Platevindex applanatus ( Simroth, 1920 ) Goulding & Bourke & Comendador & Khalil & Quang & Tan & Tan & Dayrat, 2021

Goulding, Tricia C., Bourke, Adam J., Comendador, Joseph, Khalil, Munawar, Quang, Ngo Xuan, Tan, Shau Hwai, Tan, Siong Kiat & Dayrat, Benoît, 2021, Systematic revision of Platevindex Baker, 1938 (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Onchidiidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 737 (1), pp. 1-133 : 78-88

publication ID 10.5852/ejt.2021.737.1259

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scientific name

Platevindex applanatus ( Simroth, 1920 )

comb. nov.

Platevindex applanatus ( Simroth, 1920) View in CoL comb. nov.

Figs 36–45 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig

Onchidium applanatum Simroth, 1920: 294 View in CoL , pl. 20, figs 40–42.

Material examined

Holotype INDONESIA • holotype (15/ 12 mm), by monotypy; Aru Inseln , Strand von Manumbai , Kobroor [Manumbai Beach, Kobroor Island, Aru Islands, Moluccas, Indonesia]; 13 Mar. 1908; H. Merton leg.; ZMB/Moll 104630 .

Notes on type material The notum of the holotype was cut open for the present study to check internal characters; all organs remain in the specimen.

Other material INDONESIA – Ambon • 1 spec. (15/12 [2736] mm); Pulau Haruku; 03°36.520′ S, 128°25.068′ E; 11 Feb. 2014; station 127; dead log high on beach above rocky Sonneratia mangrove; UMIZ 00100 GoogleMaps 4 specs (22/15 [2754], 18/14 [2755], 18/14 [2757] and 15/12 [2750] mm); Passo ; 03°37.080′ S, 128°16.068′ E; 13 Feb. 2014; station 129; logs on rocky beach with coral rubble; UMIZ 00101 GoogleMaps . – Seram • 2 specs (24/20 [2877] and 17/11 [2880] mm); Piru ; 03°04.072′ S, 128°11.362′ E; 19 Feb. 2014; station 136; beach of palms and Acrostichum ferns behind Sonneratia mangrove; UMIZ 00090 GoogleMaps . – Kei Islands • 6 specs (21/14 [2892], 17/11 [3563], 16/10 [2893], 16/10 [2895], 13/6 [2894] and 12/9 [2900] mm); Un; 05°38.273′ S, 132°45.738′ E; 23 Feb. 2014; station 137; Bruguiera and Rhizophora mangrove with coral rubble and thin layer of mud; UMIZ 00102 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (15/9 [2904] mm); Un; 05°38.273′ S, 132°45.738′ E; 25 Feb. 2015; station 140; back of mangrove with rocks, mud, dead logs, and leaf litter; UMIZ 00103 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (5/4 [2925] mm); Fiditan; 05°35.957′ S, 132°45.112′ E; 28 Feb. 2014; station 144; rocks with mat of algae behind dense Rhizophora mangrove; UMIZ 00104 GoogleMaps . – Sulawesi • 1 spec. (17/11 [2160] mm); Bahoi ; 01°43.355′ N, 125°01.232′ E; 10 Mar. 2013; station 85; sand, rocks and pieces of wood outside a mangrove; UMIZ 00083 . GoogleMaps

MAURITIUS • 1 spec. (7/4 [3604] mm); Pointe Maurice ; 20°15.447′ S, 57°47.670′ E; 8 Jun. 2014; station 174; Rhizophora mangrove with very dark mud, slug under piece of wood; MNHN-IM-2019-1392 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (9/7 [3152] mm); Mahebourg ; 20°25.059′ S, 57°42.680′ E; 10 Jun. 2014; station 176; mangrove with dark brown mud, slugs on rotting petiole of palm frond; MNHN-IM-2019-1393 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (7/5 [3442] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN-IM-2019-1394 GoogleMaps .

