Loureiro, Marcelo, Sá, Rafael de, Serra, Sebastián W., Alonso, Felipe, Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause, Volcan, Matheus Vieira, Calviño, Pablo, Nielsen, Dalton, Duarte, Alejandro & Garcia, Graciela, 2018, Review of the family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) and a molecular and morphological phylogeny of the annual fish genus Austrolebias Costa 1998, Neotropical Ichthyology 16 (3), pp. 1-20: 5-6

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http://doi.org/ 10.1590/1982-0224-20180007

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Rachoviini.  This tribe, revised by Costa (2014b), is diagnosed by the presence of a prominent urogenital papilla in adult males ( Costa 1998), and is well supported by molecular analyses ( Hrbek et al., 2004; Hrbek, Taphorn, 2008). Rachoviini is composed by eleven small to large (from 47 to 130 mm SL) annual genera: Moema Costa   , with twenty species (including the recently synonymized Aphyolebias Costa, Costa, 2014b   ) distributed in the rainforest of the Amazon river basin and the Pantanal region in the Paraguay river basin; Trigonectes Myers   , with six species distributed in the Paraguay, Guaporé, Mamoré, Araguaia, and Tocantins river basins; Neofundulus Myers   , with seven species distributed in the Bermejo, Pilcomayo, Guaporé, Mamoré, and Das Velhas river basins; Pterolebias Garman   , with two species distributed in the eastern and southern Amazon and the Paraná-Paraguay river basins; Renova Thomerson & Taphorn   , with one species distributed in the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela; Micromoema Costa   with one species with similar distribution; Terranatos Taphorn & Thomerson   , with one species with similar distribution; Gnatholebias Costa   , with two species distributed in the Orinoco river basin; Llanolebias Hrbek & Taphorn   , with one species in Los Llanos of the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela and Colombia; Rachovia Myers   , with four species distributed in the Magdalena, Orinoco ( Venezuela and Colombia) river basins and in Lago Maracaibo basin. The very well studied genus Austrofundulus Myers   was synonymized to Rachovia   by Costa (2014b), based on the paraphyletic nature of the latter, results that were corroborated by Furness et al. (2015). Relationships within rachovines are not confidently resolved, and the clade composed by the genera distributed in the Orinoco, Maracaibo, and Magdalena basins ( Renova   , Micromoema   , Terranatos   , Llanolebias   , Gnatholebias   , Rachovia   ) is the most supported.

The following taxa have conflicting relationships among one another, and with Plesiolebiasini and Rachoviini, and in the case of Melanorivulini, even its monophyly is questioned ( Furness et al., 2015).