Toonapsylla Burckhardt, 2018

Burckhardt, Daniel, Sharma, Anamika & Raman, Anantanarayanan, 2018, Checklist and comments on the jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from the Indian subcontinent, Zootaxa 4457 (1), pp. 1-38 : 5-7

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Toonapsylla Burckhardt

gen. nov.

Toonapsylla Burckhardt , gen. nov.

Type species: Psylla cedrelae Kieffer, 1905 ; present designation and monotypy.

Description. Adult ( Mathur 1975: Fig. 78). Body length, from tip of head to tip of forewings when folded over the body, 3.7‒4.3 mm long. Head strongly deflexed from longitudinal body axis, inclined at about 90°; narrower than thorax. Head and thorax shiny, sparsely covered in long fine hairs. Vertex about 2.5 times as wide as long, disk weakly concave, raised along lateral margins; hind margin weakly concave; lateral ocelli on raised postero-lateral edges; coronal suture fully developed; anteriorly smoothly passing into genae. Toruli slightly raised. Genae produced into conical processes, slightly deflexed from plane of vertex, longer than vertex along mid-line, subacute apically, contiguous in the middle except for apical quarter; covered in hairs which are slightly denser than and about as long as those on the vertex. Frons almost completely covered by frontal ocellus which is visible from frontal view. Preocular sclerite developed as narrow band stretching along eye margin. Eyes relatively small, hemispherical, slightly stalked. Antenna 10-segmented, 2.3 times as long as head width; flagellar segments relatively robust, sparsely pubescent, relative length of flagellar segments as 1.0: 0.5: 0.5: 0.5: 0.6: 0.5: 0.2: 0.2; with a simple, subapical rhinarium on each of segments 4, 6, 8 and 9; segment 10 with two unequal terminal setae which are both shorter than segment. Clypeus, in dry mounted specimens, not visible, in slide mounted specimens small, flattened; rostrum short, directed anteriorly almost parallel to longitudinal body axis; apical labial segment sclerotised, weakly expanded in apical third. Thorax strongly arched. Pronotum narrowly ribbon-shaped, strongly curved, anteriorly inclined at 90° to longitudinal body axis, laterally curved backwards; with a sublateral fovea on either side. Propleurites large, slightly higher than broad; median suture vertical; prosternum subtrapezoidal, larger than proepimeron which is narrowly rectangular. Mesopraescutum relatively narrow and elongate, produced in anterior third, strongly down curved anteriorly and laterally; mesoscutum broad, rounded downwards laterally; mesoscutellum forming short and broad, weakly arched, subrectangular sclerite. Mesosternum transversely rectangular. Metapostnotum transversely rectangular, weakly arched in the middle, with each a lateral tubercle on either side. Legs relatively slender, long; metacoxa large with small, slender, apically pointed meracanthus; metafemur with a group of dense bristles apically; metatibia longer than metafemur, lacking genual spine, gradually expanding to wide apex bearing 7‒8 irregularly spaced, sclerotised apical spurs; metabasitarsus slender, lacking sclerotised spurs, about as long as apical metatarsal segment. Forewing large, oblong oval, slightly more than 2.5 times as long as wide, evenly rounded apically; veins sparsely covered in long, fine setae; vein C+Sc weakly curved; cell c+sc narrow, very long; costal break present; pterostigma long, very narrow; vein R slightly longer than M+Cu; vein R1 relatively long; vein Rs long, very weakly curved towards fore margin in the middle; cells m1 and cu1 moderately sized; anal break close to apex of vein Cu1b. Hindwing slightly shorter than forewing, membranous; costal setae irregularly distributed but not distinctly grouped; vein R+M+Cu splitting into R and M+Cu. Male terminalia with hemispherical subgenital plate. Proctiger tubular, sparsely covered in long setae; hind margin bearing a small lobe in basal third (not evenly curved as figured by Mathur 1975: Figs 78i and 78h but see Fig. 78j), densely covered with thicker denser setae along hind margin. Paramere shorter than proctiger, in lateral view, lamellar, strongly narrowing to apex. Proximal portion of aedeagus short, straight, irregularly narrowing from base to apex; distal portion complex, with three pairs of sclerotised processes ventrally; sclerotised end tube of ductus ejaculatorius moderately long, s-shaped. Female terminalia short. Proctiger slightly narrowed distal to circumanal ring, narrowing to apex which forms small tubercular point; circumanal ring, in dorsal view, somewhat triangular, widening towards apex. Subgenital plate, in lateral view, shortly cuneate, ventral margin curved. Dorsal valvula shortly triangular, dorsal margin bent in the middle; ventral valvula straight, subacute apically, with one subapical tooth; lateral valvula membranous, rounded apically.

Fifth instar immature ( Mathur 1975: Fig. 79). Body length 1.7 mm. Body generally weakly sclerotised. Antenna 7-segmented, with one rhinarium on each of segments 3 and 5 and two rhinaria on segment 7; bearing lanceolate setae. Dorsal thoracic sclerites small. Legs large, tarsal arolium larger than claws, fan-shaped. Wing pads large; humeral lobes absent; with dense marginal lanceolate setae. Caudal plate sclerotised, covered in lanceolate setae. Anus terminal; circumanal ring consisting of several rows of pores; extra pores present as large curved fields on caudal plate.

