Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet

Kallies, Axel, Mollet, Bernard & Young, David A., 2018, A new zygaenid moth species from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae: Procridinae), Zootaxa 4429 (1), pp. 149-156: 150-156

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:64CF3B25-6921-4E06-8888-CD2BB9AE728D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A6CC39-FFB7-0678-F9F8-8FCD08415295

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet
status

sp. nov.

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet   sp. nov.

( Figs 2, 3, 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 View FIGURES 9–16 , 18, 20 View FIGURES 17–21 , 24 – 27 View FIGURES 22–27 )

Material examined. Holotype ♂ ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1–8 ): ♂, 26.iii.2009, Seal Bay Cons. Pk., Sth. Aust., Kangaroo Island, diurnal in heathlands, D. A. Young, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0” ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   .

Paratypes. South Australia, Kangaroo Island : 1♂, Vivonne Bay , approx. Point Ellen, Vivonne Bay, 24.iii.2004, leg. D. A. Young (gen. prep. AK547, CAKM)   ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , approx. 400 m W of Point Ellen, cliff edge, S35°59.981’ E137°10.979’, 14.iii.2008, flowering Melaleuca lanceolata   , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, same locality, 23.iii.2008, leg. D. A. Young ( CBMG) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, 1♀, approx. 1.3 km E of Seal Bay Cons. Park , S35°59.280’ E137°19.725’, 24.iii.2008, on Melaleuca lanceolata   flowers, leg. D. A. Young ( CBMG) GoogleMaps   ; 2 ♂, Seal Bay Cons. Park, before visitor center, day, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0”, 13.iii.2009, leg GoogleMaps   . D. A. Young , S. & B. Mollet ( CBMG); 2♂, Seal Bay Cons. Park, S35°59’27.0” E137°19’57.0”, diurnal in heathland, 24.iii.2009, leg GoogleMaps   . D. A. Young ( CBMG); same locality, same collector: 2♂, 1♀, 18.iii.2009 GoogleMaps   ; 4♂, 19.iii.2009; 7♂, 20.iii.2009; 1♂, 23.iii.2009; 30♂, 24.iii.2009; 6♂, 25.iii.2009; 17♂, 26.iii.2009; 10♂, 27.iii.2009; 5♂, 1♀, 28.iii.2009; 4♂, 3♀, 30.iii.2009; 3♂, 3♀, 31.iii.2009; 5♂, 10♀, 1.iv.2009 (♂ gen. prep. AK622, ♀ Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1–8 ); 5♂, 6♀, 2.iv.2009 (♀ gen. prep. AK611, ♀ Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1–8 ); 4♂, 8♀, 9.iv.2009; 2♀, 10.iv.2009 (all CAKM and CBMG); 1♂, 1♀, approx. 1.5 km E of Seal Bay Cons. Park , S35°59.393’ E137°19.857’, 24.iii.2008, mating pair on Gahnia deusta   , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , Point Ellen, 6.v.2004, leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM)   ; 1♂, Vivonne Bay , ‘ Melaleuca   Cottage’, S35°58.691’ E137°10.875’, 12.iii.2008, at mercury vapour light, leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, same locality, 8.iv.2008, 11.30 am, on Gahnia deusta   , leg. D. A. Young ( CAKM). Paratypes will also be deposited in MVM, SAMA, DESS and ANIC. GoogleMaps  

Etymology. The species’ name refers to the color of the abdomen, which is striking blue in live specimens.

Description. Male ( Figs 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10, 11 View FIGURES 9–16 ). Body length 4˗5.5 mm; forewing length 6˗7 mm; forewing width 2.5˗3.5 mm; hindwing length 4.5˗5.5 mm; hindwing width 2.5˗3 mm; antenna length 4.5˗5.5 mm. Head ( Figs 15, 16 View FIGURES 9–16 ). Covered with shining brown scales giving it a satin appearance, ventrally grey brown; frons strongly protruding beyond compound eyes in both lateral and dorsal view; frons in frontal view nearly 2.2× the width of black semispherical compound eye, compound eye in lateral view almost circular, diameter 0.4 mm, ocellus almost circular, diameter 0.1 mm, distance of ocellus from compound eye in lateral view almost circular, diameter 0.4 mm; chaetosemata light brown, triangular, the anterior extension reaching beyond ocellus and completely covering the space between compound eye and ocellus; labial palps shining grey brown scales; proboscis light to dark brown. Antenna dark brown with a golden and coppery reflection on dorsal side of the shaft, which appears blue-purple in fresh specimens; segments 1 to 29–30 bipectinate, segments 30–31 to 36–40 biserrate; at segment 10 pectination 5˗5.5 × longer than breath of shaft in dorsal view and 3–4 × longer at segment 25; sensory hairs on pecten very short. Thorax. Patagia with coppery or golden metallic scales dorsally, mesothorax, tegula and metathorax with shiny metallic golden to bluish green scales and with bluish green metallic scales laterally and ventrally. Abdomen. Bright shiny metallic green or blue dorsally, less shiny ventrally. Forewing. Dorsal side dark brown, with individual green metallic scales in the proximal half, though in occasional specimens these iridescent green scales can be far more extensive, reaching to the termen in extreme cases; under magnification the brown scales produce a gold to coppery reflection, giving the wing a satin appearance; ventral side grey brown with very few green metallic scales in the proximal section of the costa; fringe with a brown satin sheen. Hindwing. Opaque, dorsal side dark brown; ventral side grey brown with green metallic scales in a band between cell and costa and at anal angle; fringe with a brown satin sheen. Legs. Grey brown, without metallic reflection.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 17–21 ). Valva with dorsal and ventral margins straight, proximally forming an angle of approx. 12°; proximal and distal portion of the dorsal margin straight, forming together an angle of nearly 160°; translucent distal margin partly convex; ventral margin and tip of sacculus rounded; uncus slender, as long as tegumen. Phallus strongly sclerotized, curved, slightly conical, cylindrical distally, length 5.5˗5.8 × distal diameter; cornutus slightly curved, long and slender, approximately ¾ of the length of phallus, pointed apically.

