Loureiro, Marcelo, Sá, Rafael de, Serra, Sebastián W., Alonso, Felipe, Lanés, Luis Esteban Krause, Volcan, Matheus Vieira, Calviño, Pablo, Nielsen, Dalton, Duarte, Alejandro & Garcia, Graciela, 2018, Review of the family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) and a molecular and morphological phylogeny of the annual fish genus Austrolebias Costa 1998, Neotropical Ichthyology 16 (3), pp. 1-20: 3-20

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http://doi.org/ 10.1590/1982-0224-20180007

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Rivulidae   . The family Rivulidae   was proposed by Parenti (1981) to accommodate the new world aplocheiloids; its monophyly was supported by seven synapomorphies. Subsequent morphological ( Costa, 1990, 1998, 2004a; Hertwig, 2008) and molecular ( Murphy, Collier, 1997; Hrbek, Larson, 1999; Murphy et al., 1999; Costa, 2013) phylogenetic analyses have supported a monophyletic Rivulidae   ; although the proposed synapomorphies have changed since Parenti (1981; see Loureiro, de Sá, 2016). In Tab. 1 View Tab , we show the currently recognized synapomorphies of the family considering the analyses of Costa (2004) and Hertwig (2008). Costa (2004) suggested the existence of three clades within Rivulidae   , and although he proposed eight synapomorphies supporting the Rivulinae   + Cynolebiasinae sister group relationship, other phylogenetic analyses (combined and molecular) showed conflicting results: a basal polytomy at the origin of these clades ( Hrbek, Larson, 1999; Murphy et al., 1999; Costa, 2011a, 2013); a sister group relationship between Kryptolebiasinae + Rivulinae   ( Vermeulen, Hrbek, 2005; Furness et al., 2015); and a sister group relationship between Kryptolebiasinae + Cynolebiasinae ( Pohl et al., 2015; Costa et al., 2017a)