Loureiro, Marcelo, Sá, Rafael de, Serra, Sebastián W., Alonso, Felipe, Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause, Volcan, Matheus Vieira, Calviño, Pablo, Nielsen, Dalton, Duarte, Alejandro & Garcia, Graciela, 2018, Review of the family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) and a molecular and morphological phylogeny of the annual fish genus Austrolebias Costa 1998, Neotropical Ichthyology 16 (3), pp. 1-20: 7

publication ID 10.1590/1982-0224-20180007


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Cynolebiasinae.  The monophyly of this subfamily, composed by small to large-sized annual species, is well supported presenting the following synapomorphies: dorsally positioned dorsomedial process of autopalatine; reduced mesopterygoid; thin C-shaped preopercle with reduced dorsal tip, median rim, and sensory canal ( Fig. 1f View Fig ); elongate epibranchials and interarcual cartilage ( Fig. 4c View Fig ); rounded second hypobranchial ( Fig. 6d View Fig ); absence of teeth in the fourth ceratobranchial; absence of a posteroventral process on the anterior portion of the fourth ceratobranchial; absence of teeth in vomer; thin lachrymal, with narrow lower portion and vestigial sensory canal; absence of dermosphenotic; absence of anterior processes of first vertebra; vestigial or absent neural prezygapophysis of caudal vertebrae ( Fig. 7 View Fig c-d); narrow and anteriorly curved epural and parahypural ( Fig. 7 View Fig c-d); anteriorly placed dorsal fin origin; reduced first proximal anal-fin radial; reduced ossification of medial anal-fin radials; vestigial or absent ventral process of posttemporal; elongate supracleithrum; scale-like pectoral radials ( Fig. 8 View Fig b-c); cylindrical urogenital papilla in males; prominent pocket-like urogenital papilla in females; reduced supraorbital squamation; reduced caudal-fin squamation; continuous supraorbital series of neuromasts; long posterior series of supraorbital neuromasts; minute neuromast on dermosphenotic; and vertical bars on body sides of juveniles ( Costa, 1998); Molecular phylogenies support this clade ( Murphy et al., 1999; Hrbek, Larson, 1999; Costa, 2013; Furness et al., 2015; Pohl et al., 2015). The two clades that composed the subfamily, Cynopoecilini and Cynolebiasini, are also very well supported by morphological and molecular analyses.