Female ( Figs 3, 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12 View FIGURES 9–16 ). Similar to male; abdomen very wide and apically pointed, abdominal tuft very small and dark brown. Antenna shining dark brown on dorsal side of the shaft, with 39 biserrate segments. Compound eye almost semi-circular, with a flat side occipitally, in lateral view height 0.4 mm, breadth 0.3 mm.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 17–21 ). Papillae anales large, apophyses long, well sclerotised, apophyses anteriores very short, apophyses posteriores well-developed; ductus bursae short and translucent; praebursa with a large central sclerotization and a dense membranous structure laterally (colored deep blue in the figure), sometimes with a small weakly sclerotized tooth visible where ductus intrabursalis is inserted.

Diagnosis. Although Pollanisus hyacinthus   sp. nov. is an unusual species, it shares most of the typical characteristics of other Pollanisus   species, which belong to the tribe Artonini as all other Australian Zygaenidae ( Tarmann 2004)   . This includes the hairy anal tuft, the fan-shaped valvae and the triangular field of chaetosemata, the latter separating Procridinae   from Zygaeninae   and Chalcosiinae   ( Tarmann 1994, 2004, Yen 2003).

Pollanisus hyacinthus   sp. nov. is very similar to P. isolatus   ( Figs 1 View FIGURES 1–8 , 9, 13, 14 View FIGURES 9–16 , 17 View FIGURES 17–21 ), which is known only from a single male collected just east of Melbourne in 1904, and which despite considerable effort has not been observed again. It shows also some similarities to P. cyanota   ( Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 1–8 , 19, 21 View FIGURES 17–21 ), with which is shares the bluish abdomen and the dark and small anal tuft in females. Finally, based on unpublished analyses of CO1 DNA sequences (Tarmann, personal communication), Pollanisus hyacinthus   sp. nov. is also related to Pollanisus calliceros Turner, 1926   ( Figs 7, 8 View FIGURES 1–8 ). However, this species is readily differentiated by its forewings, which have a rounded apex and are entirely covered by blue or green metallic scales. All these species belong to a group of species characterized by their small size, their antenna with long pectens, their broad frons, small compound eyes and the green to blue upper side of the abdomen.

The most important difference between P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. and P. isolatus   is the morphology of the male antennae. While P. isolatus   has 24 bipectinate antennal segments, P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. has 29 – 30 such segments, and the pectens are longer P. isolatus   . Both species also differ in the number of bluish metallic scales on the frons (numerous in P. isolatus   , almost absent in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov.). Furthermore, based on the original description ( Tarmann 2004), the color of the abdomen of P. isolatus   is metallic blue both dorsally and ventrally, whereas in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. it is metallic blue dorsally and dark grey ventrally.

P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. cyanota   by its more pointed forewing apex and shorter pectens of the male antenna. Furthermore, both species differ in their collar (coppery in P. cyanota   , blue in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov.).

The male genitalia are very similar in Pollanisus   but some details can provide additional characters for identification. In male, P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. differs from P. isolatus   in the shape of the valva (in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. the distal and proximal part of the dorsal costa form an angle; in P. isolatus   the dorsal costa is more rounded), the sacculus (in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. the ventral margin and tip of sacculus is rounded, and the inner angle of the sacculus is about 90 degrees; in P. isolatus   the ventral margin of sacculus is straight, the tip is more pronounced, and the inner angle is blunt), the phallus (in P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. longer, thinner and more curved, with a long and weakly curved cornutus, without sclerotized plate in the vesica; in P. isolatus   shorter, thicker and less curved, with a shorter and more curved cornutus, and with a small sclerotized plate in the vesica). In P. cyanota   the phallus is short and straight. The female genitalia of P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. are very characteristic. The praebursa is small with a large central sclerotization, sometimes with a small weakly sclerotized tooth visible, while in P. cyanota   has a larger praebursa, which is well-sclerotized posteriorly and has well-sclerotized bulb-like structure with two or three curved teeth. The female genitalia of P. isolatus   and P. calliceros   are unknown.

