Phakellia folium Schmidt, 1870,

Van, Rob W. M., 2017, Sponges of the Guyana Shelf, Zootaxa 1, pp. 1-225: 52-53

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Phakellia folium Schmidt, 1870


Phakellia folium Schmidt, 1870 

Figures 33View FIGURE 33 a –d

Phakellia folium Schmidt, 1870: 62  ; Van Soest & Stentoft 1988: 103, pl. XI fig. 3, text-fig. 51; Alvarez et al. 1998: 28, fig. 16 (with further synonyms and comments).

Material examined. RMNH Por. 6309, Guyana, ‘Luymes’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station 53, 7.7°N 56.9917°W, no depth data, 30 August 1970GoogleMaps  ; RMNH Por. 9295, Suriname, ‘ Snellius O.C.P.S. ’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station B23B, 7.297°N 55.3883°W, depth 99–101 m, rectangular dredge, 27 April 1966GoogleMaps  ; RMNH Por. 9768, Guyana, ‘Luymes’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station 51, 7.6833°N 57.0333°W, depth 98 m, bottom calcareous sand, 30 August 1970GoogleMaps  ; RMNH Por. 9780, Suriname, ‘ Snellius O.C.P.S. ’ Guyana Shelf Expedition, station E66, 7.1°N 56.1783°W, depth 65 m, Agassiz trawl, 13 May 1966GoogleMaps  .

Description. Funnel- or cup-shaped individuals ( Figs 33View FIGURE 33 a,a1) with a short stalk and paper-thin (2 mm) blades. Sizes up to 8 cm high and wide, stalk about 1.5 cm, widest at the attachment to the substratum. Color (alcohol) light beige. Surface optically smooth, but feels hispid. Consistency incompressible, parchment-like, easily damaged.

Skeleton. The blades have a rectangular reticulation of a primary tracts consisting of sinuous strongyles and interconnecting tracts composed of sinuous strongyles and styles. Smaller styles ‘echinate’ tracts and cause the hispidation.

Spicules. ( Figs 33View FIGURE 33 b –d) Styles, sinuous strongyles.

Styles, smooth, curved, in a large size range, divisible in (1) larger (longer and thicker) gradually curved styles ( Figs 33View FIGURE 33 b,b1,b2), 267– 357 –451 x 6 – 7.7 –9 µm, and (2) smaller styles with a subapical abrupt curve ( Figs 33View FIGURE 33 c,c1), 119– 139 –207 x 3 – 4.7 –7 µm.

Strongyles ( Figs 33View FIGURE 33 d,d1,d2), lightly to strongly, sinuously, curved, quite variable in length and thickness, but not divisible in size categories, 263– 434 –579 x 5 – 11.6 –16 µm.

Distribution and ecology. Guyana Shelf, Florida, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent, on sandy and hard bottoms between 65 and 600 m depth ( Guyana Shelf 65–101 m).

Remarks. According to measurements given by Alvarez et al. (1998) (their table 13) the type material from Florida has the upper size limit of the styles up to 1900 x 45 µm, thus much higher than those of the Grenada, Barbados and present specimens. This casts some doubt about the conspecificity of all the cited specimens, excepting the types.


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis














Phakellia folium Schmidt, 1870

Van, Rob W. M. 2017

Phakellia folium

Alvarez 1998: 28
Van 1988: 103
Schmidt 1870: 62