus) guildingii Newport, 1845 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha): a composite description, new samples from Western Mexico and a new species subgroup of Neotropical Cormocephalus (Cormocephalus), Zootaxa 5071 (3), pp. 301-325: 304-313

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5071.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2C1EE869-A61C-4568-9108-5A2397E6D12F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5735509

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AA87D3-FFF4-8928-FF21-DAFBFB7DFCDF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cormocephalus (C.) guildingii
status

 

Cormocephalus (C.) guildingii   Newport, 1845

Figs 2–31 View FIGURES 2–7 View FIGURES 8–14 View FIGURES 15–21 View FIGURES 22–29 View FIGURES 30–36

Cormocephalus guildingi   Newport, 1845: 425;

Cormocephalus impressus Porat, 1876: 15   ;

Cupipes microstoma Kohlrausch, 1878: 24   ;

Otostigma cormocephalinum Pocock, 1888: 473   ;

Cupipes impressus: Kraepelin, 1903: 181   ;

Cupipes neglectus Chamberlin, 1914: 186   ;

Cupipes guildingi: Chamberlin, 1918: 156   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius Attems, 1928: 287   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus: Attems, 1930: 104   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus var. neglectus: Attems, 1930: 104   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius: Attems 1930: 99   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1939: 249   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius: Bücherl, 1941: 298   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus: Bücherl, 1941: 298   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus var. neglectus: Bücherl 1941: 299   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius: Bücherl, 1942: 125   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1943: 22   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus impressus: Bücherl, 1943: 23   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus neglectus: Bücherl, 1950: 179   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus glabrus Bücherl, 1950: 179   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus peruanus Bücherl, 1953: 118   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus: Kraus, 1957: 380   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Kraus, 1957: 382   ;

Cormocephalus impressus: Crabill, 1960: 171   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1974: 100   ;

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus: Schileyko, 2002: 497   ;

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Schileyko & Stagl 2004: 106   ;

Cormocephalus impressus: Cupul-Magaña, 2009: 90   ;

Cormocephalus impressus   : Chagas-Jr et al., 2014: 139;

Cormocephalus impressus: Cruz-Trujillo et al., 2015: 308   ;

Cormocephalus impressus: Schileyko & Stoev, 2016: 274   ;

Cormocephalus guildingi: Schileyko, 2018: 59   ;

Cormocephalus guildingi: Schileyko et al., 2018: 559   ;

Cormocephalus guildingi: Martínez-Muñoz & Perez-Gelabert, 2018: 82   ;

Cormocephalus guildingi: Iorio & Coulis, 2019: 18   .

Locus typicus: Saint Vincent Island, Lesser Antilles.

Studied material. Holotype of C. guildingii   (No MYRI-016-01 in OMNH), Figs 2–5 View FIGURES 2–7 (digital photos examined by the first author; also figs 28–31 in Schleyko 2018).  

Holotype of C. impressus   (= C. guildingii   ) (No 453 in GMNH), Figs 6, 7 View FIGURES 2–7 (digital photos examined by the first author).

Mexico ( Figs 13, 14 View FIGURES 8–14 , 16–21 View FIGURES 15–21 ), South of Jalisco State, Chamela Biological Research Station of UNAM, tropical deciduous forest at coastal plain, inside the epiphytic bromeliad genus Tillandsia   L   .: 1 ad. (spm 1, No EBCh-CHI-0001 in EBCh), 1 ad (spm 2, No EBCh-CHI-0002 in EBCh), 19º20’- 19º34’N, 104º58’- 105º04’W, 26.II.1989, col. E. Ramírez GoogleMaps   ; 1 ad. (spm 3, No EBCh-CHI-0003 in EBCh), 19º29’59.29”N, 105º02’36.86”W, 15.IX.2010, col. F. Cupul GoogleMaps   ; 1 ad. (spm 4, No EBCh-CHI-0004 in EBCh), 19º29’56.30”N, 105º02’31.32”W, 15.IX.2012, col. F. Cupul. GoogleMaps  