PAPUA NEW GUINEA – Madang • 1 spec. (14/11 [5437] mm); South Dumduman Island ; 05°00.2′ S, 145°47.6′E; 9 Nov.2012; MNHN expedition Papua Niugini leg.; station PM12; limestone rocky intertidal; MNHN-IM-2013-12493 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (16/16 [5424] mm); Hargun Island ; 05°01.6′ S, 145°47.9′ E; 15, 20 Nov. 2012; MNHN expedition Papua Niugini leg.; station PM24; night tide; MNHN-IM-2013-14043 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (13/11 [5450] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN-IM-2013-14051 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (18/15 [5420] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN-IM-2013-13765 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (13/11 [5457] mm); Wonad Island ; 05°08.1′ S, 145°49.3′ E; 27 Nov. 2012, 9 Dec. 2012; MNHN expedition Papua Niugini leg.; station PM41; sandy beach and intertidal rocks; MNHN-IM-2013-15867 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (13/10 [5462] mm); Tab Island ; 05°10.2′ S, 145°50.4′ E; 28 Nov. 2012; MNHN expedition Papua Niugini leg.; station PM42; night tide, sandy beach and intertidal rocks; MNHN-IM-2013-15908 GoogleMaps . – New Ireland • 1 spec. (7/4 [6094] mm); Povalval, E coast of New Ireland; 02°41′ S, 150°57′ E; 11–13 Jun. 2014; MNHN expedition Kavieng 2014 leg.; station KM05; mixed hard platform and seagrass bed at outlet of rivulet; MNHN-IM-2013-53534 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (8/6 [6096] mm); Cape Jesehke, Manne Island ; 02°43.1′ S, 150°37.8′ E; 15, 26 Jun. 2014; MNHN expedition Kavieng 2014 leg.; station KM32; Rhizophora mangrove; MNHN-IM-2013-54161 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (10/7 [6097] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN-IM-2013-54163 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (8/6 [6098] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN- IM-2013-54164 GoogleMaps .

VANUATU • 1 spec. (12/11 [5491] mm); Santo Rose Point ; 15°34.9′ S, 167°02.4′ E; 10 Sep. 2006; MNHN expedition Santo 2006 leg.; station VM02; intertidal, coral sand; MNHN-IM-2013-62402 GoogleMaps 1 spec. (9/8 [5493] mm); same collection data as for preceding; MNHN-IM-2013-62404 GoogleMaps .


Color and morphology of live animals ( Fig. 36 View Fig )

Live animals are not covered with mud and their natural color can be seen without washing. The notum is bumpy with prominent, distinctly-raised papillae (with or without dorsal eyes). Live animals may become nearly hemispherical when disturbed. The dorsal color is variable although it is typically brown with yellow longitudinal (irregular) lines. Slugs with an entirely dark brown notum or a light beige notum also occur. The hyponotum is light grey and almost translucent in small specimens. The margin of the hyponotum is frequently translucent with the brown color of the notum showing through. The foot is light yellow.

Papillae with dorsal eyes are present. Their exact number is difficult to determine, as they are often retracted, but ranges approximately from 4 to 26, except in the case of very small specimens, in which as few as 2 dorsal eyes have been observed. Each papilla bears one dorsal eye. Dorsal eyes may be distributed across the notum or only present in the middle but are always absent on the margin (i.e., eyes are never <2 mm from the notum edge).

Digestive system ( Figs 1C View Fig , 37–40 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig )

Radulae measure up to 4.3 mm in length. Examples of radular formulae are presented in Table 5 View Table 5 . Due to the high genetic divergence (in COI sequences) between populations of P. applanatus , radulae are figured from Indonesia, Mauritius and Papua New Guinea ( Figs 37–39 View Fig View Fig View Fig ). Intestinal loops are of type I, with a transitional loop oriented between 1 and 2 o’clock ( Figs 1C View Fig , 40 View Fig A–C).

Reproductive system ( Figs 41–44 View Fig View Fig View Fig View Fig )

In the posterior part of the reproductive system, the oviduct is wider than the deferent duct (up to twice as wide). Its distal section (distal to the spermatheca) is slightly longer than its proximal section (up to two or three times as wide) or equal to it in length. The deferent duct is longer than the oviduct, loosely attached to it, and varies from slightly convoluted with a few loose loops to tightly coiled with U-shaped loops ( Fig. 41 View Fig ). The position of the female pore varies from being adjacent to the anus to 4 mm away from it in large specimens. The flexible, distal region of the penis with hooks measures approximately 1.5 to 3 mm in length. In eastern Indonesia, the distal region is 2 to 3 mm long, while in Mauritius and Papua New Guinea it is approximately 1.5 to 2 mm long. The penial hooks are large and can be seen inside the semi-transparent penis. They are usually 45 to 90 µm long ( Figs 43 View Fig , 44A View Fig ), but between 20 to 60 µm in smaller specimens from Mauritius ( Fig. 44 View Fig B–C). The insertion of the penial retractor muscle varies. It inserts at the posterior end of the visceral cavity in specimens from eastern Indonesia, except in a few specimens in which it inserts approximately ¾ down the length of the visceral cavity. It inserts approximately halfway to ¾ down the length of the visceral cavity in specimens from Papua New Guinea (and near the posterior end of the visceral cavity in one specimen). In Mauritius, it inserts at the posterior end of the visceral cavity in the largest specimen, and by the heart halfway down the visceral cavity in a smaller specimen. The length of the retractor muscle varies from much shorter than the penial sheath (1 / 5 to 1 / 3 of its length) to as long as the penial sheath. The deferent duct is not particularly long and is only loosely convoluted ( Fig. 42 View Fig ). It may even be nearly straight in immature specimens ( Fig. 42C View Fig ).