Diversity, distribution and Host plant. Toonapsylla is currently known from a single species, T. cedrelae , which is restricted to India and Toona .

Comments. Psylla cedrelae Kieffer, 1905 , displays adult and immature characters which place it outside Psyllidae and suggest a close relationship to Mastigimatinae ( Calophyidae ). As the species does not fit in any of the currently recognised genera, the new genus Toonapsylla Burckhardt , gen. nov. is described here to receive it.

Burckhardt and Ouvrard (2012) admitted that their Calophyidae is not diagnosable but estimated that the five included subfamilies are probably monophyletic. Recently, Percy et al. (2018) showed in their molecular phylogeny that Mastigimatinae is not closely related to Calophyinae and, hence, Calophyidae sensu Burckhardt & Ouvrard (2012) not monophyletic. Burckhardt and Ouvrard (2012) defined the Mastigimatinae ( Calophyidae ) based on immature characters and included the genera Allophorina Hodkinson , Bharatiana Mathur , Cecidopsylla Kieffer , Mastigimas Enderlein and Synpsylla Yang , though, at the time, the immatures of the Neotropical Allophorina were unknown. Recently these were discovered in Brazil on Dalbergia frutescens ( Fabaceae ) (D. Burckhardt & D. L. Queiroz, unpublished data; NHMB) sharing phylogenetically significant characters (e. g. the presence of one marginal sectaseta on hind wing pad of the immature) with Platycorypha Tuthill , another Neotropical genus. Therefore, Allophorina is transferred here to Psyllinae ( Psyllidae ).

Toonapsylla shares with Bharatiana and Mastigimas the large oval transparent forewings, the robust antennae and the apically expanded metatibia with 7‒8 irregularly spaced sclerotised apical spurs, in addition to weakly sclerotised immatures lacking capitate setae and sectasetae. It differs from both in the presence of long genal processes and the straight basal portion of the aedeagus in the adult as well as the presence of lanceolate setae in the immature. From Cecidopsylla and Synpsylla it differs in the 7‒8 irregularly spaced, sclerotised apical metatibial spurs rather than arranged in a comb on the inner side in the former, and grouped as 1+ 2 in the latter.

Material examined. Toonapsylla cedrelae : India: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Uttarakhand, Dehradun, New Forest, 15.ii.1952, Toona ciliata (R. N. Mathur) (BMNH, slide mounted); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Tamil Nadu, Yercaud, Shevaroy hills, (T. N. Ananthakrishnan) (BMNH, slide mounted), (these are the same data as those of the type series of Psylla shevoroyensis Kandasamy ); 6 ♂, 7 ♀, same data but 13.iv.1962 (G. Spencer) (BMNH, dry mounted).

Bharatiana octospinosa Mathur, 1973a : Pakistan ( BMNH, dry mounted).

Bharatiana septentrionalis Yang & Li, 1983 : China ( MHNG, dry mounted).

Cecidopsylla borneensis Burckhardt, 1991 : Malaysia (Sabah) ( MHNG, dry and slide mounted).

Cecidopsylla horakae Burckhardt, 1991 : Thailand ( MHNG, dry and slide mounted).

Cecidopsylla schimae Kieffer, 1905 : China, Nepal ( MHNG, NHMB, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Cecidopsylla sinensis Burckhardt, 1996 : Hong Kong ( MHNG, dry and slide mounted).

Mastigimas anjosi Burckhardt et al., 2011 : Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela ( BMNH, MHNG, NHMB, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Mastigimas cedrelae ( Schwarz, 1899) : Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Trinidad ( BMNH, NHMB, dry and slide mounted).

Mastigimas colombianus Burckhardt et al., 2013 : Colombia ( BMNH, dry and slide mounted).

Mastigimas drepanodis Burckhardt et al., 2013 : Brazil ( NHMN, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Mastigimas ernstii ( Schwarz, 1899) : Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, United States of America, Venezuela ( BMNH, NHMB, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Mastigimas peruanus Enderlein, 1921 : Peru ( NHMB, dry and slide mounted).

Mastigimas reseri Burckhardt et al., 2013 : Jamaica ( NHMB, dry and slide mounted, ethanol).

Mastigimas schwarzi (Tuthill, 1945) : Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama ( BMNH, MHNG, NHMB, dry and slide mounted).

Synpsylla wendlandiae Yang, 1984 : Taiwan ( BMNH, NHMB, dry mounted).


Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Nottingham Natural History Museum (Wollaton Hall)












Toonapsylla Burckhardt

Burckhardt, Daniel, Sharma, Anamika & Raman, Anantanarayanan 2018

Mastigimas colombianus

Burckhardt et al. 2013

Mastigimas reseri

Burckhardt et al. 2013

Mastigimas anjosi

Burckhardt et al. 2011

Cecidopsylla sinensis

Burckhardt 1996

Cecidopsylla borneensis

Burckhardt 1991

Cecidopsylla horakae

Burckhardt 1991

Bharatiana septentrionalis

Yang & Li 1983

Bharatiana octospinosa

Mathur 1973

Mastigimas peruanus

Enderlein 1921

Cecidopsylla schimae

Kieffer 1905