Jamaica ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 15–21 , 22–27 View FIGURES 22–29 ): 1 ad. (ca. 37 mm), Rc 7687, JBS 1, St. Catherine Parish, Caymanas area, hills north of Caymanas Estate , N slope, 4.7 road km from A1 at Ferry Town , 18°02.63’N, 076°53.86’W, alt. 40–60 m, 24.V. 1999, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Rosenberg GoogleMaps   ; 1 sad. (ca. 27 mm), No Rc 7690, JBS 159, Clarendon Parish, Portland Ridge, Trail 27, primary forest, limestone, red soil, flat, 17°44.41’N, 077°08.69’W, alt. 80 m, 12.X.1999, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Rosenberg GoogleMaps   ; 1 ad. (ca. 31 mm), Rc 7688, JBS 161, Clarendon Parish, Portland Ridge , by gun club gate, secondary forest and costal scrub, limestone, orange soil, 0–20°N slope, 17°45.33’N, 077°10.28’W, alt. 5–20 m, 12.X.1999, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Rosenberg GoogleMaps   ; 1 sad. (ca. 30 mm), Rc 7691, JBS 54, St. Thomas Paris, Pera , forested hillside near sugar cane plantation, 17°52.92’N, 076°17.56’W, alt. 0 m, 2.VI.1999, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Rosenberg GoogleMaps   ; 2 ad. (ca. 32 mm), Rc 7689, JBS 85, St. Andrew Parish, Lucky Valley, around walls of abandoned estate, 2.0 road km N on E side of Mammee River , secondary forest, 17°58.57’N, 076°40.64’W, alt. 360 m, 25.IX.1999, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Rosenberg. GoogleMaps  

Hispaniola (= Haiti) Island ( Figs 28–31 View FIGURES 22–29 View FIGURES 30–36 ), Dominican Republic: 1 sad. (ca. 25 mm) Rc 7074, St. Cristobal [San Cristóbal Province], “La Cueva” Colonia, 97H6, alt. 550 m, 03.1997, col. I.V. Muratov & G. Robinson.

Other personally examined material of C. guildingii   . 1 ad. ( CIRAD), Lesser Antilles , Martinique Island, Morne Aca, Le Marin, 22.11.2017, lat. 14.4614, long. -60.9002, alt. 213 m, col. Mathieu Coulis ( Figs 8, 9 View FIGURES 8–14 , digital photos examined by the first author; also figs 1–3 on page 19 in Iorio & Coulis 2019)  

1 (s)ad ( ATESB), Lesser Antilles, Guadeloupe island group, La Désirade Island about 8 km off the eastern end of Guadeloupe Island, сol. Karl Questel ( Figs 10–12 View FIGURES 8–14 , digital photos examined by the first author).

Type series of C. bonaerius Attems, 1928   (= C. guildingii   synonymy by Schileyko 2018): 1 ad. lectotype (designated by Schileyko & Stagl 2004) + 1 sad. paralectotype (No 919 in NHMW), 10 sad. paralectotypes (No 921 in NHMW), Lesser Antilles, Bonnaire Island near Curaçao, leg. & don. A. Gabriel (all specimens personally examined by the first author, see pp. 106–109 and figs 22–25 in Schileyko & Stagl 2004).