Biology (D. A. Young). All localities of this species are in coastal heath. The biotope in Seal Bay Conservation Park is localized behind sand dunes on a limestone cliff-system about 300 m from the coast ( Figs 22, 23 View FIGURES 22–27 ). It is a mosaic of low Eucalyptus   and Melaleuca lanceolata Otto   thickets and open patches with low growing, fire prone heath including three Hibbertia   species. P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. was often observed feeding on Melaleuca lanceolata   flowers ( Figs 24 – 26 View FIGURES 22–27 ) or resting on the sedge Gahnia deusta (R. Br.) Benth.   ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 22–27 ). The second biotope is in a more exposed coastal situation, with low dune and clifftop vegetation. Moths have been observed both on the wing and settled on coastal grasses and on low coastal shrubs. In one instance, several specimens were observed feeding from Melaleuca gibbosa Labill.   flowers. The major flight period extends from early March to at least the middle of April. Specifically, the majority of specimens were collected between 12th of March and 10th of April. Only one specimen was observed in early summer and one female was found on the 6th of May. The species seems to be almost exclusively diurnal; only one male was attracted to a mercury vapor light. The hostplant of P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. remains unknown. It may possibly be a species of Hibbertia   ( Dilleniaceae   ) as in many other Pollanisus   species; however, substantial effort has yielded no evidence for this. Notably, several batches of eggs were obtained from female P. hyacinthus   sp. nov., but the emerging larvae refused all plants offered, including young and old leaves of several Hibbertia   and Melaleuca   species.

Distribution. P. hyacinthus   sp. nov. is currently only known from the southern coast of Kangaroo Island. All specimens were collected in the vicinity of Vivonne Bay and in Seal Bay Conservation Park, which are less than 15 km apart.

Additional material examined. Pollanisus isolatus   (holotype): “V. Beaconsfield, 23.2.0 4 / G. Lyell Coll., Pres. 31-7-32. / Holotype, Pollanisus isolatus Tarmann, 2004   / Holotype, T-19996 Pollanisus isolatus Tarmann   / 3041 ( MVM)” ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1–8 ).

Pollanisus cyanota   : 1♂, Australia, E Victoria, Mallacoota, Centre Rd, SW of Betka River , 27. – 28 Jan. 2005, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM)   ; 1♂, 1♀, Australia, Victoria, Yackandandah, Coney Hill, Hodgsons Lane , 36°17.1’S 146°52.6’E, 12. Dec. 2010, leg. M. Halsey ( CAKM) GoogleMaps   ; 7♂, 6♀, same locality, 12. March 2012, leg. A. Kallies & M. Halsey ( CAKM, Figs 5, 6 View FIGURES 1–8 ) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀, Australia, Victoria, Croajingolong NP, Bald Hills Track, 800 m E of Mueller River Inlet , 37°46.65’S 149°18.90’E, 14. Feb. 2015, leg. D.J. Hilton ( CAKM) GoogleMaps   ; 2♀, Australia, New South Wales, NE Newcastle, Tomaree NP, near Anna Bay , swamp, 12. – 14. Jan 2009, day, leg. A. Kallies (gen. preps AK621, CAKM)   ; 4♂, 2♀, Australia, New South Wales, Tallaganda Sate Forest, ca 16 km ESE Hoskinstown , 35°28’S 149°36’E, 1200 m, 1. Feb. 2004, leg. M.F. Braby (gen. preps ♀ AK612, ♂ AK616, CAKM, ANIC) GoogleMaps   .

Pollanisus calliceros   : 15♂, Australia, Victoria, Alpine NP, Cobberas area, 38.895°S 148.09°E, Native Dog Flat , 1200 m, 6. – 7. Jan. 2010, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM, Fig. 8 View FIGURES 1–8 ) GoogleMaps   ; 12♂, Australia, New South Wales, W of Gloucester, Barrington Tops, Polblue Swamp , camp site, 1500 m, 16. – 17. Jan. 2009, morning, leg. A. Kallies ( CAKM)   .

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

SAMA

South Australia Museum

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Zygaenidae

Genus

Pollanisus

Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus Kallies & Mollet

Kallies, Axel, Mollet, Bernard & Young, David A. 2018
2018
Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

Pollanisus hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

P. hyacinthus

Kallies & Mollet & Young 2018
2018
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

P. isolatus

Tarmann 2004
2004
Loc

Pollanisus calliceros

Turner 1926
1926