Neorinella garciae,

Jong, Rienk De, 2017, Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea), Zootaxa 4270 (1), pp. 1-63: 28

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.583183

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Neorinella garciae


garciae  . Neorinella garciae Martins-Neto, Kucera-Santos, de Moraes Vieira & de Campos Fragoso, 1993 

Nymphalidae  : Satyrinae  , Elymniini  .

Brazil, State of São Paulo, Taubaté Basin, Tremembé Formation; Chattian –Aquitanian, late Oligocene—early Miocene. 

Depository: DGUG (holotype).

Published figures: Martins-Neto et al. (1993: Figs 2View FIGURE 2, 3View FIGURES 3 – 4, pls I, II); Murata (1998: Figs 9–11).

Partly visible forewings and hindwings and compressed body. In addition to wing shape and venation (partly visible) a paler colored band across forewings and hindwings is visible; there is an eyespot in the cell of the forewing, in R4-R5 (visible in the photo, not represented in the drawing), and in CuA1-CuA2 (?) of the forewing and, vaguely, in Cu1-Cu2 of the hindwing. The length of the forewing is 31.7 mm. No visible swollen bases of forewing veins. Most remarkable in the venation of the forewing is the common origin of M3 and Cu1 from the lower distal corner of the cell. Among extant Papilionoidea it is a unique autapomorphy of the satyrine genus Elymnias ( Miller 1968)  . For the rest, the reconstruction of the wings ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 in the original publication, reproduced here as Fig. 9) is hypothetical for those parts of the wings that are absent in the fossil. Moreover, in the forewing the radial branching cannot have been correctly reproduced: in Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 of the original description two radial veins branch off before the end of the cell, at which point R2 originates. One of these veins coalesces over some distance with R2 before ending on the front margin. This part of the wing is absent in the fossil.

The fossil, which has been placed in a genus of its own, is supposed (in the original publication) to be related to the extant genus Neorina  ( Nymphalidae  , Satyrinae  ) as well as to the fossil genera Neorinopis  (see under sepulta  ) and Pseudoneorina  (see under coulleti  ). Apparently, this is based on similarity in wing shape and wing pattern. Realizing the variation in these characters for extant Neorina  species as well as in related genera, these characters are unreliable indicators of relationship. A structural character like venation appears more reliable. In combination with Neorinopsis and Pseudoneorina  , Neorinella  has been classified, without comment, as belonging to the subtribe Lethina  of the tribe Satyrini  , while Neorina  has been placed in the tribe Zetherini  by Wahlberg & Peña (2015). This, again, must be based on wing shape and design. If we take venation as indicator of relationship, both Neorinella  and Neorinopsis should be classified as Elymniini  . See further the discussion under Neorinopsis sepulta  .