Composite diagnosis of C. guildingii   . Maximal body length 46.5 mm, color of live specimens from yellow to dark brownish (head and both body ends visibly darker than middle portion of body and legs) with some purplish reflections on tergites ( Figs 8, 9 View FIGURES 8–14 , fig. 1 at page 19 in Iorio & Coulis 2019); antennae pale blue ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 8–14 ). Antennae of 17 (rarely 15–19) articles, 5–7 basal ones practically glabrous. Cephalic plate ( Figs 10, 13 View FIGURES 8–14 , 22 View FIGURES 22–29 , fig. 22 in Schileyko & Stagl 2004) with shortened anteriorly (as long as 1/2–2/3 of cephalic plate) paramedian sutures, their posterior ends crossed by transverse suture; basal plates well-developed. Forcipular coxosternite ( Figs 7 View FIGURES 2–7 , 11, 14 View FIGURES 8–14 , 23, 24, 29 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with two complete (or slightly shortened posteriorly) longitudinal sutures which much converging anteriorly, meeting each other in a short semilunar suture plus complete (rarely somewhat shortened) transverse suture approximately at the level of condyles. Forcipular tooth-plate typically with 4 ( Figs 4, 7 View FIGURES 2–7 , 11, 14 View FIGURES 8–14 , 23 View FIGURES 22–29 ) (occasionally / abnormally with 3, Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15–21 ) teeth, lateral one clearly isolated; their basal sutures form very obtuse angle or practically straight line. Tergite 1 with complete paramedian sutures ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–14 ), tergite 21 in most cases with complete median suture ( Figs 12 View FIGURES 8–14 , 21 View FIGURES 15–21 and fig. 22 in Schileyko & Stagl 2004); number of laterally marginated posterior tergites ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ) varies from 4 to 10, but often only tergite 21 has this margination complete and definite. Sternites 2–20 with complete paramedian sutures ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15–21 ), presternites as paired triangles in sternites 1–20 ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 2–7 , 15, 16 View FIGURES 15–21 , 23 View FIGURES 22–29 ). Coxopleuron without welldeveloped process, its rounded median corner with 0–2 small apical spines ( Figs 17, 18, 19 View FIGURES 15–21 , 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ); coxal pore-field oval, slightly longer than sternite 21. Ultimate legs “truly pincer-shaped” (sensu Schileyko, Vahtera & Edgecombe 2020; Figs 5 View FIGURES 2–7 , 8, 9 View FIGURES 8–14 , 17, 21 View FIGURES 15–21 , 27 View FIGURES 22–29 , 31 View FIGURES 30–36 ; fig. 25 in Schileyko & Stagl 2004); prefemur ( Figs 12 View FIGURES 8–14 , 17, 20, 21 View FIGURES 15–21 , 25, 26, 27 View FIGURES 22–29 , 31 View FIGURES 30–36 ) with 0–4 spines ventrally and ventro-laterally, 0–5 ones medially and ventro-medially plus 1–3 dorso-medially (of these, 1 or 2 at the position of corner spine, Figs 5 View FIGURES 2–7 , 12 View FIGURES 8–14 , 21 View FIGURES 15–21 , 25, 27 View FIGURES 22–29 , 30 View FIGURES 30–36 ). Prefemur ventro-medially with spineless area bordered by very low U-shaped ridge ( Figs 20 View FIGURES 15–21 , 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ); prefemur, femur and tibia apically with dorso-medial longitudinal depression or sulcus ( Figs 5 View FIGURES 2–7 , 21 View FIGURES 15–21 , 25 View FIGURES 22–29 ); ventral surface of (at least) tarsus 1 swollen distally ( Figs 5 View FIGURES 2–7 , 17 View FIGURES 15–21 , 27 View FIGURES 22–29 , fig. 25 in Schileyko & Stagl 2004); pretarsus enlarged, approximately twice as long as tarsus 2.

Composite description of Mexican specimens ( Figs 13, 14 View FIGURES 8–14 , 16–21 View FIGURES 15–21 ).

Length of body 35–46.5 mm. Color in ethanol: the whole body and legs light yellow, tergites 10–19 may be indistinctly marginated by accumulations of the small granules of pale grey pigment.

Antennae composed of 15–17 cylindrical articles, reaching the middle of tergite 3 when reflexed. 6 or 7 basal articles practically glabrous with scattered long setae and the subsequent articles densely covered by short setae.

Cephalic plate: oval, convex anteriorly and relatively narrow (considerably narrower than tergite 1, Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–14 ); its posterior margin with rounded corners, covered by tergite 1. Anteriorly incomplete paramedian sutures visibly diverge forwards, nearly as long as 2/3 of the cephalic plate (or slightly shorter); their posterior ends are crossed by a transverse suture forming well-developed basal plates ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–14 ).

Maxillae 2 with a well-developed dorsal brush. Pretarsus approximately as long as 1/4 length of article 3 of telopodite with a claw-shaped tip; accessory spines absent. Dorsal spur of telopodite article 2 not visible.

Forcipular coxosternite ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–14 ) with two complete longitudinal sutures, which much converging anteriorly and meet each other in a short semilunar suture, the latter encircling a minor coxosternal median diastema. Longitudinal sutures are crossed by a complete and branching transverse suture ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–14 ); chitin-lines absent. Tooth-plates slightly higher than wide (or, less often, as long as wide), definitely narrowing anteriorly. Tooth-plate with 4 teeth ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–14 ), the lateral tooth is the shortest one and is clearly isolated; two medial teeth are the longest ones and have a common base, being fused to a varying degree. A single minute seta in a small rounded depression directly under tooth margin. The basal sutures of the tooth-plates form a very obtuse angle ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–14 ) or a practically straight line. Process of the trochanteroprefemur with apical and two medial tubercles, considerably longer than the tooth-plate ( Fig. 14 View FIGURES 8–14 ); this process is with a basal suture and a characteristic additional transverse suture just below the former. Tarsungulum of normal length, its interior surface with two sharp longitudinal ridges.