Distinctive diagnostic features ( Table 4 View Table 4 )

Externally, Platevindex applanatus can be easily distinguished from P. martensi and P. aptei sp. nov. by the light yellow color of its foot. The presence of prominent dorsal papillae helps to distinguish P. applanatus from other species of Platevindex , except P. luteus , which is characterized by similar prominent dorsal papillae. The dorsal coloration of Platevindex applanatus is much more variable than in other species of Platevindex , and this variation prevents reliable separation from P. luteus . However, the dorsal notum of P. applanatus is frequently marked by bright yellowish-green markings or bands, which were very rarely observed in P. luteus . Individuals of P. applanatus also reach a smaller maximum size than individuals of P. martensi and P. amboinae , two species that are sympatric in eastern Indonesia, between the Halmahera Sea and the Banda Sea. However, animal sizes overlap between species and cannot be reliably used for identification.

Internally, the intestinal loops of P. applanatus (type I) distinguish it from all other species of Platevindex . The only other species with intestinal loops of type I is P. luteus . However, the orientation of the transitional loop can be used to reliably distinguish P. applanatus (between 1 and 2 o’clock) from P. luteus (between 3 and 8 o’clock). Platevindex applanatus can also be distinguished from P. luteus based on reproductive anatomy. The deferent duct in the posterior reproductive system is more closely attached to the oviduct, longer and more highly coiled in P. applanatus than in P. luteus . The distal region of the oviduct (distal to the spermatheca) is also longer in P. applanatus than in P. luteus . Finally, the distal region of the penis with hooks is longer in P. applanatus (up to 3 mm) than in P. luteus (up to 1 mm). The insertion of the retractor muscle varies greatly within P. applanatus (it may insert at the posterior end of the visceral cavity or near the heart), so this character does not help to reliably distinguish it from P. luteus .

Distribution ( Fig. 10A View Fig )

Indonesia: Ambon, Aru Islands (type locality), Kei Islands. Mauritius. Papua New Guinea: Madang and New Ireland. Vanuatu. All records are new, except for the type locality.

Habitat ( Fig. 45 View Fig )

Platevindex applanatus is primarily found in the high intertidal, including on limestone, on rocks covered with a thin layer of algae. In the Kei Islands, individuals were found on rocks at the upper margin of the intertidal near a mangrove. In Ambon, individuals were found on logs very high in the intertidal, including at one locality that was not near any mangrove. In mangroves, individuals were typically

collected on dead logs or tree trunks. In Mauritius, it was found in mangroves, on pieces of wood and wet petioles of palm leaves. Platevindex applanatus is not found directly on mud.


Onchidium applanatum was originally described from the Aru Islands. Fresh material was collected from the Kei Islands, very close to Aru. The holotype of Onchidium applanatum is small (15/ 12 mm) but its flattened shape, the presence of a rectal gland and no accessory penial gland all indicate that it is a Platevindex slug. The prominent papillae on its dorsal notum and its digestive system of type I are compatible with the species described here as well as P. luteus . However, the retractor muscle of the holotype of O. applanatum is very long and inserts near the posterior end of the visceral cavity, which is only compatible with the species described here (in P. luteus , the retractor muscle inserts near the heart). Therefore, Platevindex applanatus is applied to the species described here from the Kei Islands and Ambon.

Hoffmann (1928: 84–85) and Labbé (1934: 225–226) considered that Onchidium applanatum and Onchidium tabularis Tapparone-Canefri, 1883 were both junior synonyms of Onchidium planatum Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 . Onchidium planatum , originally described from Guam, may not even refer to an onchidiid based on the brief written description. Two pieces of a notum were located recently at the MNHN which are part of the type series of O. planatum (MNHN-IM-2000-33706). However, these are so poorly preserved that it is not possible to determine whether they were part of an onchidiid slug. Tapparone-Canefri’s (1883) description of O. tabularis from Wokam, Aru Islands, does not mention the internal anatomy, and the type specimens could not be located. As a result, both Onchidium planatum and Onchidium tabularis are considered here nomina dubia. Labbé’s (1934: 225–226) specimens identified as O. planatum from Guam, New Caledonia and Mauritius (as île de France) cannot belong to P. applanatus or any other species of Platevindex due to the presence of a penial gland.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Platevindex applanatus ( Simroth, 1920 )

Goulding, Tricia C., Bourke, Adam J., Comendador, Joseph, Khalil, Munawar, Quang, Ngo Xuan, Tan, Shau Hwai, Tan, Siong Kiat & Dayrat, Benoît 2021

Onchidium applanatum

Simroth H. 1920: 294
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