Tergites: tergite 1 with complete (rarely shortened anteriorly) paramedian sutures ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–14 ) which are practically parallel or slightly converging anteriorly. Tergites 2–20 with complete paramedian sutures, other tergal sutures absent. Tergites 11–20 with nearly complete (= slightly shortened posteriorly) definite lateral margination ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ), only tergite 21 is definitely and completely marginated. Tergite 21 ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ) with complete median suture, considerably (1.5 times) wider than long and slightly broadened towards the posterior margin; the latter convex apically.

Sternites 2–20 with complete paramedian sutures. Sternite 21 ( Figs 17–19 View FIGURES 15–21 ) with a poorly-developed longitudinal median depression in its anterior half, trapeziform (somewhat longer than wide (spm 1, 2) or vice versa (spm 3, 4) and distinctly narrowed towards the slightly concave (spm 1, 2) or practically straight (spm 3, 4) posterior margin. Presternites ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 8–14 , 16 View FIGURES 15–21 ) are well-developed as paired triangles in sternites 1–20.

Spiracles small, the first pair triangular and the others praсtically round. The spiracle atrium is tightly closed by the two (upper and lower) cuticular folds, so the inner portion of the atrium is not visible; the third (median) fold is very strongly reduced.

Legs: pretarsus of legs 1–20 with two well-developed accessory spines.

Ultimate LBS: coxopleuron visibly longer than sternite 21, with a rounded median corner at the position of the coxopleural process ( Figs 17–19 View FIGURES 15–21 ); coxopleural surface without setae. Coxal pores numerous, coxal pore-field oval, slightly longer than sternite 21; it does not reach closely to the lateral margin of the coxa and considerably less so to the caudal one. 0–2 small apical spines positioned at the rounded median corner of the coxopleuron and a small lateral spine ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15–21 ) may be present at its posterior margin.

Ultimate legs ( Figs 17, 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ) “truly pincer-shaped” (sensu Schileyko, Vahtera & Edgecombe 2020), 6.9–8.3 mm long, much shortened and broadened (with prefemur ratio of length: width 1–1.4). Prefemur ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15–21 ) with 0–4/5 ventral (including 0 or 1 ventro-lateral) spines, 0–5 medial + ventro-medial ones and 1–3 dorso-medial (including 1 or 2 ones at the position of the corner spine). Prefemur ventro-medially with a spineless area bordered by a low U-shaped ridge. Prefemur ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ), femur and tibia distinctly flattened dorsally, ventral surface of tibia and tarsus 1 somewhat swollen distally. Distal end of prefemur, femur and tibia with a well-developed dorso-medial longitudinal depression which is approximately as long as 1/4 of length of the corresponding article ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15–21 ). Pretarsus enlarged, twice as long as tarsus 2 but somewhat shorter than the tarsal articles taken together; ventral surface of pretarsus forms a sharp ridge, accessory spines absent.

Variability. Right antenna of spm 1 has 13 articles ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 8–14 ) most probably having been regenerated. The specimens studied demonstrate considerable variation in spination of the coxopleuron. Spm 1 (46 mm long) lacks any coxopleural spines ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 15–21 ), in spm 2 (46.5 mm long) the right coxopleuron is also spineless whereas the left one has 1 apical spine only ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15–21 ), in spm 3 (35 mm long) each coxopleuron is with 2 apical plus 1 lateral spine ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15–21 ), in spm 4 (40 mm long) the right coxopleuron is with 2 apical plus 1 lateral spine and the left one with 1 apical plus 1 lateral one. The only other difference between these specimens is the number of spines of the ultimate prefemur: spm 1 has 2 distal dorso-medial plus 1 ventral spine, spm 2 has left leg with 2 distal dorso-medial and right leg with 1 distal dorso-medial plus 1 medial spine ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15–21 ), spm 3 has left leg with 2 distal dorso-medial plus 7 ventral spines and right leg with 1 distal dorso-medial plus 5 ventral spines ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15–21 ). Spm 4 has both these legs with 2 distal dorso-medial plus 5 ventral spines.

Remarks on Mexican specimens. Studied specimens are typical representatives of this species but show considerable intraspecific variability of the spine numbers on the coxopleuron and ultimate prefemur. Thus the taxonomic weight of both these characters should be decreased in the species of the guildingii   -subgroup.

Composite description of Jamaican specimens (Rc 7687–7691, Figs 15 View FIGURES 15–21 , 22–27 View FIGURES 22–29 )

Length of body up to 37 mm. Color in ethanol: the whole body and legs light yellow. The whole body (head, forcipular segment, all tergites and sternites) is covered by numerous very short setae.

Antennae composed of 16 or 17 cylindrical articles, practically reaching the posterior margin of tergite 2 when reflexed. 5 or 6 basal articles practically glabrous with scattered long setae and the subsequent articles densely covered by short setae.

Cephalic plate ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 ): oval and relatively narrow (considerably narrower than tergite 1), its posterior margin with rounded corners, covered by tergite 1. Paramedian sutures visibly diverge forwards, approximately as long as 1/2 of cephalic plate (or slightly longer), their posterior ends are crossed by a transverse suture forming welldeveloped basal plates ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 ).

Maxillae 2 with well-developed dorsal brush. Pretarsus approximately as long as 1/4 length of article 3 of telopodite ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with claw-shaped tip; of two accessory spines the dorsal one is more slim and much adpressed to the pretarsus being very poorly recognizable. Telopodite article 2 with a clearly visible dorso-apical spur.

Forcipular coxosternite ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 15–21 , 23, 24 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with two shortened posteriorly (sometimes slightly exceeding the mid-point of the coxosternite) longitudinal sutures, which much converging anteriorly and meet each other in a semilunar suture, the latter encircling a minor coxosternal median diastema. These longitudinal sutures are crossed by a practically complete, branching transverse suture; chitin-lines absent. Tooth-plates approximately as long as wide, definitely narrowing anteriorly. Tooth-plate ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with 4 teeth (in sad. Rc 7690 occasionally/abnormally 3 teeth, Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15–21 ), of these the lateral one is clearly isolated and visibly shorter than the medial teeth, the latter have a common base being fused to a variable degree (to practically fully fused in Rc 7687, Fig. 24 View FIGURES 22–29 ). A single clearly visible seta occurs in a rounded depression directly under the tooth margin. The basal sutures of the tooth-plates form a practically straight line. Process of trochanteroprefemur ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 15–21 , 23, 24 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with one apical and one medial tubercle, considerably longer than the tooth-plate. This process with a basal suture and a characteristic additional transverse suture just below the former. Tarsungulum of normal length, its interior surface with two sharp longitudinal ridges

Tergites: tergite 1 with complete paramedian sutures which slightly converging anteriorly ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 ). Tergites 2– 20 with complete paramedian sutures, other tergal sutures not visible. Tergites 10/13–20 with incomplete (somewhat shortened posteriorly) and more or less definite lateral margination, only tergite 21 definitely and completely marginated. Tergite 21 ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 22–29 ) without a median suture, an incomplete shallow median longitudinal sulcus (not suture) may be visible in the middle of this tergite (Rc 7687, 7688); tergite 21 considerably (approximately 1.5–2 times) wider than long and slightly broadened towards the posterior margin, the latter convex apically.

Sternites 2–20 with complete paramedian sutures. Sternite 21 ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with a very poorly-developed longitudinal median depression in the anterior half, trapeziform (approximately as long as wide) and distinctly narrowed towards the practically straight posterior margin. Presternites well-developed as paired triangles ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 15–21 , 23 View FIGURES 22–29 ) in sternites 1–20.

Spiracles small, the first pair somewhat elongated and the others praсtically round. The spiracle atrium is tightly closed by the two (upper and lower) cuticular folds, the third (median) fold is very much reduced being practically invisible.

Legs: pretarsus of legs 1–20 with two well-developed accessory spines.

Ultimate LBS: coxopleuron ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ) visibly longer than sternite 21, with a rounded median corner at the position of the coxopleural process; coxopleural surface without setae. Coxal pores numerous, of various sizes; coxal pore-field oval, slightly longer than sternite 21, it does not reach slightly to the lateral margin of the coxa and is considerably distant from the caudal one. Two small apical spines are positioned at the rounded median corner of the coxopleuron ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ) plus a small spine at its posterior margin.

Ultimate legs ( Figs 25, 26, 27 View FIGURES 22–29 ) “truly pincer-shaped”, ca 8 mm long (when body ca 32 mm), much shortened and broadened (with prefemur ratio of length: width 1–1.4). Prefemur with 5 longitudinal rows of very small spines: dorso-medial one of 3 spines, medial one of (1)2, ventro-medial of 2, ventral of 1–3 and ventro-lateral row of 2 spines. Two most apical dorso-medial spines (they have common base) form a kind of corner spine ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 22–29 ). Prefemur ventro-medially with a spineless area bordered by very low U-shaped ridge ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ). Prefemur, femur and tibia definitely flattened dorsally, ventral surface of tarsus 1 and tarsus 2 somewhat swollen distally. Distal end of prefemur, femur and tibia with a shallow dorso-medial longitudinal depression which is as long as 1/3–1/4 of length of the corresponding article ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 22–29 ). Pretarsus enlarged and much elongated ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 22–29 ), on average nearly twice as long as the tarsal articles taken together; ventral surface of pretarsus forms a well-developed, very sharp ridge, accessory spines absent.

Remarks on Jamaican specimens. Schileyko (2018: 72) considered C. bonaerius Attems, 1928   to be a junior synonym of C. guildingii   basing, in particular, on re-investigation of Jamaican material; for data on the type series of C. bonaerius   see Schileyko & Stagl (2004: 106).

Description of specimen from Hispaniola (1 sad. Rc 7074, Figs 28–31 View FIGURES 22–29 View FIGURES 30–36 )

Length ca. 25 mm ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 22–29 ). The whole body with well-developed small spines. 17 antennal articles, of these 6 or 7 basal ones with some long setae. Head with incomplete (somewhat shortened anteriorly) paramedian sutures.

Forcipular coxosternite ( Fig. 29 View FIGURES 22–29 ) with two complete typical and much converging anteriorly longitudinal sutures plus an incomplete transverse suture; right tooth plate broken, left one with 3 teeth (but the most medial one is apparently a result of regeneration of two original teeth).

Tergite 1 with incomplete (somewhat shortened anteriorly) paramedian sutures, about 10 posterior tergites marginated laterally, tergite 21 without a median suture ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 30–36 ).

Sternites 2–20 with complete paramedian sutures, sternite 21 trapeziform, nearly as long as wide, with a welldeveloped longitudinal median sulcus / depression in the posterior half, its posterior margin practically straight. Presternites are well-developed as paired triangles in sternites 1–20 (the largest ones in sternite 1), the presternites are better developed on midbody segments.

All legs with two well-developed pretarsal accessory spines.

Ultimate LBS: coxopleuron ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 30–36 ) with a very short and apically rounded process which has two apical spines, a single spine at the posterior coxopleural margin, the pore field slightly longer than sternite 21. Ultimate prefemur ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 30–36 ) with 2 ventro-lateral spines, 2 ventral, 2 ventro-medial, 2 medial and 3 dorso-medial ones (of these 2 at the position of the prefemoral corner spine); prefemur and femur apically with a short characteristic dorso-medial longitudinal depression, pretarsus much longer than tarsus 2 and slightly shorter than tarsal articles taken together.

Remarks on specimen from Hispaniola. Schileyko (2018: 76) mentioned this specimen as “ Cormocephalus sp.   ” noting that it “… is very similar to C. guildingii   but has tergite 21 without median suture”; apart from this difference this subadult fits well in the expanded and improved new concept of C. guildingii   .

Range of C. guildingii   (see also Chagas et al. 2014: 139)

N America: W Mexico; Antilles: from Cuba ( Kraepelin 1904: 251), Cayman Islands and Jamaica to Bonnaire Island near Curaçao; Range of former C. impressus   : Northern and North-Western regions of South America: Northern Venezuela (Caracas and Puerto Cabello), Ecuador, Western Colombia (Quindío Department and Eastern Cordillera), Northern, Central and Southern Peru ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Remarks on Range of C. guildingii  

Until recent years C. guildingii   was known as an endemic to the Antilles ( Schileyko et al. 2018: 561, Iorio & Coulis 2019: 18); this study confirms its occurrence in the Dominican Republic (Rc 7074 from San Cristóbal Province). However, since the synonymy of C. impressus   under C. guildingii   is confirmed below, we have transferred all the records of that former species to C. guildingii   . Also, the studied material from Western Mexico allowed to expand the distribution area of C. guildingii   ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ) to the most southern part of North America ( Cupul-Magaña 2009: 90).

Kraepelin (1903: 181) mentioned a questionable specimen of Cupipes   (= Cormocephalus   ) impressus   from Paraguay (without locality) and in 1904 recorded this species (p. 251) from they same country based on specimen(s) kept in MNHN. However, Paraguay lies outside the proven boundaries of the distribution of Cormocephalus guildingii   which seems to be replaced in eastern and southern parts of Brazil by C. andinus   . Bücherl (1939: 249) gave a very short description of C. bonaerius   (= C. guildingii   , see Schileyko 2018) mentioning it from “Guyanas” ( Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana) without any localities or specimen data, and in the faunistic paper of 1941 he mentioned (p. 299) C. (C.) impressus var. neglectus   (= C. impressus   ) from the river Madeira in the Brazilian State Mato Grosso. However, at present there is no confirmed information (i.e. data on specific specimens + localities) on the occurrence of C. guildingii   in these regions.

Schileyko et al. (2018: 561) erroneously stated the type locality of C. guildingii   as “Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles”.

Remarks on C. guildingii  

Until now this species had not been described in detail (and not illustrated adequately), except for the original description of Otostigma cormocephalinum Pocock, 1888   , Kraepelin’s (1903: 181) description of Cormocephalus impressus   (both are synonyms of C. guildingii   ) and the data of Schileyko (2018: 74–75, figs 28–31).

OMNH

Osaka Museum of Natural History

GMNH

Georgia Museum of Natural History

CIRAD

Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Chilopoda

Order

Scolopendromorpha

Family

Scolopendridae

Genus

Cormocephalus

Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) guildingii

Schileyko, Arkady A. & Cupul-Magaña, Fabio G. 2021
2021
Loc

Cormocephalus guildingi:

Iorio, E. & Coulis, M. 2019: 18
2019
Loc

Cormocephalus guildingi:

Schileyko, A. & Iorio E. & Coulis M. 2018: 559
2018
Loc

Cormocephalus guildingi: Martínez-Muñoz & Perez-Gelabert, 2018: 82

Martinez-Munoz, C. A. & Perez-Gelabert, D. E. 2018: 82
2018
Loc

Cormocephalus impressus:

Cruz-Trujillo, L. E. & Cupul-Magana, F. G. & Mireles-Merchant, R. 2015: 308
2015
Loc

Cormocephalus impressus: Cupul-Magaña, 2009: 90

Cupul-Magana, F. G. 2009: 90
2009
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius:

Schileyko, A. & Stagl, V. 2004: 106
2004
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus:

Schileyko, A. 2002: 497
2002
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1974: 100

Bucherl, W. 1974: 100
1974
Loc

Cormocephalus impressus:

Crabill, R. E. 1960: 171
1960
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus:

Kraus, O. 1957: 380
1957
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius:

Kraus, O. 1957: 382
1957
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus peruanus Bücherl, 1953: 118

Bucherl, W. 1953: 118
1953
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus neglectus: Bücherl, 1950: 179

Bucherl, W. 1950: 179
1950
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus glabrus Bücherl, 1950: 179

Bucherl, W. 1950: 179
1950
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1943: 22

Bucherl, W. 1943: 22
1943
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus impressus: Bücherl, 1943: 23

Bucherl, W. 1943: 23
1943
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius: Bücherl, 1942: 125

Bucherl, W. 1942: 125
1942
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius: Bücherl, 1941: 298

Bucherl, W. 1941: 298
1941
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus: Bücherl, 1941: 298

Bucherl, W. 1941: 298
1941
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus var. neglectus: Bücherl 1941: 299

Bucherl, W. 1941: 299
1941
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius: Bücherl, 1939: 249

Bucherl, W. 1939: 249
1939
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus:

Attems, G. 1930: 104
1930
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) impressus var. neglectus:

Attems, G. 1930: 104
1930
Loc

Cormocephalus (C.) bonaerius:

Attems, G. 1930: 99
1930
Loc

Cormocephalus bonaerius

Attems, G. 1928: 287
1928
Loc

Cupipes guildingi: Chamberlin, 1918: 156

Chamberlin, R. V. 1918: 156
1918
Loc

Cupipes neglectus

Chamberlin, R. V. 1914: 186
1914
Loc

Cupipes impressus:

Kraepelin, K. 1903: 181
1903
Loc

Otostigma cormocephalinum

Pocock, R. I. 1888: 473
1888
Loc

Cupipes microstoma

Kohlrausch, E. 1878: 24
1878
Loc

Cormocephalus impressus

Porat, C. O. 1876: 15
1876